bhaap ka engine

ek swayam-pragaami (self-propelled) vaashpayaan
ek sanrakshit apoorn portebal vaashpayaan (tentarafild N S dablyoo)

vaashpayaan ya bhaap ka engine ek prakaar ka ushmeeya engine hai jo kaarya karne ke liye jal-vaashp ka prayog karta hai. bhaap ke engine adhikaanshat: vaahya dahan engine hote hain jismein rainkaain chakr (Rankine cycle) naamak ushma-chakr (heat cycle) kaam mein laaya jaata hai. kuchh vaashpayaan saur urja, naabhikeeya urja ya jiotharmal urja se bhi chalte hain.

anukram

itihaas

vaise to bhaap ke engine ka itihaas bahut puraana hai (koi do hajaar varsh). kintu pehle ki yuktiyaaain shakti utpaadan ki drushti se vyaavahaarik naheen theen. baad mein inki design mein bahut sudhaar hua jisse ye audyogik kraanti ke samay yaantrik shakti ke pramukh srot bankar ubhare. yadyapi ab bhaap se chalne waali relagaadiyaaain evam anya masheene kaalakavalit ho chukeen hain kintu poore sansaar ki vidyut-shakti ka lagbhag aadhi shakti aaj bhi vaashp tarbaainon ki sahaayata se utpann kiya ja raha hai.

bhaap engine banaane ke yatn ka sabse praacheen ullekh alekjaindriya ke hero ke lekhon mein milta hai. hero us vikhyaat alaikjaindreeya sanpradaaya (300 E.poo.-400 E. san) schwöaar bei koranka sadasya tha jismein tolemi, yooklid, iretosthaneej jaise tatkaaleen vigyaan ke mahaarathi sammilit the. hero ne apne lekh mein ek aisi yukti ka varnan kiya hai jismein ek band box mein vaayu garm ki jaati thi aur ek nali ke maarg se neeche paani bhare bartan ki or failati thi. ismein bartan ka paani doosari nali mein chadhta tha aur ek nakali fuhaara ban jaata tha. fir iske baad is sambandh mein kaheen koi vivran naheen milta hai.

1606 E. mein, hero se lagbhag 2,000 varsh baad, nepoliyn academy ke sansthaapak aur tatkaaleen Europe mein vigyaan ke agrani neta maarksev dela porta ne hero ke fuhaarevaale prayog mein hava ki jagah bhaap ka upayog kiya. unhonne yeh bhi sujhaaya ki kisi bartan ko paani se bharne ke liye yadi use ek nali dvaara paani se kisi taalaab se sambandhit kar diya jaaya aur tab us bartan mein bhaap bharakar fir use oopar se paani ke dvaara thanda kiya jaaya to bheetar ki bhaap sanghanit hokar nirvaat utpann karegi aur usaki jagah taalaab se paani bartan mein bhar jaaega.

1698 E. mein maarksev dela porta ke is sujhaav ka upayog taamas sevari ne paani chadhaane ki ek machine mein kiya. is prakaar sevari pehla vyakti tha jisne vyaavasaayik upayog ka ek bhaap engine banaaya, jiska upayog khadaanon mein se paani uleechane aur kuon mein se paani nikaalne mein hua.

sevari ke engine ke aavishkaar ke baad bhaap engine ka agala charan nyookomen engine ka aavishkaar tha. iska aavishkaar taamas nyookomen (1663-1729 E.) ne kiya. is engine ka khadaanon aur kuon se paani nikaalne mein 50 varshon tak upayog hota raha. iska aitihaasik mahatva bhi hai, kyonki isi se James vaat ke aavishkaaron ka maarg khula. is engine mein pehli baar silindar aur pistan ka upayog kiya gaya jo ab tak bhaap injanon mein prayukt kiye jaate hain.

nyookaamen engine mein bhaap keval nirvaat utpann karne ke kaam aati hai. pistan uthaane ka kaam, jisse paani chadhta hai, vaayumandaleeya daab karta hai. lekin bhaap ko keval sanghanit karne mein bahut indhan vyarth kharch hota hai.

James vaat ka mahatvapoorn kaarya bhaap engine ko sarvashreshth roop dena hai jisse manushya ki shakti das guni badh gayi aur vyaavasaayik kshetr mein bruhad parivartan ho gaya.

James vaat glaasago mein ek chatur vaijnyaanik yantrarachayita the aur 1763 mein glaasago vishvavidyaalaya ke bhautiki ke professor se unhein ek nyookaamen engine ki marammat ka odash mila jo kabhi theek na chalta tha. marammat karke samay vaat ko dhyaan aaya ki ismein indhan buri tarah se vyarth ho jaata hai. vichaarasheel svabhaav ke vaat ne isse shreshth machine banaane ka vichaar praarambh kar diya. is prakaar unhonne anek anveshan kiye aur yantr banaae, jinse bhaap engine ko usaka vartamaan svaroop praapt hua aur vah udyog aur sabhyata ki pragati mein shaktishaali saadhan bana.

bhaap engine ke prakaar

bhaap engine ke nimnalikhit mukhya prakaar hain :

ek evam dvikriya engine (single and double acting engine)

ekakriya engine mein bhaap pistan ke ek hi or kaarya karti hai evam dvikriya engine mein bhaap pistan ke donon or kaarya karti hai. yadi in donon prakaar ke injanon mein anya sabhi avasthaaen samaan hon, to dvikriya engine dvaara praapt shakti doosare prakaar ke engine dvaara praapt shakti ki dooni hoti hai. yahi kaaran hai ki in dinon ekakriya engine kam hi vyavahaar mein laaya jaata hai.

oordhvaadhar evam kshaitij engine

silindar ki dhuri ke oordhvaadhar ya kshaitij hone ke anusaar engine oordhvaadhar ya kshaitij kaha jaata hai. kshaitij engine oordhvaadhar engine se adhik jagah gherata hai. oordhvaadhar prakaar ke engine mein gharshan aadi kam hota hai, jiske kaaran yeh kshaitij engine ki tulana mein adhik din tak chal sakta hai.

nimn evam uchch chaal engine (low and high speed engine)

bhaap engine ki chaal vastut: iske kraink shaift (crank shaft) parikraman (revolutions) prati minute ki chaal hoti hai. chaar foot pistan stroke (piston storke) evam 80 parikraman prati mintavaale engine mein ausat pistan chaal 640 foot prati minute hogi. yeh engine nimn chaal engine kaha jaaega. saadhaaranat: 100 parikraman prati minute ki chaal se kam chaal par chalanevaale engine ko nimn chaal engine kehte hain evam 250 parikraman prati minute ki chaal se adhik chaal par chalanevaale engine ko uchch chaal engine kehte hain. 100 aur 250 parikraman prati minute ke beech ki chaal par chalanevaale engine ko "madhyam chaal engine" (medium speed engine) kehte hain. uchch chaal engine ki sabse bada gun yeh hai ki samaan shakti ke liye yeh bahut hi chhote aakaar ka hota hai. uchch chaal ke kaaran bhaap bhi kam hi kharch hoti hai, kyonki is prakaar ke engine mein bhaap aur silindar ke beech ooshma sthaanaantaran (heat transfer) mein bahut hi kam samay lagta hai.

sanghanan aur asanghan engine (condensing and noncondensing engine)

asanghanan engine vah bhaap engine hai jisse bhaap ka nikaas (exhaust) seedhe vaayumandal mein hota hai evam iske liye silindar mein bhaap ki daab vaayumandal ki daab se kabhi kam naheen honi chaahiye. sanghanan engine mein bhaap kaarya karne ke baad sanghanitr mein pravesh karti hai evam vah vahaaain vaayumandal ki daab par jal mein parivrtit ho jaati hai. sanghanitr ka vyavahaar karne se bhaap adhik kaarya kar paati hai.

saral evam sanyoji engine (simple and compound engine)

saral engine mein pratyek silindar bauyalar se seedhe bhaap paata hai evam seedhe vaayumandal ya sanghanitr mein nikaas (exhaust) karta hai. sanyoji engine mein bhaap ek silindar mein, jise uchch daab silindar kehte hain, kuchh had tak prasaarit hoti hai aur uske baad usase kuchh bade silindar mein, jise nimn daab silindar kehte hain, pravesh karti hai evam yahaaain prasaar ki kriya poorn hoti hai. bahudha nimn daab silindar sanghanitr mein nikaas karta hai. prasaar teen ya chaar silindar mein bhi ho sakta hai evam in injanon ko triprasaar engine (triple expansion engine) ya chatushprasaar engine (quadruple expansion engine) kehte hain.

bhaap engine ka kaaryasiddhaant (working principle)

bhaap ki shakti se chalne waali gaadi ka kaaryasiddhaant

ooshma engine ki adhiktam dakshata (T1-T2)/T1 hoti hai jismein T1 aur T2 ooshma engine chakr (heat engine cycle) mein adhiktam evam nyoonatam taap hain. isse pata chalta hai ki engine ki dakshata in donon taapon par nirbhar karti hai. bhaanp engine ki dakshata utani hi badhti jaaegi jitni (T1) ka moolya badhega evam (T2) ka moolya ghatega. (T1) ke moolya ko badhaane ke liye baayalar se nikal kar engine mein aanevaali bhaap ki daab ko badhaana hoga, kyonki bhaap ki daab jitni hi adhik hogi (T1) ka moolya utana hi badhega. (T1) ko badhaane ka ek aur upaaya hai. vah hai bhaap ko atitaapit (superheat) karna. atitaapak ka bauyalar mein vyavahaar karke bhaap ka adhitaap badhaaya jaata hai. (T2) ke maan ko kam karne ke liye sanghanitr (condenser) ka vyavahaar karna aavashyak ho jaata hai. sanghanitr mein thandhe jal dvaara bhaap jal mein parivrtit ki jaati hai. at: achhe sanghanitr mein (T2) ka maan thandhe jal ke taap ke baraabar ho sakta hai. isse pata chalta hai ki bhaap engine mein adhik daab evam atitpt bhaap dvaara kaarya karaane se evam kaarya karaane ke baad bhaap ko sanghanitr mein praapya thandhe jal ke taap ke baraabar taap par jal mein parivrtit karne se engine adhik daksh hoga.

bhaap ke engine ka chaalit-chitr

bauyalar se bhaap uchch daab par bhaapapeti (steam chest) mein pravesh karti hai. pistan jaise hi stroke (stroke) ke ant mein pahuainchata hai, usi samay vaalv chalta hai, jismein bhaapadvaar (steam port) khul jaata hai evam bhaap silindar mein pravesh karti hai. bhaap ki daab dvaara dhakka diye jaane se pistan aage badhta he. ise agr stroke (forward stroke) kehte hain. pistan ki chaal dvaara kraink, kraink shaaft evam utkeindrak (eccentric) chalte hain. utkeindrak ke chalne se dwaar kuchh aur adhik khul jaata hai. silindar mein bhaap tab tak pravesh karti rahati hai jab tak dwaar ekdam band naheen ho jaata. is samay vichhed (cut off) hota hai evam iske baad silindar mein bhaap ka sanbharan (supply) nahi ho paata. silindar mein I hui bhaap ab prasaarit hoti hai evam is prasaar mein bhaap ka aayatan badh jaata hai evam daab kam ho jaati hai. isi prakaar ke samay bhaap kaarya karti hai. agr stroke ke ant mein vaalv bhaapadvaar ko nikaas ki or khol deta hai, jisse bhaap nirmukt hoti hai. nikli hui bhaap ki daab pashch daab (back pressure) ke baraabar ho jaati hai. nirmochan hone ke kuchh kshan ke baad pistan peechhe ki or lautata hai evam ise pratyaavartan stroke (return stroke) kehte hain. is stroke mein lautate samay pistan silindar mein bachi hui bhaap ka nikaas karta jaata hai. jab pistan is stroke ke ant par pahuainchata hai, vaalv nikaas dwaar ko band kar deta hai, jisse bhaap ka pravaah band ho jaata hai. silindar sheersh aur pistan ke beech kuchh bhaap bach jaati hai, jo nirmukt naheen ho paati hai. fir chakr ki punaraavrutti hoti hai.

dvikriya engine mein isi se sadrush chakr ki kriya silindar ki doosari or hoti hai.

bhaap ka kaarno chakr (Carnot cycle)

rainkin chakr (Rankine cycle)

rainkin chakr ek saiddhaantik chakr hai, jiske anusaar bhaap engine kaarya karta hai.

bhaap engine ka gatiniyaamak (governor)

gati niyaamak ka mukhya kaarya engine ki gati ka niyman karna hai. bhaap engine ke gati-niyaamak in do tareekon mein se ek hi sahaayata se paribhraman ki gati sthir rakh paata hai:

  • (1) vichhed bindu ko badalne se tatha
  • (2) bhaap ki praarambhik daab ko parivrtit karne se.

shakti ki maaaing ke anusaar bhaap ki daab ko badhaakar ya ghataakar engine ki gati ka niyman karanevaale gatiniyaamak ko avarodh gatiniyaamak (throttling governor) kehte hain. gatiniyaamak ek avarodh vaalv ko chalaata hai, jo mukhya bhaap nali mein rakha hota hai. is prakaar ke gatiniyaamakon mein mukhya gatipaalak kanduk gatiniyaamak (fly ball governor) hota hai. vaalv santulit prakaar ka hota hai, arthaat bhaapadaab dvaara parinaami bal (resultant force) shoonya hota hai. jab engine ki gati badhti hai, gatiniyaamak kandukon ke paribhraman ki gati mein bhi vruddhi ho jaati hai, jisse keindraapasaari (centrpetal force) bal badh jaata hai. bal ki yeh vruddhi unhein gurutvaakarshanabal evam niyantran kamaani ke viruddh baahar chalne ka baadhya karti hai. iske chalte vaalv kuchh ansh mein band ho jaata hai. vaalv dvaara avarodh hone par pistan par kaarya karanevaali bhaap ki daab mein kami ho jaati hai, jiske kaaran utpann shakti bhi kam ho jaati hai. evam engine ki gati mein kami hone ke kaaran vaalv kamaani oopar uth jaati hai evam engine ki gati mein kami hone ke kaaran vaalv kamaani oopar uth jaati hai evam pistan par kaarya karanevaali bhaap ki daab mein vruddhi ho jaati hai, jiske falasvaroop gati badhkar saamaanya gati par aa jaati hai. avarodh gati-niyaamak dvaara niyamit bhaap engine mein prayog ke baad yadi engine mein prati ghante vyavahrut bhaap ki taul ko ashvashakti ke saath aaainka jaae, to ek saral rekha praapt hogi. yeh sambandh sarvapratham vilian ne paaya tha. at: inheen ke naam par ise "vilian ki rekha" (Willian's Line) kehte hain.

gatipaalakachakr ko isha ke saath chaabhi ke dvaara atakaaya jaata hai.

nau engine (marine engines)

nimn gativaale bhaaravaahak jalapoton (ships) mein bade nodak (propellers) lagaae jaate hain evam ye nodak prati minute 80 parikraman karte hain. is tarah ke jahaajon mein bhaap engine bahut hi upayukt hain. uchch gati par chalanevaale jahaajon mein bhaap engine ki jagah bhaap tarabaain ka vyavahaar kiya ja raha hai. samudrayaan mein vyavahaar mein laae jaanevaale bhaap engine mein triprasaar prakaar ke engine prasiddh hain. samudrayaan engine sarvada prushth sanghanak (surface conderser) dvaara yukt hota hai, jismein peetal ki nalikaaeain lagi rahati hain. panp ke dvaara samudra ka jal sanghanitr mein laaya jaata hai. samudra ke jal se hi sanghanitr mein I hui bhaap ka sanghanan hota hai. yadyapi aajkal samudrayaanon mein antardahan engine, bhaap tarabaain evam gas tarabaain vyavahaar mein laaya ja raha hai, fir bhi kuchh khaas avasthaaon mein bhaap engine ka vyavahaar atyant aavashyak ho jaata hai.

rel engine (locomotive engine)

richrd trevithik ne bhaap engine ka sarvapratham upayog rel engine ke nirmaan mein kiya. kintu aarthik kathinaai ke kaaran unka prayaas safal na ho paaya. antat: George aur raabart steeveinsan (pita aur putr) ko hi ek safal rel engine chitr 7 banaakar usase 1829 E. mein lovarapul aur Manchester ke beech relagaadi chalaane ka shreya praapt hua. jalayaanon ke liye bhaap engine ka pratham upayog 1812 E. mein raabart pulatan ne kiya tha.

saadhaaran rel engine mein kshaitij bhaap engine ka vyavahaar hota hai. yeh engine rel engine bauyalar (locomotive boiler) ke paas thos aadhaar par laga rahata hai. praaya: sabhi rel injanon mein sanghanitr naheen rahata hai. kaarya karne ke baad bhaap ko seedhe vaayumandal mein chhod diya jaata hai. is tarah ke engine do prakaar ke hote hai:

  • (1) bahi:silindar engine, jismein silindar door tak faile rahate hain aur ye engine ke frem ke baahar hi lagaae jaate hain tatha
  • (2) ant: silindar engine, jismein silindar engine ke frem ke antargat hi ek doosare ki bagal mein rakhe jaate hain.

aadhunik dijaain mein in donon prakaaron ko jod diya jaata hai, arthaat kuchh silindar engine ke frem ke andar rahate hain evam kuchh silindar baahar rahate hain.

aadhunik bhaap engine

James vaat ke bhaap engine mein anek parivartan kiye gaye hain, yadyapi pramukh siddhaant abhi bhi vahi hai. parivrtanon ki aavashyakta bhaap engine ke anekaanek kaayon mein prayukt hone ke kaaran hui. vaat ne bhaap engine mein nimn daab kaam mein liye the kyonki unhein visfot ka dar tha. lekin aajkal sarvatr uchch daab engine hi prayukt kiye jaate hain kyonki inki dakshata bhi nimn daab engine ki apeksha adhik hoti hai.

aadhunik engine ke sanghanitr mein anek naliyaaain hoti hain jinmein ek panp dvaara sheetal jal pravaahit karaaya jaata hai. ek aur panp bhaap ke sanghanan se bane paani aur hava ko nikaalne ke liye laga hota hai.

baahari kadiyaaain