bhaap

sau degree seintrigred se adhik garam kisi vastu par jal daalne se achaanak bhaap paida hota hai.

paani ki gaiseeya avastha ya jalvaashp ko bhaap (steam) kehte hain. shushk bhaap adrushya hoti hai, parantu jab bhaap mein jal ki chhoti-chhoti booaindein mili hoti hain tab usaka rang safed hota hai, jaisa rel ke engine se niklati bhaap mein spasht dikhaai deta hai. jab bhaap mein jal ki booainde upasthit hoti hain, to ise 'aardr bhaap' (wet steam) kehte hain. yadi jal ki booaindon ka sarvatha abhaav ho to yeh 'shushk bhaap' (dry steam) kahalaati hai.

anukram

parichay

paani garam karne se iska aayatan thoda badhta hai. saadhaaran daab par paani ka mahattam taap 100 degree sein. tak pahuainchata hai. yadi ise aur adhik garam kiya jaae to jal ki maatra dheere-dheere vaashp mein parivrtit hone lagti hai. bhaap ka aayatan baraabar maatra ke jal ke aayatan ki apeksha bahut adhik hota hai. jis taap par jal ubalata hai, vah jal ka kvathanaank hota hai.

maanak daab par jal kvathanaank 100 sein. hai. par daab ke ghatne badhne se kvathanaank bhi ghatata-badhta hai. pahaadon par vaayumandal ki daab kam hoti hai. at: vahaaain paani nimn taap par ubalane lagta hai. pratyek nishchit daab ke liye kvathan ek nishchit taap par hota hai.

jal ko bhaap mein badalne ke liye jo ooshma aavashyak hoti hai use bhaap ki gupt ooshma (Latent heat) kehte hain. sankhyaatmak roop se, ooshma ka vah maan jo ek gram jal ke taap ko 1 sein. badhaane ke liye aavashyak hota hai, jal ki gupt ushma kahalaata hai. ek gram jal ko, jiska taap 100 sein. hai, poornataya vaashpit karne mein 536 kailori ushma ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

bhaap ke gun

taap ke saath jalavaashp ki intraupi ka vichran

jab bhaapainjan mein bhaap ka bahut adhik vyaavahaarik upayog hone laga, tab bhi iske gunon ka saiddhaantik adhyayan naheen hua tha. ataev iske baare mein vistrut jaankaari naheen praapt thi. bhaap ka adhyayan 19veen sadi mein John daaltan, James vaat, reno ityaadi ne kiya tha. bhaap ke gunon ke baare mein aadhuniktam sameeksha Joseph H. keenaan (Joseph H. Keenan) ki maani jaati hai, jo 1936 E. mein prakaashit hui thi.

bhaap ke gunon ka adhyayan karne ke liye poorn ooshma (enthalpy) ka upayog kiya jaata hai. poorn ooshma ki maatra nimnalikhit sameekaran se praapt hoti hai :

h = u + Apv

yahaaain u aantarik oorja, p daab, v aayatan aur A gunaank hai, jo kaarya ke ekak ko ooshma ke ekak mein parint karta hai. vibhinn daab aur taap par poorn ooshma ka maan iska gun vyakt karta hai. keenaan ki sameeksha mein vibhinn daab aur taap par poorn ooshma ka maan saarani ke roop mein diya hai.

yadi garam vaashp ko thanda kiya jaae to iska taap ghatate hue 100 sein. tak aata hai aur uske baad dravan aarambh ho jaata hai. dravan ke liye chhote-chhote kanon ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jinpar vaashp jamata hai. yadi vaashp is prakaar ke kanon se sarvatha rahit ho use sheeghrata se thanda kiya jaae, to vaashp ka taap 100 sein. se bhi neeche aa sakta hai. is avastha ko atisheetit bhaap (Supercooled steam) kehte hain. yeh avastha asthaayi hoti hai aur sheegra hi vaashp dravit hone lagti hai.

vaashp ke upayog

vaashp ko yaantrik oorja ke liye upayog karne ka pratham shreya ailegjaindriya ke "hero" (Hero) naamak vyakti ka hai. inhonne bhaap ki sahaayata se chhote khilaune chalaane ki vyavastha ki aur chhote-mote aashcharya dikhaae. bade paimaane par vaashp ka upayog 19veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh ke aarambh mein hua tha. James vaat ne apne aavishkaar se iska upayog bahut badhaaya. bhaap ka adhikaansh upayog ooshma ko yaantrik oorja ke roop mein parivrtit karne mein hota hai. koyale ityaadi ko jalaakar jo ooshma praapt hoti hai, usase jal ka kvathan hota hai. is bhaap ko ooainche taap aur daab par karke usase engine chalaae jaate hain. engine aadi ke liye atitpt bhaap ka upayog adhik upayukt hota hai, kyonki isse engine ki dakshata adhik hoti hai. iske atirikt bhaap atitpt hone se engine ke purjon ka aparadan (erosion) kam hota hai tatha ooshma ki haani bhi kam hoti hai.

engine ke atirikt bhaap ka bahut adhik upayog ooshma ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan tak le jaane ke liye bhi hota hai. chooainki ek gram bhaap mein 536 kailori ooshma gupt ooshma ke roop mein praapt hoti hai, at: bhaap ke dravan se bahut adhik oorja mukt hoti hai. thande pradeshon mein makaan ityaadi ko garam karne ke liye bhaap ka upayog hota hai. makaan ke nichle bhaag mein paani garam kiya jaata hai, jisse bhaap utpann hoti hai. yeh bhaap nalikaaon dvaara anya kamron mein pahuainchaai jaati hai, jahaaain dhaatu ke vikirk (radiator) hote hain. ye garam ho jaate hain aur kamron ko garam rakhate hain.

iske atirikt Bhaarat mein praakrutik chikitsa mein, tatha Finland, sveedan ityaadi deshon mein sarvasaadhaaran dvaara, vaashpasnaan ka bahut adhik upayog hota hai. iske liye vyakti ek aise kaksh mein baithata hai jismein garam vaashp pravesh karaaya jaata hai. isse paseena chhootata hai. at: romachhidron ityaadi ki safaai ho jaati hai.

baahari kadiyaaain