bekaari

CIA dvaara jaari berojgaari ki dar ka maanachitr (2009 mein)

jab desh mein kaarya karanevaali janashakti adhik hoti hai kintu kaam karne ke liye raaji hote hue bhi bahuton ko prachalit majadoori par kaarya naheen milta, to us vishesh avastha ko 'berojgaari' (Unemployment) ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai. aise vyaktiyon ka jo maanasik evam shaareerik drushti se kaarya karne ke yogya aur ichhuk hain parantu jinhein prachalit majadoori par kaarya naheen milta, unhein 'bekaar' kaha jaata hai.

anukram

vyaakhya

majadoori ki dar se taatparya prachalit majadoori ki dar se hai aur majadoori praapt karne ki ichha ka arth prachalit majadoori ki daron par kaarya karne ki ichha hai. yadi koi vyakti usi samay kaam karna chaahe jab prachalit majadoori ki dar pandrah rupae pratidin ho aur us samay kaam karne se inkaar kar de, jab prachalit majadoori baarah rupae pratidin ho, aise vyakti ko bekaar athva berojgaari ki avastha se trust naheen kaha ja sakta. iske atirikt aise bhi vyakti ko bekaar athva berojgaari se trust naheen kah sakte jo kaarya to karna chaahata hai parantu beemaari ke kaaran kaarya naheen kar paata. baalak, rogi, vruddh tatha asahaaya logon ko "rojagaar ayogya" (unemployables) tatha saadhu, peer, bhikhmange tatha kaarya na karanevaale jameendaar, saamant aadi vyaktiyon ko paraashrayi kaha ja sakta hai.

kaaran evam bhed

berojgaari ka astitv shram ki maaaing aur usaki aapoorti ke beech sthir anupaat par nirbhar karta hai. berojgaari ke do bhed hain - asantulanaatmak (frikshanal) tatha aichhik (vaalantari). asantulanaatmak berojgaari shram ki maaaing mein parivartan ke kaaran hoti hai. aichhik berojgaari ka prabhaav us samay hota hai jab majadoor apni vaastavik majadoori mein katauti ko sveekaar naheen karta. samagrat: berojgaari shram ki maaaing aur poorti ke beech asantulit sthiti ka pratifl hai.

professor J.M. keens "anaichhik berojgaari" ko bhi berojgaari ka bhed maanate hain. "anaichhik berojgaari" ki paribhaasha karte hue unhonne likha hai -

'jab koi vyakti prachalit vaastavik majadoori se kam vaastavik majadoori par kaarya karne ke liye taiyaar ho jaata hai, chaahe vah kam nakad majadoori sveekaar karne ke liye taiyaar na ho, tab is avastha ko anaichhik berojgaari kehte hain.'

yadi koi vyakti kisi utpaadak vyavasaaya mein kaarya karta hai to iska yeh arth naheen hai ki vah bekaar naheen hai. aise vyaktiyon ko poornaroopen rojagaar mein laga hua naheen maana jaata jo aanshik roop se hi kaarya mein lage hain athva uchch kaarya ki kshamata rakhate hue bhi nimn prakaar ke laabhakaari vyavasaayon mein kaarya karte hain.

samasya nidaan ke prayaas

Japan mein berojgaari (1953 se 2009 tak)

san 1919 E. mein antararaashtreeya shramasammelan ke Washington adhiveshan ne berojgaari abhismaya (Unemployment convention) sambandhi ek prastaav sveekaar kiya tha jismein kaha gaya tha ki keindreeya satta ke niyantran mein pratyek desh mein sarkaari kaamadilaaoo abhikran sthaapit kiye jaaeain. san 1931 E. mein Bhaarat raajakeeya shram ke aayog (Royal Commission on Labour) ne berojgaari ki samasya par vichaar kiya aur nishkarsh roop mein kaha ki berojgaari ki samasya vikt roop dhaaran kar chuki hai. yadyapi Bhaarat ne antarraashtreeya shramasangh ka "berojgaari sambandhi" samjhauta san 1921 E. mein sveekaar kar liya tha parantu iske kaaryaanvayan mein use do dashak se bhi adhik ka samay lag gaya.

san 1935 ke gavarnameint of India aikt mein berojgaari (berojgaari) praanteeya vishay ke roop mein grahan ki gayi. parantu dviteeya mahaayuddh samaapt hone ke baad yuddharat tatha faiktariyon mein kaam karanevaale kaamagaaron ko fir se kaam par lagaane ki samasya uth khadi hui. 1942-1944 mein desh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein kaamadilaaoo kaaryaalaya khole gaye parantu kaamadilaaoo kaaryaalayon ki vyavastha ke baare mein keindreekaran tatha samanvaya ka anubhav kiya gaya. at: ek punarvaas tatha niyojan nideshaalaya (Directorate of Resettlement and Employment) ki sthaapana ki gayi hai. ham ye rok sakte hain.

berojgaari ke prakaar

  • sanrachanaatmak berojgaari : sarachanaatmak berojgaari vah berojgaari hai jo athravyavastha main hone vaale sanrachanaatmak badlaav ke kaaran utpann hoti hai.
  • alp berojgaari : alp berojgaari vah sthiti hoti hai jismai ek shramik jitna samay kaam kar sakta hai usase kam samay vah kaam karta hai. doooosare shabdo mein, vah ek varsh main kuchh maheene ya pratidin kuchh ghante bekaar rahata hai. alp berojgaari ke do prakaar hai-
  • drushya alp rojagaar: is sthiti mein, logo ko saamaanya ghanton se kam ghante kaam milta hai.
  • adrushya alp rojagaar : is sthiti mai, log poora din kaam karte hain par unki aay bahut kam hoti hai ya unako aise kaam karne padate hain jinmein ve apni yogyata ka poora upayog naheen kar sakte.
  • khuli berojgaari : us sthiti ko kahte hai jisme yadyapi shramik kaam karne ke liye utsuk hai aur usamein kaam karne ki aavashyak yogyata bhi hai tathaapi use kaam praapt nahi hota. vah poora samay bekaar rahata hai. vah poori tarah se parivaar ke kamaane vaale sadasyon par aashrit hota hai. aisi berojgaari praaya: krushi-shramiko, shikshit vyaktiyon tatha un logon mein paayi jaati hai. jo gaavon se shahari hisson mein kaam ki talaash mein aate hain par un ko koi kaam nahi milta. yeh berojgaari ka nagn rup hai.
  • mausami berojgaari: iska arth ek vyakti ko varsh ke keval mausami maheeno mein kaam praapt hota hai. Bhaarat mein krushi kshetr mein yeh aam baat hai. idhar buaai tatha kataai ke mausamon mein adhik logon ko kaam mil jaata hai kintu shesh varsh ve bekaar rahate hain. ek anumaan ke anusaar, yadi koi kisaan varsh main keval ek hi fasal ki buaai karta hai to vah kuchh mahine tak bekaar rahata hai. is sthiti ko mausami berojgaari maana jaata hai.
  • chakreeya berojgaari : aisi berojgaari tab utpann hoti hai jab arthavyavastha mein chakreeya oonch neech aati hai. teji, aarthik susti, aarthik mandi tatha punarutthaan chaar avasthaaen ya chakr hai jo ek poonjeevaadi arthavyavastha ki mukhya visheshataaen hain. aarthik teji ki avastha mein aarthik kriya uchch star par hoti hai tatha rojagaar ka star bhi bahut ooncha hota hai. jab arthavyavastha main kul jrurat ke ghatne ki pravrutti pai jaati hai.
  • chhipi berojgaari : chhipi berojgaari se peedit vyakti vah hota hai jo aise dikhaai deta hai jese ki vah kaam mein laga hua hai, parantu vaastav mein aisa nahi hota.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • rojagaar guaranty (Job guarantee)
  • shram baajaar (Labour market)
  • berojgaari ki dar ke anusaar deshon ki soochi
  • gareebi
  • kaushal (skil)

baahari kadiyaaain