beinjaamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin by Joseph Siffrein Duplessis.jpg
Portrait by Joseph Siffred Duplessis.

6th President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania
pad bahaal
October 18, 1785 – December 1, 1788
poorva dhikaari John Dickinson
uttara dhikaari Thomas Mifflin

23rd Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly
pad bahaal
1765–1765
poorva dhikaari Isaac Norris
uttara dhikaari Isaac Norris

United States Minister to France
pad bahaal
1778–1785
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
poorva dhikaari New office
uttara dhikaari Thomas Jefferson

United States Minister to Sweden
pad bahaal
1782–1783
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
poorva dhikaari New office
uttara dhikaari Jonathan Russell

1st United States Postmaster General
pad bahaal
1775–1776
Appointed by Continental Congress
poorva dhikaari New office
uttara dhikaari Richard Bache

janm 17 January 1706
Boston, Massachusetts
mrutyu April 17, 1790(1790-04-17) (umr 84)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
raashtreeyata American
raajaneetik dal None
jeevan sangi Deborah Read
bachche William Franklin
Francis Folger Franklin
Sarah Franklin Bache
pesha Scientist
Writer
Politician
hastaakshar

beinjaamin Franklin (saaaincha:OldStyleDateDY – 17 April 1790) sanyukt raajya America ke sansthaapak janakon mein se ek the. ek prasiddh bahushrut, Franklin ek pramukh lekhak aur mudrak, vyangyakaar, raajaneetik vichaarak, raajaneetijnya, vaigyaanik, aavishkaarak, naagrik kaaryakarta, raajamarmajnya, sainik,[1] aur raajanayik the. ek vaigyaanik ke roop mein, bijli ke sambandh mein apni khojon aur siddhaanton ke liye ve prabodhan aur bhautik vigyaan ke itihaas mein ek pramukh shakhsiyt rahe. unhonne bijli ki chhad, baaifokals, Franklin stov, ek gaadi ke odomeetar aur glaas 'aarmonika' ka aavishkaar kiya. unhonne America mein pehla saarvajanik rin pustakaalaya aur peinsilveniya mein pehle agni vibhaag ki sthaapana ki. ve aupaniveshik ekta ke sheegra prastaavak the aur ek lekhak aur raajaneetik kaaryakarta ke roop mein, unhonne ek ameriki raashtra ke vichaar ka samarthan kiya.[2] ameriki kraanti ke dauraan ek raajanayik ke roop mein, unhonne French gathabandhan haasil kiya, jisne America ki svatantrata ko sambhav banaane mein madad ki.

freinkalin ko ameriki moolyon aur charitra ke aadhaar nirmaata ke roop mein shreya diya jaata hai, jismein bachat ke vyaavahaarik aur lokataantrik atinaitik moolyon, kathin parishram, shiksha, saamudaayik bhaavana, sv-shaasit sansthaanon aur raajaneetik aur dhaarmik svaichhaachaarita ke virodh karne ke sang, prabodhan ke vaigyaanik aur sahishnu moolyon ka samaagam tha. henari steel komager ke shabdon mein, "Franklin mein pyooritnavaad ke gunon ko bina iske doshon ke aur inlaaitenameint ki pradeepti ko bina usaki tapish ke samaahit kiya ja sakta hai."[3] vaaltar aaijekasan ke anusaar, yeh baat freinkalin ko, "us kaal ke sabse nishnaat ameriki aur us samaaj ki khoj karne vaale logon mein sabse prabhaavashaali banaati hai, jaise samaaj ke roop mein baad mein America viksit hua."[4]

freinkalin, ek akhbaar ke sampaadak, mudrak aur filaadelfiya mein vyaapaari ban gaye, jahaan puar richaards olmanaik aur the pensilveniya gajet ke lekhan aur prakaashan se ve bahut ameer ho gaye. freinkalin ki vigyaan aur praudyogiki ke kshetr mein dilchaspi thi aur apne prasiddh prayogon ke liye unhonne antarraashtreeya khyaati praapt ki. pensilveniya vishvavidyaalaya ko sthaapit karne mein unhonne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai aur ve ameriki daarshanik society ke pehle adhyaksh chune gaye. freinkalin America mein us vakt ek raashtreeya naayak ban gaye jab unhonne us prayaas ka netrutv kiya jiske tahat sansad par alokapriya staamp adhiniyam ko nirast karne ka dabaav banaaya gaya. ek nipun raajanayik Franklin ko, peris mein ameriki mantri ke roop mein fraanseesiyon ke beech vyaapak roop se saraaha gaya aur ve freinko ameriki sambandhon ke sakaaraatmak vikaas mein ek pramukh vyakti the. 1775 se 1776 tak, Franklin, kauntineintal Congress ke tahat postamaastar general the aur 1785 se 1788 tak, ve Supreme eksikyootiv kaunsil of peinsilveniya ke adhyaksh rahe. apne jeevan ke aakhiri kaal mein, ve ek sabse pramukh daasapratha-virodhi ban gaye.

unka rangeen jeevan aur vaigyaanik aur raajaneetik upalabdhi ki viraasat aur America ke sabse prabhaavashaali sansthaapak pita ke roop mein unki chhavi ne freinkalin ko sikkon aur paison par; yuddhapot; kai shaharon ke naamon, kaauntiyon, shaikshik sansthaanon, hamanaamon aur companiyon; aur unki mrutyu ke do se adhik sadiyon ke baad anginat saanskrutik sandarbhon mein sammaanit hote dekha.

anukram

jeevanavrutt

Franklin, 1825

poorvaj

freinkalin ke pita, joshiya Franklin ka janm, ektan, northaemptanashaayar, England mein 23 December 1657 ko Thomas Franklin, ek lohaar aur kisaan aur unki patni jen white ke ghar mein hua. unki maan, ebiya folgar ka janm, naanataaket, mesaachusets mein 15 August 1667 ko, Peter folgar, ek Miller aur school shikshak aur unki patni meri moreel ek poorv anubandhit naukaraani ke yahaan hua. folgars ke ek vanshaj, J.A. folgar ne 19veen sadi mein folgars kaufi ki sthaapana ki.

joshiya freinkalin ki do patniyon se satrah bachche hue. unhonne apni pehli patni aini child se ektan mein lagbhag 1677 mein shaadi ki aur 1683 mein uske saath baustan pravaas kiya; pravaas se pehle unke teen bachche hue aur pravaas ke baad chaar. unki pehli patni ki maut ke baad, 9 July 1689 ko old saaooth meeting house mein saimuel vilaard ne joshiya ki shaadi abeeyaah folger se karaai. unka aathavaan bachcha beinjaamin, joshiya Franklin ka pandrahavaan bachcha tha, saath hi unka dasavaan aur aakhri putr bhi tha.

joshiya freinkalin ne, 1670 ke dashak mein pyooritnavaad ko apnaaya. pyooritnavaad, roman katholik dharm ke tatvon se engliknavaad ko shuddh karne ke liye England ka ek protesteint aandolan tha. pyooritn ke liye teen baatein mahatvapoorn theen: ki pratyek mandali sv-shaasi ho; ki mantriyon ko maas jaise anushthaan ke bajaay upadesh dene chaahiye; aur yeh ki pratyek sadasya baaibal ka adhyayan kare taaki vah ek vyaktigat samajh aur parameshvar ke saath sambandh viksit kar sake. pyooritnavaad ne beinjaamin Franklin ke pita jaise madhyam vargeeya logon ko adhik aakarshit kiya, jo shaasan ki baithakon, charchaaon, adhyayan aur vyaktigat svatantrata ka aanand lete the.[5]

ameriki lokatantr ki jadon ko, sv-shaasan ke in pyooritnavaadi moolyon mein dekha ja sakta hai. in moolyon mein, jo beinjaamin Franklin aur anya sansthaapak janakon (jaise John edams) vyaktigat adhikaar ka sammaan aur anyaayapoorn shaasan ke khilaaf sakriya aakrosh shaamil tha. joshiya ka ek mukhya pyooritnavaadi moolya yeh tha ki kathin parishram ke maadhyam se swayam ke moolya ka vikaas hota hai jo mehanati vyakti ko raajaaon ke baraabar banaata hai (ben freinkalin ne apne pita ki samaadhi-patthar par 22:29 neetivchan khudavaaya, "seeest daaoo a main dilijeint in hij kauling, hi shail stand bifor kings."[6] kathin parishram aur samaanata, do aise pyooritnavaadi moolya the jiski shiksha ben freinkalin ne aajeevan di (vahi, pru. 78) aur puar richaards olmanaik aur apni aatmakatha ke maadhyam se ise vyaapak roop se prasaarit kiya.

ben freinkalin ki maan, abiya folgar, ek pyooritn parivaar mein janmi theen, jo un pratham teerthayaatriyon mein se ek tha jo tab dhaarmik svatantrata ke liye maisaachusets bhaag gaya jab England ke King Charles I ne protesateint ko prataadit karna shuroo kiya. ve 1635 mein baustan ke liye ravaana hue. unke pita "aise baagi the jo aupaniveshik America ko badalne ke liye nirdisht the."[7] adaalat ke klark ke roop mein, unhein ameer jmeendaaron ke saath madhyam-vargeeya dukaanadaaron aur kaareegaron ki vakaalat karne ke sangharsh mein sthaaneeya magistrate ki avamaanana karne ke liye jail mein band kar diya gaya tha. apne daada ke nakshe kdam par chalte hue, ben freinkalin ne peinsilveniya colony ke svaamitv vaale ameer pen parivaar ke khilaaf ladaai jaari rakhi.

praarambhik jeevan

freinkalin ka janmasthaan milk street par, baustan, maisaachusets
freinkalin ke janmasthaan ki jagah milk street par old south meeting house mein is imaarat ki doosari manjil ke oopar ek ardh-pratima ke saath unhein yaad kiya gaya

beinjaamin freinkalin ka janm, baustan, maisaachusets, ke milk street par 17 January 1706 ko hua tha,[8] aur unka bapatisma old south meeting house mein hua. ve joshiya Franklin, ek dukaanadaar vasa aur saabun aur mombatti nirmaata aur usaki doosari patni, aabiya folgar ke bete the. joshiya ke 17 bachche the, beinjaamin pandrahavein bachche aur sabse chhote bete the. joshiya chaahate the ki ben, paadari ke saath school jaae lekin unke paas unhein do saal ke liye hi school bhejane laayak paise the. ve baustan laitin school gaye, lekin snaatak naheen kiya; unhonne atyadhik pathan dvaara apni shiksha jaari rakhi. haalaanki "unke maata-pita ne freinkalin ke liye ek kairiyr ke roop mein church ki charcha ki", unki schooli shiksha tab samaapt ho gayi, jab ve das varsh ke the. iske baad unhonne kuchh samay tak apne pita ke liye kaam kiya aur 12 varsh ki umr mein ve apne bhaai James ke ek shikshu ban gaye, jo ek mudrak tha jisne ben ko printing vyaapaar sikhaaya. jab ben 15 varsh ke the, James ne the new-England kureint ki sthaapana ki jo kaaloniyon mein pehla sahi maayane mein svatantr akhbaar tha. samaachaarapatr mein prakaashanaarth jab ek patra likhne ke avsar se inkaar kar diya gaya, to freinkalin ne ek adhed vidhva ka chhadm naam "misej doogud" apnaaya. "misej doogud" ke patra prakaashit hue aur shahar mein charcha ka vishay ban gaye. na to James aur na hi kureint ke paathakon ko chaal ke baare mein pata chala aur James ko jab pata chala ki vah lokapriya samvaadadaata usaka chhota bhaai hai to vah naaraaj ho gaya .freinkalin ne anumati ke bina apne shikshu pad ko chhod diya aur is vajah se ek bhagoda ban gaye.[9]

17 saal ki umr mein, Franklin ek nae shahar mein nai shurooaat ki talaash mein filaadelfiya, penasilveniya bhaag gaye. jab ve pehli baar aae to unhonne shahar ki vibhinn mudran dukaanon mein kaam kiya. tathaapi, ve taatkaalik sambhaavnaaon se santusht naheen the. kuchh maheenon baad, ek mudrak gharaane mein kaam karne ke dauraan, peinsilveniya ke Governor sar William keeth ne jaahira taur par filaadelfiya mein ek aur samaachaar patra ki sthaapana ke liye, aavashyak upakaran praapt karne ke liye Franklin ko London jaane ke liye manaaya. samaachaar patra ke samarthan ke keeth ke vaadon ko khokhala paakar, Franklin ne ek mudran dukaan mein taaipasetar ke roop mein kaam kiya jo ab London ke smithfeeld kshetr mein seint baartholome-the-great church hai. iske baad, ve 1726 mein ek vyaapaari Thomas denham ki madad se filaadelfiya laute, jisne Franklin ko apne kaarobaar mein klark, dukaanadaar aur muneem ke roop mein niyukt kiya.[9]

1727 mein, beinjaamin freinkalin ne jo us vakt 21 varsh ke the, junto ka gathan kiya jo "samaan vichaar vaale mahatvaakaankshi kaareegaron aur dastakaaron ka samooh tha, jo apne samudaaya mein sudhaar ke saath-saath khud mein sudhaar ki ummeed rakhate the." junto, samasaamayik muddon par charcha ke liye ek samooh tha; isne baad mein filaadelfiya mein kai sangathanon ko janm diya.

padhna, joonto ka ek bada shagal tha, lekin pustakein durlabh aur mahangi thi. sadasyon ne ek pustakaalaya banaaya, jismein shuroo mein apni kitaabon ko ikattha kiya. haalaanki, yeh paryaapt naheen tha. freinkalin ne tab ek sadasyata pustakaalaya ki parikalpana par vichaar kiya, jo sabhi ke padhne ke liye kitaabein khareedne ki khaatir sadasyon se nidhi ka sangrah karega. yeh laaibreri company filaadelfiya ka janm tha: iska chaartar freinkalin dvaara 1731 mein banaaya gaya. 1732 mein, Franklin ne pehle ameriki laaibreriyn, lui Timothy ko kaam par rakha.

beinjaamin freinkalin (beech mein) ek printing press mein kaam karte hue, jaisa ki Charles E. mils dvaara chitrat kiya gaya

moolat:, kitaabon ko pratham laaibreriyn ke gharon par rakha gaya, lekin 1739 mein sangrah ko state house of pensilveniya ki doosari manjil par sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya, jise ab indeepeindeins hall ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. 1791 mein, ek nai imaarat khaas taur par pustakaalaya ke liye banaai gayi. laaibreri company, ab ek mahaan vidvataapoorn aur anusandhaan pustakaalaya hai jismein 500,000 durlabh kitaabein, parche aur braudasaaid, 160,000 se adhik paandulipiyaan aur 75,000 graafik item hain.

denham ki mrutyu par, Franklin apne poorv vyaapaar mein laut aae. 1730 tak, Franklin ne apne khud ke ek printing gharaane ki sthaapana ki aur ek samaachaar patra the peinsilveniya gajet ka prakaashak banane ke liye upaaya nikaala. gajet ne freinkalin ko mudrit nibandhon aur tippaniyon ke maadhyam se vibhinn sthaaneeya sudhaaron aur pahal ke liye aandolan ka ek manch diya. samay ke saath, unki tippani aur ek mehanati aur bauddhik yuva vyakti ke roop mein unki ek sakaaraatmak chhavi ki daksh prastuti ko kaafi saamaajik sammaan praapt hua. ek vaigyaanik aur raajaneta ke roop mein prasiddhi haasil karne ke baad bhi freinkalin, apne patron par aadatan bade saral roop se 'bi. freinkalin, printar' hastaakshar karte the.[9]

1731 mein, Franklin ka sthaaneeya mesonik lodge mein padaarpan hua. ve 1734 mein grand master ban gaye, jo peinsilveniya mein unki teji se badhti mahatta ka sanket tha.[10][11] usi saal unhonne America mein pehli masonik kitaab sanpaadit aur prakaashit ki, jo James Anderson ki kansteetyooshan of free-mesan ka punarmudran thi. freinkalin, apne baaki jeevan ek freemesan rahe.[12][13]

samaan-kaanoon vivaah aur debora reed

debora reed Franklin lagbhag 1759

17 saal ki umr mein, reed hom mein freinkalin jab ek aavaasi the to unhonne 15 varsheeya debora reed ko apna prem prastaav diya. us samay, maan, apni yuva beti ko Franklin ke saath shaadi karne ki anumati dene ke baare mein sashankit thi kyonki Franklin, Governor sar William keeth ke anurodh par London ravaana ho rahe the aur unki vitteeya sthiti asthir thi. haal hi mein unke apne pati ki mrutyu hui thi aur shreemati reed ne apni beti se vivaah karne ke Franklin ke anurodh ko asveekaar kar diya.[9]

jab freinkalin London mein the, unki yaatra lambi khinch gayi aur sar William ke samarthan karne ke vaadon se sambandhit samasyaaen utpann ho gayi. is deri se utpann paristhitiyon ke kaaran shaayad, debora ne John rojars naamak vyakti se shaadi kar li. yeh ek dukhad nirnaya saabit hua. rojars, apne rin aur abhiyojan paksh se bachane ke liye debora ke saare dahej ke saath sheegra hi baarabaados bhaag gaya aur use chhod diya. rojars ke bhaagya ka pata naheen chala aur dvivivaah kaanoonon ke kaaran debora fir se vivaah karne ke liye mukt naheen thi.

freinkalin, ne 1 sitmbar 1730 ko debora reed ke saath samaan-kaanoon vivaah ki sthaapana ki aur yuva William ko lene ke alaava, unke apne do bachche hue. October 1732 ko janma pehla, Francis folgar Franklin, 1736 mein chechak se mar gaya. saara Franklin, upanaam saili, 1743 mein paida hui. usane antat: richrd baakh se shaadi ki, jisse use saat bachche hue aur usane budhaape mein apne pita ki seva ki.

debora ko samudra se bhaya tha jiska matlab tha ki vah freinkalin ke saath, unke kaafi anurodh ke baavajood unki Europe ki lambi yaatraaon mein kabhi saath naheen gayi. haalaanki, Franklin ne debora se milne ke liye London naheen chhoda, tab bhi naheen jab November 1769 mein usane likha ki usaki beemaari, lambe samay tak unki anupasthiti ke kaaran upaji "asantusht hataasha" ke kaaran hai.[14] jab beinjaamin England ki lambi yaatra par the, to debora reed freinkalin, 1774 mein ek daure se mar gayi.

naajaayaj beta William

1730 mein, 24 saal ki umr mein, Franklin ne saarvajanik roop se William naam ke ek avaidh bete ka hona sveekaar kiya, jo baad mein new jersey ka antim lauyalist Governor bana. haalaanki William ki maan ki pehchaan agyaat rahi, shaayad ek shishu bachche ki jimmedaari ne freinkalin ko debora ke saath nivaas lene ka ek kaaran pradaan kiya. William ka paalan-poshan freinkalin ke ghar mein hua, lekin baad mein british sarkaar dvaara kaaloniyon ke saath kiye ja rahe vyavahaar ko lekar usane apne pita ke saath sambandh tod liya. Franklin ko, William dvaara raaja ke prati apni vafaadaari ghoshit karne ka faisala katai sveekaar naheen tha.

unke beech sulah ki koi gunjaaish tab samaapt ho gayi jab William freinkalin, the board of associated lauyalist ke neta ban gaye - ek ardh sainik sangathan, jiska mukhyaalaya british adhikrut New York shahar mein tha, jisne anya baaton ke alaava, new jersey, dakshini Connecticut aur New York shahar ke uttar mein kaauntiyon mein chhaapaamaar tabaahi chhedi.[15] 1782 mein Britain ke saath shaanti ki praarambhik baatcheet mein "...freinkalin ne jor dekar kaha ki lauyalist, jinhonne sanyukt raajya America ke khilaaf hathiyaar uthaaya unhein is daleel se baahar rakha jaaega (ki unhein ek aam maafi di ja sakti hai). ve nissandeh William Franklin ke baare mein soch rahe the."[16] William ne british sena ke saath New York chhod diya. vah England mein bas gaya aur kabhi naheen lauta.


File:WilliamFranklin.jpeg|William freinkalin (1731-1813) File:Sarah Franklin Bache1793.jpg|saara freinkalin baakhe (1743-1808)


ek lekhak ke roop mein safalta

1733 mein, freinkalin ne richrd saundars ke chhadm naam ke tahat prasiddh puar richrds olmanaik ka prakaashan shuroo kiya (jismein saamagri mool aur udhaar li gayi, donon prakaar ki thi), jis par unki lokapriya pratishtha kaafi aadhaarit hai. freinkalin aksar chhadm naam ke tahat likhte the. haalaanki yeh koi rahasya naheen tha ki Franklin hi lekhak the, unke richrd saundars charitra ne baar-baar iska khandan kiya. "puar richrds ke neetivchan," is panchaang ki uktiyaan, jaise "a penni sevd ij too peins diar" (jise aksar "a penni sevd ij a penni arnd" ke roop mein galat uddhrut kiya jaata hai), "fish end vijitrs stink in three dej" vartamaan aadhunik duniya mein aam uddharan bane hue hain. lok samaaj mein gyaan ka arth hota hai kisi bhi avsar ke liye ek upayukt kahaavat pradaan karne ki kshamata aur Franklin ke paathak ismein nipun ho gaye. ve prati varsh lagbhag das hajaar pratiyaan bechate the (ek prachaar sankhya, jo aaj ke lagbhag tees lakh ke baraabar hai).[9]

1758 mein, jis varsh unhonne almanaik ke liye likhna band kar diya, unhonne father abraihams saraman mudrit kiya, jise the ve too velth ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai. freinkalin ki mrutyu ke baad prakaashit unki aatmakatha, is shaili ki kaalajayi krutiyon mein se ek ban gayi.

delaait seving time (DST) ko aksar glati se Franklin dvaara gumanaam roop se prakaashit ek 1784 ke vyangya ko samarpit kiya jaata hai.[17] aadhunik DST ko pehli baar 1895 mein George varnan hadasan dvaara prastaavit kiya gaya tha.[18]

aavishkaar aur vaigyaanik jaanch

glaas aarmonika.

freinkalin ek bahut bade aavishkaarak the. unki kai rachanaaon mein bijli ki chhad, glaas aarmonika (sheeshe ka ek upakaran, jise dhaatu haaramonika naheen samjha jaana chaahiye), Franklin stov, baaifokal chashma aur lacheela mootr kaithetar the. freinkalin ne kabhi apne aavishkaaron ka peteint naheen karaaya; apni aatmakatha mein unhonne likha, "... jaisa ki ham doosaron ke aavishkaaron ke laabh se kaafi aanand lete hain, hamein apne kisi bhi aavishkaar se doosaron ki seva ke avsar se harshit hona chaahiye; aur aisa hamein muft roop se aur udaarata ke saath karna chaahiye.[19] unke aavishkaaron mein saamaajik navaachaar bhi shaamil hain, jaise peing forward. naveen vikaas karne mein freinkalin ke aakarshan ko paropakaar ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai; unhonne likha hai ki unke vaigyaanik kaaryon ka upayog, kaaryakshamata badhaane aur maanav sudhaar ke liye kiya jaana chaahiye. aisa hi ek sudhaar tha apne printing press ke maadhyam se samaachaar sevaaon mein teji laane ka prayaas.[20]

up daakapaal ke roop mein, Franklin uttar atalaantik mahaasaagar sanchalan paddhati mein roochi rakhane lage. 1768 mein, postamaastar general ke roop mein freinkalin England gaye aur vahaan unhonne seema ke aupaniveshik board dvaara ek jijnyaaasu shikaayat suni: ek ausat vyaapaari jahaaj ko nyooport, road aailaind pahunchane mein lagne vaale samay ki tulana mein british mel jahaaj ko (jinhein packet kaha jaata tha) England se New York pahunchane mein kuchh hafte jyaada kyon lagte hain, iske baavajood ki vyaapaari jahaaj landan se chhoot kar thems ke baad english channel se hote hue baad mein atalaantik paar karte hain, jabki packet kaurnavaul mein faalamaauth se seedhe saagar mein pahunchate hain? ulajhan mein pade Franklin ne apne chachere bhaai Timothy folgar ko, jo ek naanataaket vhelar kaptaan tha aur us samay London mein tha, raat ke khaane par aamantrit kiya. folgar ne unase kaha ki vyaapaari jahaaj, niyamit roop se gulf streem se parahej karte hain, jabki mel packet ke kaptaan seedhe usamein ghus jaate hain, tab bhi jab ameriki vhelar unhein bataate hain ki ve ek teen meal prati ghante ki dhaara mein ja rahe hain. freinkalin ne folgar aur anya anubhavi jahaaj kaptaanon ke saath kaam kiya aur unhonne gulf streem ka naksha banaaya aur use jo naam diya vah aaj bhi prayog ho raha hai.

Though it was Dr. Franklin and Captain Tim Folger, who first turned the Gulf Stream to nautical account, the discovery that there was a Gulf Stream cannot be said to belong to either of them, for its existence was known to Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, and to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in the sixteenth century.[21]

british samudri kaptaanon ko us dhaara ko freinkalin ki salaah ke anusaar paar karne mein kai saal lag gaye, lekin jab ve kar paae, to unhonne yaatra samay mein do saptaah ki bachat ki.[22][23] freinkalin ka gulf streem chart 1770 mein England mein prakaashit hua, jahaan ise poori tarah se najaraandaaj kar diya gaya. baad ke sanskaran France mein 1778 mein aur America mein 1786 mein chhape. chart ke british sanskaran ko, jo mool tha, aisa najaraandaaj kiya gaya ki har koi yeh maanane laga ki vah hamesha ke liye kho gaya, par fir fil Richardson, Woods hol samudra vigyaani aur gulf streem visheshagya ne use peris mein Bibliothèaque Nationale mein dhoondh nikaala. ise New York times mein aavaran prusht par sthaan mila.

1743 mein, Franklin ne vaigyaanik purushon ko apni khojon aur siddhaanton par charcha karne mein madad karne ke liye, ameriki daarshanik society ki sthaapana ki. anya vaigyaanik padtaalon ke saath, unhonne bijli ka anusandhaan shuroo kiya, jisne unhein raajaneeti aur arthopaarjan ki avadhi ke beech baaki jeevan mein vyast rakha.[9]

"vaatar-spauts end vharlavinds" par freinkalin ke ek pepar se chitran

1748 mein, printing se sevaanivrutt hote hue ve anya vyavasaayon mein chale gaye. unhonne apne foramain, David hall ke saath bhaageedaari banaai, jisne Franklin ko 18 saal tak dukaan ka aadha laabh pradaan kiya. is laabhakaari vyaapaar vyavastha ne adhyayan ke liye khaali samay pradaan kiya aur kuchh hi varshon mein unhonne aisi khojein ki, jisne unhein poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se France mein shikshiton ke beech pratishtha di.

unki khojon mein unka bijli ka anveshan bhi shaamil hai. freinkalin ka prastaav tha ki "vitreeas" aur "resins" vidyut do alag prakaar ke vidyut drav naheen hain (jaisa ki vidyut ko us samay kaha jaata tha), balki alag-alag dabaavon mein ek hi vidyut drav hain. unhein kramash: dhanaatmak aur rinaatmak ka naam dene vaale ve pratham vyakti the,[24] aur aavesh sanrakshan siddhaant ki khoj karne vaale ve pratham vyakti the.[25] 1750 mein unhonne yeh saabit karne ke liye ek prayog ka prastaav prakaashit kiya ki aakaasheeya bijli vidyut hai, jiske liye unhonne ek patang ko toofaan mein udaaya, jo vidyuteeya toofaan banane mein saksham prateet hota tha. 10 May 1752 ko, France ke Thomas-fraankois daaleebard ne freinkalin ke prayog ko patang ke bajaay ek 40 fut (12 mi)-lambe lohe ki chhad ka upayog karke kiya aur unhonne baadalon se vidyuteeya chingaariyaan nikaaleen. 15 June ko, Franklin ne sanbhavat: apna prasiddh patang prayog, filaadelfiya mein kiya hoga aur ek baadal se safalataapoorvak vidyuteeya chingaari nikaali hogi, yadyapi aise siddhaant bhi hain jo sujhaate hain ki unhonne yeh prayog kabhi kiya hi naheen. freinkalin ke prayog ko 1767 mein Joseph preestale ki likhi history end preseint status of ilektreesiti se pehle tak darj naheen kiya gaya tha, sabooton ke anusaar Franklin vilg the (ek chaalak path par naheen the, anyatha bijli kadkane par unhein bijli ka jhatka lagne ka khatra rahata). anya, jaise seint peetarsabarg, roos ke jorj vilhem richman, freinkalin ke prayog ke kuchh maheene baad, bijli ke jhatke se maare gaye the. apne lekhan mein, Franklin ingit karte hain ki unhein khatre ke baare mein pata tha aur unhonne kadkati bijli ke vidyuteeya hone ka pradarshan karne ke liye vaikalpik tareekon ko pesh kiya, jaisa ki vidyuteeya jameen ki avadhaarana ke unke upayog mein dikha. yadi freinkalin ne is prayog ko vaakai kiya tha, to unhonne ise us tareeke se naheen kiya hoga jaisa ki aksar bataaya gaya hai, patang ko udaana aur bijli ke jhatke ka intajaar karna, kyonki yeh khatarnaak ho sakta tha.[26] lokapriya TV kaaryakram mithbastars ne kathit "ek dhaage ke sire par chaabhi" vaale Franklin prayog ki nakl ki aur ek nishchitta ke saath sthaapit kiya ki agar freinkalin ne vaastav mein is tarah se prayog ko kiya hota to ve nissandeh hi maare jaate. iske bajaay, unhonne patang ka istemaal ek toofaani baadal se vidyut aavesh ikaththa karne ke liye kiya, jiska matlab tha ki kadkati bijli, vidyuteeya thi.

19 October ko, England ko likhe ek patra mein, prayog ko doharaane ke liye nirdeshon ke vivran mein freinkalin ne likha:

When rain has wet the kite twine so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it streams out plentifully from the key at the approach of your knuckle, and with this key a phial, or Leiden jar, maybe charged: and from electric fire thus obtained spirits may be kindled, and all other electric experiments [may be] performed which are usually done by the help of a rubber glass globe or tube; and therefore the sameness of the electrical matter with that of lightening completely demonstrated.[27]

freinkalin ke vidyut prayog ne bijli ki chhad ke unke aavishkaar ko falit kiya. unhonne gaur kiya ki ek chikne bindu ki bajaay dhaaradaar vaale chaalak khaamoshi se niraaveshit karne mein saksham the aur apekshaakrut adhik doori se. unka andaaja tha ki is gyaan ka upayog bijli se imaaraton ki raksha karne mein kiya ja sakta hai, jiske tahat "lohe ki ek seedhi chhad, jise ek sui ki tarah nukeela aur jang khaane se rokane ke liye gilt kiya gaya hai aur un chhadon ke nichle chhor se ek taar bhavan ke baahar jameen ke andar jaata hai; ...kya ye nukeeli chhadein ek baadal se chupachaap nikalne waali vidyuteeya aag ko imaarat ke najdeek aane se pehle hi kheench lein aur is tarah hamein us sabse achaanak aur bhayaanak kshati se surakshit kar dein. freinkalin ke apne hi ghar par prayogon ki ek shrrunkhala ke baad, bijli ki chhadon ko 1752 mein academy of filaadelfiya par (baad mein penasilveniya vishvavidyaalaya) aur pensilveniya state house (baad mein indeepenadeins hall) par lagaaya gaya.[28]

vidyut se sambandhit apne kaaryon ke liye, freinkalin ne 1753 mein royal society ka kopale padak praapt kiya aur 1756 mein ve athaarahaveen sadi ke un kuchh chuninda amerikiyon mein se ek bane, jinhein society ke felo ke roop mein chuna gaya. vidyut chaarj ki cgs ikaai ko unke naam par rakha gaya hai: ek freinkalin (Fr) ek staitakolam ke baraabar hai.

freinkalin ko, apne samakaaleen lionaard yoolar ke saath, ekamaatr pramukh vaigyaanik jisne kristeeaan hyujeins ke vev thiori of laait ka samarthan kiya, mool roop se shesh vaigyaanik samudaaya dvaara upekshit kiya gaya. 18veen sadi ke nyootan ke korpaskular siddhaant ko sach maana gaya; yang ke prasiddh slit prayog ke baad hi, adhikaansh vaigyaanik, hyujeins ke siddhaant par vishvaas karne ke liye taiyaar hue.[29]

21 October 1743 ko, lokapriya mithk ke anusaar, dakshin pashchim se chalte hue ek toofaan ne freinkalin ko ek chandragrahan ke saakshi banane ke avsar se chyut kar diya. maana jaata hai ki freinkalin ne gaur kiya ki maujooda hava vaastav mein poorvottar se chal rahi thi, jo unke andaaje ke vipreet tha. apne bhaai ke saath patraachaar mein freinkalin ne jaana ki vahi toofaan, grahan ke baad tak baustan naheen pahuncha tha, is tathya ke baavajood ki baustan, filaadelfiya ke poorvottar mein hai. unhonne nishkarsh nikaala ki toofaan, hamesha maujooda hava ki disha mein yaatra naheen karte, ek avadhaarana jisne mausam vigyaan par kaafi prabhaav daala.[30]

freinkalin ne prasheetan ke ek siddhaant ko tab jaana, jab unhonne ek atyant garm din mein, bahti hava mein ek sookhi kameej ki tulana mein ek geeli kameej pahan kar zyaada thandak mahasoos ki. is ghatna ko adhik spasht roop se samajhne ke liye, freinkalin ne prayog kiya. 1758 mein, Cambridge, England, mein Franklin aur saathi vaigyaanik John haidali ne ek garm din mein ek paara tharmaameetar ki geind ko lagaataar ithar se geela kiya aur dhaunkani ke upayog se ithar ko vaashpeekrut kiya. pratyek vaashpeekaran ke saath, tharmaameetar ne kam taapamaan padha aur antat: 7 °aF (-14 °aC) tak pahuncha. ek anya tharmaameetar ne kamre ke taapamaan ko 65 °aF (18 °aC) par sthir dikhaaya. apne patra "kooling baai ivaaporeshan" mein, freinkalin ne kaha ki "garmi ke mausam ke ek garm din, aadmi thand se thithurakar mar sakta hai."

Michael fairaade ke anusaar barf ki gair-chaalakata par freinkalin ke prayog ka ullekhaneeya hai, yadyapi ilektrolaaits par draveekaran ke saamaanya prabhaav ke niyam ka shreya, freinkalin ko naheen diya jaata.[31] haalaanki, penasilveniya vishvavidyaalaya ke pro॰ A. di. baakh dvaara 1836 mein prakaashit kiya gaya, gair-chaalakon, jaise kaanch, ki chaalakata par taap ke prabhaav ke niyam ka shreya Franklin ko diya ja sakta hai. freinkalin likhte hain, "...taap ki ek nishchit maatra, kuchh vastuon ko achha chaalak bana degi, jo anyatha chaalak naheen banaate..." aur fir,"...aur paani, jo haalaanki svaabhaavik roop se ek achha chaalak hai, barf ke roop mein jamane par chaalak ka kaarya naheen karega."[32]

umradaraaj freinkalin ne samudra vigyaan ki apni sabhi khojon ko maireetaaim obsarveshan mein sankalit kiya jise 1786 mein filosofikl society ke traanjekshan dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya.[33] ismein samudri langar, katamarain hul, jal-nirodhi dibbe, jahaaj ki bijli chhad aur ek soop katora jise toofaani mausam mein bhi sthir rahane ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha.

sangeet mein prayaas

freinkalin ko vaayalin, veena aur gitaar bajaane ke liye jaana jaata hai. unhonne sangeet rachana bhi ki, vishesh roop se praarambhik shaastreeya shaili mein ek string kvaartet aur ek glaas haaramonika ke ek jyaada behtar sanskaran ka aavishkaar kiya, jismein pratyek glaas ko apne aap mein ghoomane ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha aur vaadak ki ungaliyaan ismein sthir bani rahati hain, bajaay iske vipreet tareeke ke; is sanskaran ne jald hi Europe mein apni jagah bana li.[34]

shataranj

freinkalin ek shaukeen shataranj khilaadi the. ve kareeb 1733 se shataranj khel rahe the, jisne unhein ameriki upaniveshon mein apne naam se pahachaana jaane wala pratham shataranj khilaadi bana diya.[35] kolanbiyn patrika mein December 1786 mein unka nibandh "maurals of ches", America mein shataranj par likha gaya doosra gyaat lekh hai.[35] shataranj ki prashansa aur iske liye vyavahaar ka ek code nirdhaarit karne par likha gaya yeh nibandh, vyaapak roop se punarmudrit aur anoodit kiya gaya hai.[36][37][38][39] unhonne aur unke ek dost ne, itaalavi bhaasha, jiska donon adhyayan kar rahe the, seekhane ke ek saadhan ke roop mein bhi shataranj ka istemaal kiya; unke beech khel ke vijeta ko ek kaam saupane ka adhikaar milta tha, jaise itaalavi vyaakaran ke hisse ko kanthasth karna, jise agali baithak se pehle haarne vaale ko karna hota tha.[40] freinkalin ko maranoparaant, 1999 mein ameriki shataranj ke hall of fame mein shaamil kiya gaya.[35]

saarvajanik jeevan

peinsilveniya aspataal, William streekalaind dvaara, 1755
mool tun taivarn ka skech
jvaain aur daai: freinkalin ke is raajaneetik kaartoon ne French aur Indian yuddh (saat saal ka yuddh) ke dauraan kaaloniyon se ekajut hone ka aagrah kiya.
chitr:Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Wilson, 1759.jpg
beinjaamin Wilson dvaara beinjaamin Franklin, 1759.
beinjaamin Franklin, America ke pehle daak ticket par, 1847

1736 mein, Franklin ne America ki pratham swayamsevak agnishaman companiyon mein se ek, union fire company ka gathan kiya. usi varsh, unhonne new jersey ke liye jaali-virodhi naveen takaneek par aadhaarit ek nai mudra ko chhaapa. apne poore kairiyr ke dauraan, Franklin ne kaagaji mudra ki vakaalat ki aur 1729 mein A modest inkvaayari intoo the nechar end nesesiti of A pepar karensi aur apne printar se chhapi mudra ka prakaashan kiya. madhya kauloniyon mein ve jyaada niyantrit aur is tarah safal maudrik prayog karne mein prabhaavashaali rahe, jisne atyadhik mudraasfeeti ke bina apasfeeti ko rok diya. 1766 mein, kaagaji mudra ke liye unhonne british house of kaumans ke liye ek mudda banaaya.[41]

paripakva hone ke saath-saath, freinkalin ne khud ko saarvajanik maamalon ke saath aur adhik jodna shuroo kiya. 1743 mein, unhonne the academy end college of filaadelfiya ke liye ek yojana taiyaar ki. unhein 13 November 1749 mein academy ka adhyaksh niyukt kiya gaya aur yeh 13 August 1751 ko khula. 17 May 1757 ko apni pehli shurooaat mein, saat purushon ne snaatak kiya; chh: kala snaatak bane aur ek kala nishnaat. ise baad mein state of pensilveniya ke vishvavidyaalaya ke saath vilay karte hue penasilveniya vishvavidyaalaya ka nirmaan kiya gaya.

freinkalin, filaadelfiya ki raajaneeti mein shaamil ho gaye aur unhonne teji se pragati ki. October 1748 mein unhein ek kaaunsilmain ke roop mein chuna gaya, June 1749 mein, ve filaadelfiya ke liye shaanti ke nyaayaadheesh bane aur 1751 mein, unhein peinsilveniya vidhaanasabha ke liye chuna gaya. 10 August 1753 ko, Franklin ko uttar America ka sanyukt up daakapaal-general niyukt kiya gaya. ghareloo raajaneeti mein unka sabse ullekhaneeya yogadaan daak vyavastha ka sudhaar tha, lekin ek raajaneta ke roop mein unki khyaati mukhya roop se great Britain aur fir France ke saath kaaloniyon ke sambandhon ke sambandh mein unki raajanayik sevaaon par aadhaarit hai.[9]

1751 mein, Franklin aur dau॰ Thomas baund ne ek aspataal ki sthaapana ke liye peinsilveniya vidhaayika se ek chaartar praapt kiya. peinsilveniya aspataal, vajood mein aane vaale sanyukt raajya America ka pehla aspataal tha.

1753 mein, Harvard aur yel, donon ne unhein maanad degree se sammaanit kiya.[42]

1754 mein, unhonne albaani Congress mein penasilveniya ke pratinidhimandal ka netrutv kiya. bhaarateeyon ke saath sambandhon mein sudhaar aur France ke khilaaf suraksha ke liye, vibhinn kauloniyon ki is baithak ke liye England ke board of trade ne anurodh kiya tha. freinkalin ne kauloniyon ke liye ek vyaapak plaan of union ka prastaav rakha. jabki yojana ko naheen apnaaya gaya, iske tatvon ko parisangh anuchhed aur samvidhaan mein samaahit kiya gaya.

1756 mein, Franklin ne peinsilveniya milishiya ko sangathit kiya (kaunatineintal sena mein peinsilveniya ki 103veen aartilri aur 111veen infaintri rejimeint ke sheershak ke antargat "filaadelfiya ke sambaddh rejimeint" dekhein). sainikon ke ek regiment ki bharti ke liye unhonne tun taivarn ko ikattha hone ki ek jagah ke roop mein istemaal kiya, taaki deshi amerikiyon ki bagaavat ke khilaaf, jisne ameriki upaniveshon ki naak mein dam kar rakha tha, ladaai kar sake. kathit taur par, Franklin ko associated rejimeint ka "Colonel" chuna gaya lekin unhonne is sammaan ko asveekaar kar diya.

iske alaava 1756 mein, Franklin, society for the inakarejameint of Arts ke sadasya ban gaye, vinirmaan aur vaanijya (ab royal society of Arts ya RSA, jise 1754 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha), jiski praarambhik baithakein London ke kaveint garden jile mein kaufi shaups mein hoti theen, kraiven street par Franklin ke mukhya nivaas ke najdeek (unka bacha hua ekamaatr ghar jise 17 January 2006 ko beinjaamin Franklin house sangrahaalaya ke roop mein janta ke liye khola gaya.) America lautane ke baad, Franklin, society ke sanvaadi sadasya bane rahe aur society ke saath kareebi roop se jude rahe. RSA ne Franklin ke janm ki 250veen varshagaanth aur RSA ki unki sadasyata ki 200veen varshagaanth manaane ke upalakshya par, 1956 mein beinjaamin Franklin padak ki sthaapana ki.

1757 mein, unhein ek aupaniveshik agent ke roop mein peinsilveniya vidhaanasabha dvaara, colony ke maalik pen parivaar ke raajaneetik prabhaav ke khilaaf virodh pradarshan karne ke liye England bheja gaya. ve vahaan paanch saal tak rahe aur propraaitar ke nirvaachit vidhaanasabha ke kaanoon ko badalne aur apni jameen par kar ke bhugataan se unki chhoot ke visheshaadhikaar ka ant karne ka prayaas karte rahe. unke paas vhaaitahaul mein prabhaavashaali sahayogiyon ki kami ke kaaran unka yeh abhiyaan vifal raha.

London mein rahane ke dauraan, Franklin kattarpanthi raajaneeti mein shaamil ho gaye. ve club of onest vhigs ke sadasya the, jahaan unke saath the richrd price jaise vichaarak, jo nyooingatan green yuniteriyn church ke mantri the aur jinhonne kraanti vivaad ko prajvalit kiya. kraiven street mein 1757 aur 1775 ke beech apne pravaas ke dauraan, Franklin ne apni makaan maalakin, maargaret steevensan aur unki mitron aur sambandhiyon ke samooh ke saath ek ghanishth sambandh viksit kar liya, vishesh roop se unki beti mairi ke saath, jise poli ke roop mein zyaada achhi tarah se jaana jaata tha.

1759 mein, ve apne bete ke saath edinbarg gaye aur vahaan apni baatcheet ko "mere jeevan ki saghanatam khushi" ke roop mein yaad kiya.[43] February 1759 mein, seint endrayooj vishvavidyaalaya ne unhein Doctor of lauj ki maanad degree se sammaanit kiya aur usi varsh October mein unhein seint endrayooj ka freedom of the baro pradaan kiya gaya.[44]

1761. William ponsanabaai, dviteeya arl of besabaro aur Robert hempaden-trevar, pratham viskont hempaden Britain ke sanyukt postamaastar general, ke gyaapan dvaara 12 August 1761 ki taareekh vaale aayog ne beinjaamin Franklin aur William hantar ko uttar America ka up postamaastar general punarniyukt kiya jaata hai.[45]

1762 mein, Oxford vishvavidyaalaya ne freinkalin ko unki vaigyaanik upalabdhiyon ke liye dauktaret ki maanad upaadhi se sammaanit kiya aur uske baad se ve, "Doctor freinkalin" kahalaane lage. unhonne apne naajaayaj bete, William Franklin ke liye new jersey ke aupaniveshik Governor ke roop mein ek pad praapt kiya.[9]

ve Birmingham aadhaarit prabhaavashaali loonar society mein bhi shaamil hue, jiske saath unhonne niyamit roop se samvaad banaae rakha aur kabhi-kabhi, vest midlainds mein Birmingham mein daura bhi kiya.

kraanti ka aagaaj

1763 mein, freinkalin ke peinsilveniya se lautane ke tatkaal baad, pashchimi seema ek teevr yuddh mein fansi thi, jise pontiyek vidroh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. paiksatan bauyaj, base hue logon ka ek samooh jise vishvaas tha ki peinsilveniya sarkaar ameriki Indian chhaape se unki suraksha ke liye kuchh paryaapt naheen kar rahi hai, unhonne susakvehaanok ke Indian ke ek shaantipoorn samooh ki hatya kar di aur fir filaadelfiya par chadhaai ki. freinkalin ne sthaaneeya milishiya ko sangathit karne mein madad ki taaki bheed ke khilaaf rajdhani ki raksha ki ja sake aur fir paiksatan netaaon ke saath mulaakaat ki aur unhein bikhr jaane ke liye raaji kiya. freinkalin ne paiksatan bauyaj ke nasleeya poorvaagrah ke khilaaf lekhan ke dvaara jordaar hamla bola. "agar ek Indian mujhe ghaayal karta hai," unhonne kaha, "to kya us chot ke badle baad mein main sabhi Indian par hamla karoon?"[46]

is samay tak, peinsilveniya vidhaanasabha ke kai sadasya, William pen ke vaarison se jhagad rahe the, jinhonne maalik ke roop mein colony par niyantran banaaye rakha tha. freinkalin ne pen parivaar ke khilaaf sangharsh mein "svaamitv-virodhi party" ka netrutv kiya aur May 1764 mein unhein penasilveniya sabha ka adhyaksh chuna gaya. svaamitv se shaahi sarkaar mein parivartan ek durlabh raajaneetik galat anumaan bana, lekin: penasilveniya ke logon ko chinta thi ki is tarah ka koi kadam unke raajanaitik aur dhaarmik svatantrata ko khatre mein daal sakta hai. in aashankaaon ki vajah se aur unke raajaneetik charitra par hamlon ke kaaran, Franklin October 1764 mein vidhaanasabha chunaav mein apna pad haar gaye. svaamitv-virodhi party ne freinkalin ko pen parivaar ke svaamitv ke khilaaf sangharsh jaari rakhane ke liye England bheja, lekin is yaatra ke dauraan, ghatnaaon ne teji se unke mission ke svaroop ko badla.[47]

London mein, Franklin ne 1765 staamp adhiniyam ka virodh kiya, lekin jab ve uske paarit hone ko rokane mein asamarth rahe, to unhonne ek anya raajaneetik galati ki aur pensilveniya ke liye ticket vitrak ke pad ke liye apne ek dost ki sifaarish ki. pensilveniya ke logon ko gussa aa gaya, unako yeh vishvaas ho raha tha ki unhonne us vidheyak ka samarthan kiya hai aur un logon ne filaadelfiya mein unke ghar ko nasht karne ki dhamaki di. freinkalin ne jaldi hi staamp adhiniyam ke aupaniveshik pratirodh ki had ko samjha aur house of kaumans ke samaksh unki gavaahi, iske nirast karne ka kaaran bani. is ke saath hi, Franklin achaanak England mein ameriki hiton ke liye agrani pravakta ke roop mein ubhare. kauloniyon ki or se unhonne lokapriya nibandh likhe aur, jaurjiya, new jersey aur maisaachusets ne bhi unhein raajagaddi ke apne agent ke roop mein niyukt kiya.[47]

1783 mein Franklin, Joseph duplesis dvaara ek chitrakala se ek utkeernan.

sitmbar 1767 mein, Franklin ne, apne hamesha ke yaatra ke saathi, sar John pringal ke saath peris ka daura kiya. unki bijli ki khojon ki khabarein France mein vyaapak roop se faili thi. unki pratishtha se yeh jaahir tha ki unki mulaakaat kai prabhaavashaali vaigyaaniko aur netaaon se hui aur unki mulaakaat King lui XV se bhi karaai gayi[48].

landan mein 1768 mein rahate hue unhonne a skeem for a new alfaabet end a rifaurmd mod of speling mein ek dhvanyaatmak varnamaala ko viksit kiya. unki sudhaar ki hui varnamaala mein unhonne aise chhah varnon ko khaarij kar diya jo unke anusaar anaavashyak the (c, j, q, w, x aur y) aur aisi dhvaniyon ke liye chh: nae varnon ko pratisthaapit kiya jinka abhaav unhein mahasoos hua. lekin unki nai varnamaala, apni pakad naheen bana pai aur antat: unhonne is par dilchaspi kho di.[49]

1771 mein, Franklin ne England ke vibhinn bhaagon se hote hue laghu yaatraaen ki, jiske dauraan ve leeds mein Joseph pristale ke saath, Manchester mein Thomas parsivl ke saath aur lichfeeld mein dau॰ daaravin ke saath rahe.[50]. freinkalin ek sajjan club ke the (freinkalin dvaara "onest vhigs" naam diya gaya) jo ghoshit baithakein aayojit karta tha aur ismein richrd price aur Andrew kipis jaise sadasya shaamil the. ve Birmingham ke loonar society ke bhi sanvaadi sadasya the, jiske anya vaigyaanik aur audyogik diggaj sadasyon mein shaamil the Matthew boltan, James vaat, josiya vejavud aur iraasmas daaravin. ve isse pehle kabhi Ireland naheen gaye the jahaan unhonne Lord hilsabaro se mulaakaat ki aur unke saath rahe, jo unke anusaar vishesh dhyaan dene vaale vyakti the, lekin jinke baare mein unhonne ullekh kiya hai ki satya prateet hone vaale sabhi vyavahaar, jiska mainne varnan kiya hai, usaka matlab sirf, ghode ko thapathapaakar, use aur adhik dhairyavaan banaana hai, jabki lagaam kasi hui hai aur uske donon or ed gahre vyavasthit hai .[51] dabalin mein, freinkalin ko gailari ke bajaay aayarish sansad ke sadasyon ke saath baithane ke liye aamantrit kiya gaya. ve pehle ameriki the jinhein yeh sammaan diya gaya.[50] Ireland ke daure ke dauraan, ve gareebi ke star ko dekh kar vihval ho gaye. Ireland ki arthavyavastha Britain ke unheen vyaapaar niyamon aur kaanoonon dvaara prabhaavit thi jisse America niyantrit tha. freinkalin ko dar tha ki yadi Britain ka "aupaniveshik shoshan" jaari raha to America ko bhi vahi parinaam bhugatna pad sakta hai.[52] Scotland mein, starling ke paas unhonne Lord kems ke saath paanch din bitaae aur David hyoom ke saath edinbarg mein teen saptaah tak rahe.

1773 mein, Franklin ne apne do sabse prasiddh, ameriki samarthak vyangya nibandh prakaashit kiye: rools baai vhich a great impaayar me bi ridyoosd tu a smaul van aur ऍn edikt baai King of prushiya .[53] unhonne Francis daishavud ke saath gumanaam roop se ebrijmeint of the book of kauman preyar ka bhi prakaashan kiya. is kruti ki asaamaanya visheshataaon mein se ek hai antim sanskaar, jise "jeevit logon ke svaasthya aur jeevan ki raksha ke liye" kam karke sirf chh: minute lamba rakha gaya.[48]

hachinsan patra

freinkalin ne maisaachusets ke Governor Thomas hachinsan aur lieutenant Governor Andrew olivr ke niji patra praapt kiye jisne yeh saabit kar diya ki ve log baustan ke adhikaaron par chot karne ke liye London ko protsaahit kar rahe the. freinkalin ne unhein America bheja, jahaan usase aur tanaav badh gaya. Britain ke liye freinkalin ab gambhir sankat bhadkaane vaale prateet hone lage. ek shaantipoorn samaadhaan ke liye ummeedein khatm ho gayi kyonki privi kaaunsil dvaara unka vyavasthit upahaas udaaya gaya aur apamaanit kiya gaya. unhonne March, 1775 ko London chhod diya.[48]

aajaadi ki ghoshana

About 50 men, most of them seated, are in a large meeting room. Most are focused on the five men standing in the center of the room. The tallest of the five is laying a document on a table.
Congress ko apna kaarya prastut karte committee of five ko John tramabul ne darshaaya.[54]

5 May 1775 ko freinkalin ke filaadelfiya pahunchane tak, leksingatan aur konakord mein ladaai chhidne ke saath ameriki kraanti shuroo ho chuki thi. new England milishiya ne baustan mein mukhya british sena ko gher liya tha. peinsilveniya assembly ne Franklin ko sarvasammati se dviteeya kauntineintal Congress ka apna pratinidhi chuna. June 1776 mein, aajaadi ke ghoshana patra ka masauda taiyaar karne waali committee of five ka sadasya niyukt kiya gaya. haalaanki, gaaut ne unhein asthaayi roop se aksham kar diya tha aur ve samiti ki adhikaansh baithakon mein bhaag lene mein asamarth rahe, freinkalin ne masaude mein kai chhote-mote parivartan kiye jise Thomas jefarasan ne unke paas bheja.[48]

hastaakshar kiye jaane par, hainakauk ki ek tippani ka javaab dete hue unhein yeh kehte hue uddhrut kiya jaata hai ki un sabhi ko ek saath sooli par chadha dena chaahiye: "haan, ham sabhi ko vaastav mein, ek saath faansi par chadhna chaahiye ya adhik vishvaasapoorvak ham sabhi ko alag-alag faansi par chadhna chaahiye."[55]

France mein raajadoot: 1776-1785

chitr:Franklin1877.jpg
freinkalin ne, apne far ki topi mein, fraanseesiyon ko nae ganvai duniya ki pratibha lagne vaale ke roop mein moh liya.[56]

December 1776 mein, Franklin ko sanyukt raajya America ke commissioner ke roop mein France bheja gaya. ve paasi ke paarisiyn upanagar mein ek ghar mein rahe, jise sanyukt raajya America ke samarthak Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont ne daan kiya tha. freinkalin, 1785 tak France mein rahe. unhonne French raashtra ke prati apne desh ke maamalon ka badi safalta ke saath aayojan kiya jismein shaamil hai 1778 mein ek mahatvapoorn sainya gathabandhan ka nirmaan aur 1783 mein peris sandhi par vaarta. France mein apne pravaas ke dauraan, freemesan ke roop mein beinjaamin Franklin 1779 se 1781 tak Les Neuf Sœaurs lodge ke grand master the. lodge mein unka number 24 tha. ve pensilveniya ke paast grand master bhi the. 1784 mein, jab fraanj mesmar ne apne "pashu chunbakatv" ke siddhaant ko prachaarit karna shuroo kiya, jise kai logon dvaara apamaanajanak maana gaya, lui XVI ne iski jaanch ke liye ek aayog ko niyukt kiya. inmein shaamil the rasaayanajnya antoni lavosiar, chikitsak Joseph ignaasi gulotin, khagol vigyaani jeen silven belly aur beinjaamin Franklin.

peris mein freinkalin ne, France mein sveedan ke raajadoot kaaunt gustaaf Phillip krayootj se mulaakaat ki. isliye, aisa vishvaas hai ki, sveedan vah pehla desh tha (great Britain ke baad), jisne yuva ameriki ganatantr ko maanyata di aur krayootj aur Franklin ne donon deshon ke beech mitrata aur vaanijya ki sandhi ka masauda taiyaar kiya.

peris mein 27 August 1783 ko freinkalin, duniya ke pehle haaidrojan bailoon ki udaan ke saakshi bane.[57] profesar Jack Charles aur les freres Robert dvaara nirmit le globe ko ek vishaal bheed ne chaimp de maars (aaj ke efil tauvar ki jagah) se prakshepit hote dekha.[58] isse, freinkalin itne utsaahit hue ki unhonne ek maanavayukt haaidrojan gubbaare ki agali pariyojana ke nirmaan ke liye aarthik roop se sadasyata le li.[59] 1 December 1783 ko, freinkalin ko sammaanit atithiyon ke vishesh sthaan par bithaaya gaya, jab jaardin des tuleris se La Charlièare ne udaan bhari, jise Jack Charles aur nikolas-Robert lui dvaara udaaya ja raha tha.[57][60]

samvaidhaanik sabha

jeen-baiptist grayooje dvaara freinkalin ka ek 1777 ka chitr.

antim roop se 1785 mein ghar lautane ke baad, Franklin ne ameriki svatantrata ke ek vijeta ke roop mein George Washington ke baad doosra sthaan grahan kiya. le re ne unako, Joseph dupalesis dvaara chitrit ek commission chitr se sammaanit kiya, jo ab Washington di.si. mein smithsoniyn insteetyooshan ke national portret gailari mein tangi hai. apni vaapasi ke baad, Franklin das-virodhi ban gaye aur apne donon daason ko mukt kar diya. ve antat: peinsilveniya abaulishn society ke adhyaksh ban gaye.[61]

1787 mein, Franklin ne filaadelfiya kanveinshan ke liye ek pratinidhi ke roop mein kaarya kiya. unhonne ek maanad pad grahan kiya aur shaayad hi kabhi bahas mein hissa liya. ve hi ekamaatr aise sansthaapak janak hain jo sanyukt raajya America ki sthaapana ke sabhi chaar pramukh dastaavejon: svatantrata ki ghoshana, peris ki sandhi, France ke saath gathabandhan ki sandhi aur ameriki samvidhaan ke hastaaksharakarta hain.

1787 mein, lankaastar, peinsilveniya mein pramukh mantriyon ke ek samooh ne, freinkalin ke sammaan mein unke naam par aadhaarit ek nae college ki sthaapana ka prastaav rakha. freinkalin ne freinkalin college ke vikaas ki disha mein £a200 ka anudaan diya, jise ab Franklin aur maarshal college kaha jaata hai.

1771 aur 1788 ke beech unhonne apni aatmakatha ko samaapt kar diya. haalaanki yeh pehle unke bete ko sambodhit thi, baad mein ise, ek dost ke anurodh par maanavata ke laabh ke liye poora kiya gaya.

apne baad ke varshon mein, jab Congress ko gulaami ke mudde se nipatne ke liye majaboor kiya gaya, Franklin ne ameriki samaaj mein ashveton ke ekeekaran aur gulaami ke unmoolan ke mahatva ko apne paathakon ko samajhaane ke liye kai nibandh likhe. in lekhon mein shaamil hai:

1790 mein, New York aur pensilveniya ke kvekars ne das pratha khatm karne ke liye apni yaachika prastut ki. gulaami ke khilaaf unke tark ko peinsilveniya das-virodhi society aur uske adhyaksh, beinjaamin freinkalin ka samarthan praapt hua.

pensilveniya ke raashtrapati

18 October 1785 ko karaaye gaye vishesh matadaan mein, freinkalin ko sarvasammati se Supreme eksikyootiv kaaunsil of peinsilveniya ka chhatha raashtrapati chuna gaya, jinhonne John dikinsan ko pratisthaapit kiya. pensilveniya ke raashtrapati ka pad, aadhunik Governor ke pad ke samakaksh tha. yeh spasht naheen hai ki niyamit chunaav se do saptaah pehle dikinsan ko pratisthaapit karne ki kya jaroorat thi. freinkalin us pad par, kisi anya se adhik teen saal se kuchh adhik samay tak rahe aur pad ke poorn teen varsh ki samvaidhaanik seema ko poora kiya. apne praarambhik chunaav ke sheegra hi baad, 29 October 1785 ko unhein ek poorn avadhi ke liye dubaara chuna gaya aur ek baar fir 1786 ke sharad mein aur 31 October 1787 ko. aadhikaarik taur par, unka kaaryakaal 5 November 1788 ko samaapt ho gaya, lekin unke kaaryakaal ke vaastavik ant ke baare mein prashnachihn laga hai, jisse yeh sanket milta hai ki vruddh Franklin, kaaunsil ke dainandin kaaryon mein, apne kaaryakaal ke aakhiri dinon mein sakriya roop se shaamil naheen rahe honge.

naitikta, dharm aur vyaktigat maanyataaen

jeen-antane hudon dvaara Franklin ki ek ardh-pratima

prajaatantr raajya ke anya pairokaaron ki tarah, Franklin ne jor diya ki naya ganatantr tabhi chal sakta hai jab log naitik hon. apni saari jindagi unhonne naagrik aur vyaktigat naitikta ki bhoomika ka pata lagaaya, jaisa ki puar richrds ki sooktiyon mein vyakt kiya gaya tha. freinkalin ek gair-siddhaantavaadi the, jinka maanana tha ki apne saathi manushyon ke saath achha bartaav banaae rakhane ke liye manushya ko sangathit dharm ki aavashyakta hai, lekin shaayad hi kabhi unhonne khud church mein bhaag liya. ameriki kraanti ke unke samarthan mein, Bhagwan par unka vishvaas ek mahatvapoorn kaarak tha.[62] jab ben freinkalin peris mein vaulatair se mile aur inalaaitenament ke is mahaan doot se apne pote ko aasheervaad dene ka aagrah kiya to vaulater ne angreji mein kaha, "gaud end librti" (Bhagwan aur svatantrata) aur aage joda, "mahaashaya freinkalin ke pote ke liye yahi upayukt mangal hai."[63]

freinkalin ke maata-pita, donon pavitra pyooritnavaadi the.[64] yeh parivaar, praacheen south church jaata tha, jo baustan ki sabse udaar pyooritnavaadi mandali thi, jahaan beinjaamin freinkalin ko 1706 mein bapatisma diya gaya tha.[65] is aitihaasik mandali ki kraantikaari yuddh peedhi mein shaamil the saimuel edams; nyaayaadheesh aur rojnaamacha rakhanevaala saimuel sevaul; mantri aur pustak sangraahak, Thomas prince; paul rever ka 1775 ka saathi savaar, William dauj. praacheen south church ne old south meeting house par sans of librti ke saahasik kaaryon ke maadhyam se kraanti mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. vaheen, 1773 mein, saimuel edams ne "yuddh hoops" ka sanket diya jisne baustan ti party shuroo ki. jaisa ki kavi John greenaleef vhitiar ne likha, "jab tak baustan, baustan rahega aur usaki khaadi ki laharein utheingi aur gireingi, old south church mein svatantrata rahe aur sab ke adhikaaron ke liye pairavi kare."[66]

freinkalin ki pyooritnavaadi maahaul mein paravarish, unke jeevan mein ek keindreeya tatv bana raha, ek paropakaari, naagrik neta aur kraantikaari yuddh mein ek kaaryakarta ke roop mein.[67] freinkalin ne apni adhikaansh pyooritnavaadi paravarish ko khaarij kiya: mukti mein vishvaas, narak, isa maseeh ki divyata aur vaastav mein adhikaansh dhaarmik hathadharmita. manushya mein naitikta aur achhaai ke srot ke roop mein aur ameriki svatantrata ke liye jimmedaar, itihaas mein ek daivi abhineta ke roop mein Bhagwan par unhonne ek majaboot vishvaas banaae rakha.[68] unhonne ameriki kraanti ke samarthak ke roop mein aksar Bhagwan ka aahvaan kiya, jaisa ki adhikaansh sansthaapak peedhi ne kiya.[69] freinkalin ne likha, "atyaachaariyon ke khilaaf vidroh, Bhagwan ki seva hai."[70]

ben freinkalin ke pita, jo ek gareeb dukaanadaar the, unke paas pyooritnavaadi upadeshak aur paarivaarik mitr kautan maathar dvaara likhit "boneefesias: esej tu doo gud," pustak ki ek prati thi, jise "Franklin ne aksar apne jeevan par ek pramukh prabhaav ke roop mein uddhrut kiya hai".[71] sattar varshon baad, Franklin ne kautan maathar ke bete ko likha, "yadi main ek upayogi naagrik hoon, to janta is laabh ke liye us kitaab ki rini hai." freinkalin ka pehla upanaam, saaileins doogud, kitaab ko aur maather dvaara ek prasiddh vyaakhyaan ko shraddhaanjali arpit karta hai.[72] pustak ne samaaj ke laabh ke liye svaichhik sangathanon ko banaane ke mahatva ko sikhaaya. kautan maather ne vyaktigat roop se ek pados sudhaar samooh ki sthaapana ki jiske ki Franklin ke pita sadasya the. "Franklin ne paropakaar sangathanon ke gathan ke prati apni roochi kautan maather aur doosaron se praapt ki, lekin unke sangathanaatmak utsaah aur chumbakeeya vyaktitv ne unhein ameriki jeevan ke ek sthaayi ang ke roop mein in tatvon ko ropit karne mein sabse prabhaavashaali taakat bana diya."[73]

ve ben freinkalin hi the jinhonne samvaidhaanik sabha mein ek vikt gatirodh ke dauraan, 28 June 1787 ko, in shabdon ke saath aam dainik praarthana ke abhyaas ko sammelan mein shuroo kiya:

... great Britain ke saath pratiyogita ki shurooaat mein, jab hamein khatre ka ehsaas tha to ham daiv sanrakshan ke liye is kamre mein dainik praarthana kiya karte the. - hamaari praarthana, shreemaan, suni gayi aur unka badi krupa ke saath uttar diya gaya. un sabhi logon ne jo us sangharsh mein vyast the, hamaare paksh mein ek ishvareeya sanrakshan ke udaaharan ko aksar dekha hoga... aur ab kya ham us taakatavar dost ko bhool gaye hain? ya ham yeh sochate hain ki ab hamein unki kisi sahaayata ki jaroorat naheen hai.

shreemaan, mainne lamba jeevan jiya hai aur jitna adhik main jeeta hoon, mujhe is sachchaai ke adhik thos saboot dekhne ko milte hain - ki manushyon ke maamalon mein Bhagwan niyantrit karta hai. aur agar ek gauraiya bina unki jaankaari ke bhoomi par naheen gir sakti, to kya yeh sambhav hai ki unki sahaayata ke bina ek saamraajya ka udbhav ho? pavitra lekhon mein hamein aashvaasan diya gaya hai, shreemaan, ki "Bhagwan agar banaana na chaahe to baaki banaane vaale vyarth mein shram karte hain." mujhe is par poora vishvaas hai; aur main yeh bhi maanata hoon ki bina unki sahaayata ke, ham is raajaneetik imaarat mein bebal ke nirmaataaon se zyaada safal naheen honge:...isliye main vinti karta hoon - svarg se sahaayata aur hamaare vichaar vimarsh par uske aasheervaad ka aagrah karti praarthana is sabha mein hamaare kaam shuroo karne se pehle har subah aayojit ki jaani chaahiye aur is shahar ke ek ya ek se adhik paadari ko is seva mein kaarya karne ka anurodh kiya jaae.[74]

freinkalin, sankshipt roop se filaadelfiya mein ek presbiteriyn church ke the. uske sheegra baad, ve America ke ek mahaan ivaanjelikl mantri, George vhaaitafeeld, "mahaan jaagruti ke roving prachaarakon mein sabse lokapriya", ke ek utsaahi samarthak ban gaye.[75] freinkalin ne vhaaitafeeld ke dharmashaastr ki sadasyata naheen li, lekin unhonne vhaaitafeeld dvaara achhe kaam ke maadhyam se Bhagwan ki pooja karne mein logon ko protsaahit karne ke liye prashansa ki. freinkalin ne apne gazette ke mukh prushth par vhaaitafeeld ke upadesh ko chhaapa. unhonne vhaaitafeeld ke sabhi upadeshon aur patrikaaon ke prakaashan ki vyavastha ki. 1739-41 mein Franklin ke aadhe prakaashan vhaaitafeeld ke the, jisne America mein ivainjelikl aandolan ki safalta mein madad ki. freinkalin, vhaaitafeeld ki 1770 mein mrutyu tak, unke aajeevan mitr aur samarthak rahe.[76]

jab unhonne church jaana band kar diya, to Franklin ne apni aatmakatha mein likha:

...ravivaar, mere adhyayan ka din hone ke kaaran, main kabhi dhaarmik siddhaanton ke bina naheen raha. mainne kabhi shak naheen kiya, udaaharan ke liye, devata ka astitv; ki usane duniya banaai aur apni krupa se use niyantrit karta hai; ki manushya ka bhala karna parameshvar ke liye sabse sveekaarya seva hai; ki hamaari aatma amar hai; aur sabhi aparaadhon ki saja milegi aur punyon ko puraskaar, yahaan chaahe vahaan.[77][78]

jin pyooritnavaadi gun aur raajaneetik moolyon ke saath freinkalin pale-badhe the, unke saath unhonne aajeevan pratibaddhata barkaraar raakhi aur apne naagrik kaaryon aur prakaashan ke maadhyam se, ve ameriki sanskruti mein in moolyon ko sthaayi roop se paarit karne mein safal rahe. unamein "naitikta ke liye ek junoon" tha.[79] in pyooritnavaadi moolyon mein shaamil tha samataavaad ke prati unka samarpan, shiksha, parishram, bachat, imaandaari, sanyam, daan aur saamudaayik bhaavana.[80]

inlaaitenament avadhi mein padhe gaye shaastreeya lekhakon ne raaja, abhijaat aur aam janta ke padaanukramit saamaajik kram par aadhaarit ganataantrik sarkaar ke ek amoort aadarsh ko sikhaaya. yeh vyaapak roop se maana jaata tha ki angrejon ki svatantrata, satta ke unke santulan par aashrit hai, lekin saath hi visheshaadhikaar praapt varg ke liye padaanukramit sammaan par bhi.[81] "pyooritnavaad... aur madhya athaarahaveen sadi ke ivainjalavaadi mahaamaari ne saamaajik stareekaran ki paramparaagat dhaaranaaon ko chunauti di" yeh upadesh dekar ki baaibil sikhaati hai ki sabhi log baraabar hain, ki ek aadmi ki sahi keemat uske naitik aacharan mein nihit hai, na ki uske varg mein aur yeh ki sabhi logon ko bachaaya ja sakta hai.[82] pyooritnavaad mein doobe aur ivainjelikl aandolan ke ek utsaahi samarthak, freinkalin ne, moksh ke siddhaantavaad ko khaarij kar diya, lekin samataavaadi lokatantr ki kattarpanthi dhaarana ko gale lagaaya.

in moolyon ko sikhaane ki freinkalin ki pratibaddhata bhi unki pyooritnavaadi paravarish se prerit thi, jiska jor "swayam mein aur apne samaaj mein naitikta aur charitra paida karne" par tha.[83] ye pyooritnavaadi moolya aur unhein aane waali peedhi tak pahunchaane ki ichha, Franklin ki sarvotkrusht ameriki visheshataaon mein se ek thi aur isne raashtra ke charitra ko aakaar dene mein madad ki. naitikta par freinkalin ke lekhan ki kuchh Europeeya lekhakon dvaara ninda ki gayi, jaise Jacob fugar dvaara unki mahatvapoorn kruti portret of American kalchar mein. maiks vebar ne freinkalin ke naitik lekhan ko protesteint neetiyon ki upaj maana, jin neetiyon ne un saamaajik paristhitiyon ko nirmit kiya jo poonjeevaad ke janm ke liye aavashyak hai.[84]

freinkalin ki ek prasiddh visheshata thi unka sabhi charchon ke prati sammaan, sahishnuta aur badhaava dena. filaadelfiya mein apne anubhav ki charcha karte hue unhonne apni aatmakatha mein likha, "pooja ke nae sthaanon ki zaroorat hamesha hi rahi aur ve aam taur par svaichhik anshadaan se hi banaaye jaate the, aise prayojan ke liye mera anshadaan, chaahe vah jo bhi sanpradaaya ho, kabhi thukaraaya naheen gaya."[77] "unhonne ek aise nae prakaar ke raashtra ke nirmaan mein madad ki jisne apni taakat apne desh ke dhaarmik bahulavaad se li."[85] pyooritnavaad ki pehli peedhi asahamati ke prati asahishnu thi, lekin 1700 dashak ki shurooaat mein, jab freinkalin pyooritnavaadi church mein bade hue, tab vibhinn charchon ke prati sahishnuta hi aadarsh thi aur John edams ke shabdon mein maisaachusets ko "duniya mein gyaat sabhi dhaarmik avasthaapanaao mein sabse saumya aur nyaayapoorn" ke roop mein jaana jaata tha."[86][86] ivainjelikl punarutthaanavaadi jo madhya-sadi mein sakriya the, jaise freinkalin ke dost va upadeshak, George vhaaitafeeld, dhaarmik svatantrata ke sabse bade pairokaar the, "jinka daava tha ki ant:karan ki svatantrata 'sabhi vivekasheel praaniyon ka avichhinn adhikaar hai.'"[87][87] freinkalin sahit filaadelfiya mein vhaaitafeeld ke samarthakon ne milkar "ek vishaal, nae hall ki sthaapana ki jo ... kisi bhi aastha ke kisi bhi vyakti ko ek upadesh-manch pradaan kar sakta tha."[88] freinkalin ki hathadharmita aur siddhaant ki asveekruti, tatha aachaar aur naitikta aur naagrik dharmaacharan ke Bhagwan par unke jor ne unhein "sahanasheelata ka paigambar" bana diya.[89]

haalaanki, freinkalin ke maata-pita ne unke liye church mein kairiar chaaha tha, ek yuvak ke roop mein Franklin ne ish‍aavaravaad mein inlaaitenameint dhaarmik vishvaas ko apnaaya, ki Bhagwan ki satyata ko poori tarah se prakruti aur tark ke maadhyam se paaya ja sakta hai.[90] "main jald hi ek gahan ishvaravaadi ban gaya."[91] ek naujavaan yuvak ke roop mein unhonne isaai siddhaantavaad ko 1725 ke paimfalet a dijrteshan on librti end nesesiti, plejr end pen[92] mein khaarij kar diya jise unhonne baad mein ek sharmindagi ke roop mein dekha,[93] jabki saath mein yeh bhi jataaya ki Bhagwan "poorn buddhimaan, poorn achhe, poorn shaktishaali" hain.[93] unhonne in shabdon ke saath dhaarmik siddhaantavaad ki apni asveekruti ka bachaav kiya: "mujhe lagta hai ki vichaaron ka nirnaya unke prabhaavon aur parinaamon se kiya jaana chaahiye; aur agar kisi vyakti mein ye naheen hai jo use kam dhaarmik ya adhik ghaatak banaate hain, to yeh nishkarsh nikaala ja sakta hai ki vah aisa koi vichaar naheen rakhata hai jo khatarnaak ho, jaisa ki mujhe aasha hai ki mere maamale mein hai." apne aur apne do mitron, jinhein landan mein Franklin ne ishvaravaad mein Dixit karaaya tha, ke naitik star mein kshaya ko dekh kar hue moh-bhang bhare anubhav ke baad, Franklin sangathit dharm ke mahatva mein vishvaas karne ke liye vaapas laute, un vyaavahaarik aadhaaron ki taraf jinka maanana hai ki Bhagwan aur sangathit church ke bina manushya achha naheen rah sakta.[94]

ek bindu par, unhonne Thomas pain ko unki paandulipi, the ej of reejn ki aalochna karte hue patra likha,

For without the Belief of a Providence that takes Cognizance of, guards and guides and may favour particular Persons, there is no Motive to Worship a Deity, to fear its Displeasure, or to pray for its Protection....think how great a Proportion of Mankind consists of weak and ignorant Men and Women, and of inexperienc'd and inconsiderate Youth of both Sexes, who have need of the Motives of Religion to restrain them from Vice, to support their Virtue, and retain them in the Practice of it till it becomes habitual, which is the great Point for its Security; And perhaps you are indebted to her originally that is to your Religious Education, for the Habits of Virtue upon which you now justly value yourself. If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it.[95]

David maurgan ke mutaabik,[96] freinkalin, saamaanyat: dharm ke ek adhivakta the. ve "shaktishaali achhaai " ki praarthana karte the aur Bhagwan ko "anant" ke roop mein nirdisht karte the. John edams ne kaha ki Franklin ek darpan the jismein log apne dharm ko dekhte the: "Catholic unhein lagbhag ek poorn Catholic maanate the. England ke church ne unhein, apne mein se ek ke roop mein ghoshit kiya. presbitr panthi unhein ek aadha presbiteriyn maanate the aur doston ne unhein ek bhaavuk kvekar maana. " maurgan ant mein kehte hain ki Franklin, chaahe jo kuchh bhi rahe hon, "ve saamaanya dharm ke ek sachche purodha the." richrd price ko likhe ek patra mein, freinkalin ne kaha ki unka maanana hai ki dharm ko sarkaar se madad ke bina, apni sahaayata khud karni chaahiye aur daava kiya; "jab ek dharm achha hai to main samajhta hoon ki vah khud ki sahaayata karega; aur jab vah apni sahaayata naheen kar sakta hai aur Bhagwan usaki sahaayata par dhyaan naheen deta hai aur jiske chalte uske profesaron ko raajanaitik shakti ki madad ki maang karni padti hai, to main samajhta hoon ki yeh iske bure hone ka ek sanket hai."[97]

1790 mein, apni mrutyu ke sirf ek maheene pehle, Franklin ne yel vishvavidyaalaya ke adhyaksh ejra staailes ko ek patra likha, jinhonne unase, dharm par unke vichaar poochhe the:

As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble....[9]

4 July 1776 ko Congress ne sanyukt raajya America ki mahaan seal ke dijaain ke liye ek samiti niyukt ki jismein shaamil the Franklin, Thomas jefarasan aur John edams.[98] freinkalin ke prastaav mein ek dijaain thi jismein ek aadarsh vaakya tha: "atyaachaariyon ke khilaaf vidroh Bhagwan se aajnyaaakaarita hai. unki dijaain mein book of iksodas se ek drushya ko darshaaya gaya tha, jismein moosa, ijraayali, aag ka khambha aur George III ko fero ke roop mein dikhaaya gaya tha.[99]

terah gun

freinkalin ne 20 varsh (1726 mein) ki umr mein viksit ki gayi terah gunon ki yojana dvaara apne charitra ka parishkaar karna chaaha aur apne shesh jeevan mein iska kuchh abhyaas jaari rakha. unki aatmakatha unke terah gunon ko prastut karti hai:

  1. "sanyam. itna hi khaao ki aalasya na aae; itna na piyo ki nasha ho jaae."
  2. "maun. vahi bolo jisse tumhaara ya doosaron ka laabh ho; kshudr baatcheet se bacho."
  3. "vyavastha. tumhaari sabhi cheejon ki apni jagah honi chaahiye; tumhaare har kaam ka apna samay hona chaahiye."
  4. "sankalp. tumhaare liye jo aavashyak hai use karne ka sankalp lo; jise karne ka sankalp tumane liya hai use bina asafal hue tum karo."
  5. "mitvyayita. apne ya doosaron ke bhale ke liye hi kharch karo, arthaat, barbaad mat karo."
  6. "shram. samay nasht mat karo; hamesha kisi na kisi saarthak kaam mein lage raho; sabhi anaavashyak kaaryon mein katauti karo."
  7. "nishtha. kisi haanikaarak chhal ka prayog mat karo; nishhal aur nyaayapoorn tareeke se socho aur, yadi bolo to, tadanusaar bolo."
  8. "nyaaya. ghaayal karke kisi ko galat mat banaao, ya ve laabh dene se mat chooko jo tumhaara kartavya hai."
  9. "nigrah. ativaad se bacho; krodh mein chot karne se bacho tab bhi jab tumhe lagta hai ve hakdaar hain."
  10. "svachhata. shareer, vastr, ya ghar mein gandagi bardaasht na karo."
  11. "shaanti. tuchh baaton par ya aam athva aparihaarya durghatanaaon se pareshaan na ho."
  12. "shuchita. svaasthya ya santaanotpatti ke liye hi sanbhog ka virle prayog karo aur neerasata, kamajori ya apne ya kisi aur ki shaanti ya pratishtha ke pratikool iska prayog na ho.
  13. "vinmrata. yeeshu aur sukaraat ka anugaman karo."

freinkalin ne ek baar mein sabhi par kaam karne ki koshish naheen ki. iske bajaay, ve hafte mein ek aur keval ek par kaam karte aur "baaki anya ko unke saadhaaran mauke par chhod dete." yadyapi, freinkalin poori tarah se apne nirdhaarit gunon ke anusaar naheen jiye aur unhonne khud sveekaar kiya ki ve kai baar asafal rahe, tathaapi unhonne maana ki is prayaas ne unki safalta aur khushi mein bahut bada yogadaan diya, jiske kaaran unhonne apni aatmakatha mein kisi bhi anya ekal bindu ki apeksha is yojana ke liye adhik panne samarpit kiye; freinkalin ne apni aatmakatha mein likha, "main aasha karta hoon, ki mere kuchh vanshaj, ho sakta hai is udaaharan ka anusaran karein aur laabhaanvit hon."[100]

mrutyu aur viraasat

beinjaamin freinkalin ki kabr, filaadelfiya, penasilveniya

freinkalin ki mrutyu 84 saal ki umr mein 17 April 1790 ko hui. lagbhag 20,000 logon ne unke antim sanskaar mein bhaag liya. unhein filaadelfiya mein kraaist church berial ground mein dafnaaya gaya. 1728 mein, 22 varsh ki aayu mein, freinkalin ne kuchh aisa likha jo unhein aasha thi unka samaadhi-lekh banega:

bi. freinkalin printar ka shareer, ek puraani kitaab ke aavaran ki tarah, iski saamagri fat chuki aur apne gyaan aur sone ke pattar se maharoom, yahaan pada hai, keede ke liye khaadya. lekin krutiyaan poorn roop se naheen kho jaayeingi: balki ve krutiyaan, jaisa unhein vishvaas tha, ek baar fir saamane aaengi, ek nae aur adhik behtar sanskaran mein, jo lekhak dvaara sudhaara aur sanshodhit kiya gaya hoga.[101]

freinkalin ki vaastavik kabr par, jaisa unhonne apni vaseeyat mein vinirdisht kiya tha, bas itna likha hai "beinjaamin aur debora Franklin."[102]

1773 mein, jab freinkalin ka kaam mudran se vigyaan aur raajaneeti ki disha mein sthaanaantarit hua, tab unhonne, ek mrut vyakti ko baad mein adhik unnat vaigyaanik tareekon dvaara punarjeevit karne ke liye sanrakshit karne ke vishay par ek fraanseesi vaigyaanik ke saath baat ki, unhonne likha:

main ek saadhaaran maut ko pasand karna chaahoonga, maidiyera ke ek chhote peepe mein kuchh doston ke saath doob jaana chaahoonga, us samay tak, jab apne priya desh ki saur garmi se pun: jeevit na ho jaaoon! lekin sabhi sambhaavana ke saath, ham ek aisi sadi mein rahate hain jo bahut kam unnat hai aur vigyaan ke shaishav kaal mein hai, isliye aisi kala ko iski poornata mein aate hue naheen dekh sakte.[103] (vistaarit ansh online par bhi.)[104]

unki mrutyu ko, pustak the life of beinjaamin freinkalin mein varnit kiya gaya hai, jahaan dau॰ John jons ke saujanya se uddhrut kiya gaya hai:

... jab saans lene mein dard aur kathinaai ne unhein poori tarah se chhod diya aur unka parivaar unke svasth ho jaane ke khyaal se khush ho raha tha, jab unke fefadon mein svat: gathit ek foda achaanak fat gaya aur kuchh drav tab tak niklata raha jab tak unamein shakti bachi rahi; par jab vah vifal ho gaya, shvasan tantr dheere-dheere ksheen ho gaya; ek shaant, sust sthiti ne unhein gher liya; aur 17 ko (April, 1790) raat ke kareeb gyaarah baje, ve shaanti se mar gaye aur apne peechhe chhod gaye chauraasi saal aur teen maheene ka lamba aur upayogi jeevan vruttaant.[105]

beinjaamin Franklin ki sangamaramar ki smaarak moorti
New York shahar mein Columbia vishvavidyaalaya ke abhilekhaagaar vibhaag mein freinkalin ardh-pratima

freinkalin ne apni viraasat mein baustan aur filaadelfiya ke shaharon mein pratyek ko trast mein £a1,000 (lagbhag $4,400 us vakt) diya, jiska byaaj 200 saal tak ikattha hota raha. is trast ki shurooaat 1785 mein hui jab fraanseesi ganitjnya Charles-Joseph methan de la koor ne, jo freinkalin ka ek bada prashansak tha, Franklin ke "puar richaards olmanaik" ki ek dostaana pairodi likhi "forchunet richrd". mukhya charitra apni vaseeyat mein thodi si rakam chhod jaata hai, 100 leevar ke paanch dher, jiska byaaj, ek, do, teen, chaar ya paanch sadiyon tak ikaththa karte hue, parinaamasvaroop khagoleeya rakam ko asambhav kaalpanik pariyojanaaon par vistrut roop se kharch kiya jaana tha.[106] freinkalin ne, jo us vakt 79 saal ke the, ek mahaan vichaar ke liye use dhanyavaad diya aur use bataaya ki unhonne apne Patrick sthaan baustan aur god liye filaadelfiya mein se pratyek ko 1,000 pound ki ek vaseeyat chhodne ka faisala liya hai. yatha 1990, freinkalin ke filaadelfiya trast mein $2,000,000 se adhik jama ho chuke hain, jismein se sthaaneeya nivaasiyon ko loan diya gaya. 1940 se 1990 tak, dhan ka jyaadaatar upayog bandhak rin ke liye kiya gaya. jab trast ke paas udhaar naheen raha, to filaadelfiya ne ise sthaaneeya uchch vidyaalaya ke chhaatron ke liye chhaatravrutti par kharch karne ka faisala kiya. freinkalin ke baustan trast ne usi samay ke dauraan lagbhag $5,000,000 ekatr kiye; apne pratham 100 saal ke ant mein uske ek hisse ko vyaapaar school ki sthaapana mein madad ke liye aabantit kiya gaya jo Franklin insteetayoot of baustan bana aur baad mein sampoorn nidhi ko is sansthaan ki sahaayata ke liye samarpit kar diya gaya.[107][108]

svatantrata ki ghoshana aur samvidhaan, donon ke hastaaksharakarta Franklin ko America ka ek sansthaapak janak maana jaata hai. sanyukt raajya America ke praarambhik itihaas mein unke vyaapak prabhaav se prerit hokar aksar unke baare mein ek majaak kiya jaata hai ki "ve sanyukt raajya America ke aise ekamaatr raashtrapati the, jo kabhi sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati naheen the."[109] freinkalin ki chaahat sarvavyaapi hai. 1928 se, isne America ke $100 bill$ ko sushobhit kiya hai, jise kabhi-kabhi kathaboli mein "beinjaamin" ya "frainkalins" ke roop mein nirdisht kiya jaata hai. 1948 se 1964 tak, Franklin ka chitr aadhe dollar par ankit tha. 1914 aur 1918 se ve ek $50 bill$ par aur $100 bill ki kai kismon par prastut ho chuke hain. freinkalin, $1,000 sireej EE bachat baand par ankit hain. filaadelfiya shahar mein beinjaamin Franklin ki kareeb 5,000 pratikruti hain, jinmein se lagbhag aadhi penasilveniya vishvavidyaalaya parisar mein sthit hain. filaadelfiya ke beinjaamin Franklin paarkave (ek pramukh raajamaarg) aur beinjaamin Franklin brij (new jersey ko filaadelfiya se jodne wala pratham bada pul) ka naamakaran unke sammaan mein kiya gaya hai.

sau dollar bill par Franklin.
new orliyans, luisiyaana mein beinjaamin Franklin haai school ke parikoshth mein beinjaamin freinkalin ki ek sangamaramar ki pratima

1976 mein, dvishtavaarshik utsav ke hisse ke roop mein, Congress ne filaadelfiya ke Franklin sansthaan mein beinjaamin Franklin raashtreeya smaarak ke roop mein ek 20 foot (6 meter) ki sangamaramar ki pratima samarpit ki. freinkalin ke kai niji saamaan bhi is sansthaan mein pradarshit hain, raashtreeya smaarakon mein se ek jo kisi niji sampatti par sthit hai.

London mein, 36 kraaven street ke unke ghar ko pehle neeli pattika ke saath chihnit kiya gaya tha aur tab se use beinjaamin Franklin house ke roop mein janta ke liye khol diya gaya.[110] 1998 mein, is imaarat ka jeernoddhaar karne vaale kaareegaron ko khudaai mein ghar ke neeche chhipaae gaye chhah bachchon aur chaar vayaskon ke avashesh mile. 11 fravari 1998 ko the times ne khabar di:

praarambhik anumaan ke anusaar ye haddiyaan kareeb 200 saal puraani hain aur inhein us vakt gaada gaya tha jab freinkalin is ghar mein rahate the, jo 1757 se 1762 aur 1764 se 1775 tak unka aavaas tha. jyaadaatar haddiyon se unke cheere hone, aari se kaate jaane, ya kate hone ke lakshan dikhte hain. ek khopadi mein kai chhed kiye gaye hain. vestaminstar koronar, paul naipaman ne kal kaha, "main aparaadh ki sambhaavana se poori tarah se inkaar naheen kar sakta. abhi bhi sambhaavana hai ki mujhe ek kaanooni jaanch karni pade. "

freinds of beinjaamin freinkalin house (jeernoddhaar karne wala sangathan) ka kehna hai ki un haddiyon ko vahaan William hyusan dvaara rakhe jaane ki sambhaavana hai, jo us ghar mein do varsh tak raha aur jisne us ghar ke peechhe shareer rachana vigyaan ke ek chhote school ka nirmaan kiya tha. ve is baat ka ullekh karte hain ki jabki freinkalin ko is baat ki jaankaari hone ki sambhaavana hai ki hyusan kya kar raha tha, unhonne shaayad uske kisi bhi vichhedan mein bhaag naheen liya kyonki ve ek chikitsa sambandhi aadmi kam aur ek bhautik vigyaani adhik the.[111]

pradarshaniyaan

"the prinses end the paitriyt: ekaaterina dashkova, beinjaamin Franklin end the ej of inlaaitenameint" pradarshani, filaadelfiya mein February 2006 ko shuroo hui aur December 2006 tak chali. beinjaamin Franklin aur dashkova, keval ek baar mile the, peris mein 1781 mein. freinkalin 75 varsh ke the aur dashkova ki umr 37 varsh. freinkalin ne dashkova ko American filosaufikl society mein shaamil hone waali pehli mahila banane ke liye aamantrit kiya aur agale 80 saal tak is sammaan ko paane waali ve ekamaatr mahila bani raheen. baad mein, dashkova ne pratidaan mein unhein rashiyn academy of saainses ka pehla ameriki sadasya banaaya.

beinjaamin freinkalin ke naam par rakhe gaye sthaanon aur cheejon ke naam

sanyukt raajya America ke sansthaapak janak ke roop mein, Franklin ka naam kai cheejon se juda hai. inmein shaamil hain:

  • the state of freinkalin, kuchh samay astitv mein raha ek svatantr raajya jiska gathan ameriki kraantikaari yuddh ke dauraan hua tha.
  • kam se kam 16 ameriki raajyon mein kaauntees.
  • filaadelfiya, penasilveniya ke aas-paas ke kai sthal, jo freinkalin ka lambe samay ka ghar raha, jismein shaamil hai:
    • lankaastar ke paas freinkalin end maarshal college
    • freinkalin field, ek football maidaan jo kabhi national football league ke filaadelfiya igals ka ghar thi aur 1895 ke baad se pensilveniya kvekar vishvavidyaalaya ka gruh maidaan.
    • filaadelfiya aur kaamaden, new jersey ke beech delaaveyar nadi par bana beinjaamin freinkalin brij
    • the freinkalin insteetayoot, filaadelfiya sthit vigyaan sangrahaalaya, jo beinjaamin Franklin padak pradaan karta hai
  • filaadelfiya union ke liye sans of ben football samarthakon ka club
  • freinkalin teinpalatan investameint ek nivesh company jiska New York stock exchange tikr sankshipt naam, BEN bhi freinkalin ke sammaan mein hai.
  • manovijnyaaan ke kshetr se ben freinkalin prabhaav
  • beinjaamin freinkalin "haukaae" piyrs, M*A*S*H upanyaas, film aur television kaaryakram ka kaalpanik charitra

yeh bhi dekhein

Libertybell alone small.jpg Philadelphia praveshadvaar
P vip.svg Biography praveshadvaar
  • sanyukt raajya America ke sansthaapak janak
  • Les Neuf Sœaurs
  • saamaajik navaachaar
  • Thomas barch dvaara freinkalin ke patron ki naveen khoj

not

  1. The Life of Ben Franklin, Volume 3: Soldier, Scientist, and Politician peinsilveniya vishvavidyaalaya, leme, J.A. liyo
  2. block, semor staantan. Benjamin Franklin: America's Inventor HistoryNet.com se
  3. aaiseksan 2003, p. 491
  4. aaiseksan 2003, p. 492
  5. aaiseksan 2003, p. 8
  6. aaiseksan 2003, p. 12
  7. aaiseksan 2003, p. 14
  8. The Story of Ben's Birthdate. yoonivrsiti of penasilvaaniya ke poorv chhaatr
  9. a aa i E u oo A ai O vaan doren, kaarl. beinjaamin Franklin. ( 1938). penguin 1991 punarmudran.
  10. history channel, mistreej of the freemesans: America, video vruttachitr, 1 August 2006 noaa nikolas aur mauli bedel dvaara likhit
  11. "Freemasonry Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon website". Freemasonry.bcy.ca. http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/franklin_b/franklin_b.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  12. vaan horn, John si. ""the history end kalekshans of the laaibreri company of filaadelfiya," the maigajeen enteek v. 170. no. 2: 58-65 (1971).
  13. leme, J. H. liyo. "Franklin, beinjaamin (1706-1790)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Ed. H. si. ji. Matthew aur Brian hairisn (Oxford: OUP, 2004).
  14. November 1769 ben freinkalin ke liye debora reed ka patra, franklinpapers.org
  15. Thomas, fleming, "the perils of pees: amerikaaj struggle for sarvaaival", (kaulins, NY, 2007) p. 30
  16. Ibid fleming, p.236
  17. Benjamin Franklin, writing anonymously (1784-04-26). "Aux auteurs du Journal" (French mein). Journal de Paris 28 (117): 23. doi:10.2307/2922719. Revised English version 2008/03/11 ko liya gaya
  18. G. V. Hudson (1898). "On seasonal time". Trans Proc R Soc N Z 31: 577–88. http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_31/rsnz_31_00_008570.html.
  19. Benjamin Franklin. "Part three". The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. http://www.ushistory.org/franklin/autobiography/page55.htm.
  20. Franklin, beinjaamin. "the peinsilveniya gajet". <http://franklinpapers.org/franklin/framedNames.jsp> October 23, 1729
  21. Source: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 1853, p.53, by Matthew Fontaine Maury
  22. 1785: beinjaamin Franklin ka 'chhitput samudri prekshan', praakrutik vigyaan academy, April, 1939 m
  23. 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations' . NOAA osan eksplorar.
  24. Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790). science world, erik vaisataain ke world of scientific baayograafi
  25. Conservation of Charge.[mrut kadiyaaain]
  26. Franklin's Kite. vigyaan sangrahaalaya, baustan.
  27. Wolf, A., History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. New York, 1939. p.232
  28. kreedar, E. Phillip. Benjamin Franklin and Lightning Rods.[mrut kadiyaaain] fijiks toode January 2006.
  29. jogan gribin, ""in sarch of shrodingars kait"", black svaan, p. 12
  30. hedorn, keeth si. hedorn, Ph.D.. Eclipsed By Storm. the weather Doctor. 1 October 2003.
  31. Faraday, Michael (1839). Experimental researches in electricity. 2. R. & J.E. Taylor. pa॰ v. http://books.google.com/books?id=XuITAAAAQAAJ&pg=PR5&dq=non-conduction+of+ice#v=onepage&q=non-conduction%20of%20ice&f=false. "...Franklin's experiments on the non-conduction of ice..."
  32. Jones, Thomas P. (1836). Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania. pp. 182–183. http://books.google.com/books?id=zV9DAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP7&dq=Thomas+P.+Jones+1836+Journal+of+the+Franklin+Institute+vol.xvii&lr=#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "In the fourth series of his electrical researches, Mr. Faraday..."
  33. Price, Richard; Thomas, David Oswald; Peach, Bernard (1994). The Correspondence of Richard Price: fravari 1786-fravari 1791. Duke University Press. pa॰ 23. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0822313278. http://books.google.com/books?id=fPQfNx2TQLAC&pg=RA1-PA23&lpg=RA1-PA23&dq=%22Maritime+Observations%22+%22American+Philosophical+Society%22+transactions+1786&source=bl&ots=Z8ATBcyxwt&sig=rPCeHs9lliyhqwl8_2bBj3RquUQ&hl=en&ei=-uTFSseCC8zO8Qb4sME6&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#v=onepage&q=%22Maritime%20Observations%22%20%22American%20Philosophical%20Society%22%20transactions%201786&f=false. abhigman tithi: 2 October 2009.
  34. Thomas, bloch. Glassharmonica. GFI vaigyaanik.
  35. a aa i John mekrairi, Chess and Benjamin Franklin-His Pioneering Contributions (peedeeef) 26-04-2009 ko liya gaya.
  36. David Hooper aur keneth vhild, the Oxford kanpeniyn tu ches, Oxford university press (doosra sanskaran. 1992), p. 145. ISBN 0-19-866164-9.
  37. nibandh maarselo truji mein chhapa (ed.), ches in literature evan books, 1974, pp. 14-15. ISBN 0-380-00164-0.
  38. yeh nibandh naarman night dvaara likhit pustak ches peeses mein prastut hua, CHESS patrika, sutan koldafeeld, England (doosra sanskaran. 1968), pp. 5.6 ISBN 0-380-00164-0.
  39. freinkalin ke nibandh ko U.S. Chess Center Museum and Hall of Fame Washington deesi mein bhi pun: prastut kiya gaya hai. pun: praapt 3 December 2006.
  40. William tempal Franklin, memoyars of the life end raaitings of beinjaamin freinkalin, naait mein punarprakaashit, ches peeses, pp. 136-37.
  41. John keneth gaalabreth. (1975). mani: vhear it kem, vheins it veint pp. 54-54. hyootan miflin company.
  42. Benjamin Franklin resume greater filaadelfiya ke liye aadhikaarik aagantuk site.
  43. bukhan, James. kraauded vith jeenias: the skautish inlaaitenameint: edinbarg momeint of the maaind haarparakaulins prakaashak. 2003. p.2
  44. "The Kate Kennedy Club". The Kate Kennedy Club. http://www.katekennedyclub.org.uk/news.aspx#19. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  45. british daak seva niyukti pustakein
  46. Franklin, beinjaamin "A Narrative of the Late Massacres..." the history kaarapar par punarprakaashit
  47. a aa J.A. liyo leme, "Franklin, beinjaamin". American national baayograafi online, February 2000.
  48. a aa i E aaiseksan, vaaltar. beinjaamin freinkalin: A American life Simon aur shustar 2003.
  49. Benjamin Franklin's Phonetic Alphabet Omniglot.com.
  50. a aa spaarks, jaared. Life of Benjamin Franklin. US History.org.
  51. "Google Books — Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin By Benjamin Franklin, Nathan Haskell Dole, 2003". Books.google.ie. http://books.google.ie/books?id=BL1VXdTbDucC&pg=PR21. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  52. Benjamin Franklin. PBS.org..
  53. Franklin, Benjamin. "reprinted on The History Carper.". http://www.historycarper.com/resources/twobf3/pa-1773.htm.
  54. Key to Declaration American Revolution.org.
  55. Sparks, Jared (1856). The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Containing the Autobiography, with Notes and a Continuation. Boston: Whittemore, Niles and Hall. pa॰ 408. http://books.google.com/books?id=MLAEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA408&lpg=PA408&dq=franklin+%22shall+all+hang+separately%22+sparks&source=web&ots=9tZqaocy0E&sig=JjqhJqfqvWnOqZ-FTAxGfdwaKPM. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-16.
  56. peris chhodne se pehle unki itni tasveerein, ardh-pratima aur padak sanchalan mein the ki ve sabhya duniya ke kisi bhi bhaag mein kisi bhi vayask naagrik dvaara pahachaane ja sakte the. in chitron mein se kai par lekh ankit hain, jinmein se sabse prasiddh hai targot ki pankti, "[87]" - [88]
  57. a aa Eccentric France: Bradt Guide to mad, magical and marvellous France By Piers Letcher - Jacques Charles
  58. Science and Society, Medal commemorating Charles and Robert's balloon ascent, Paris, 1783
  59. Fiddlers Green, History of Ballooning, Jacques Charles
  60. Federation Aeronautique Internationale, Ballooning Commission, Hall of Fame, Robert Brothers.
  61. Citizen Ben, Abolitionist. PBS.org.
  62. novaak, Michael. on tu vings. ameriki sansthaapana par vinmr vishvaas aur saamaanya gyaan. inakaauntar books, 2002.p.12, 84 "aajkal, dharmanirpeksh log bhi vikaas, adhikaar aur svatantrata ke aalok mein itihaas ki vyaakhya karte hain ... (unhein) ye dhaaranaaen na to yoonaani aur roman logon se mili aur na hi gyaan ke tark ke kaaran, balki hi‍abroo ke aavashyak drushtikon dvaara: ki nirmaata ne manushya ko anya sabhi praaniyon mein ek vishesh sthaan diya hai aur unhein mukt rakha hai aur unhein adviteeya jimmedaari aur sammaan ke saath sampann kiya hai. sambandhit avadhaaranaaon ka yeh kram - ki samay ka ek praarambh hai aur Bhagwan ke maanakon dvaara iska pragati (ya giraavat) ke liye maapan kiya jaata hai; ki duniya mein sab kuchh spasht hai aur khojabeen, aavishkaar aur khoj, aastha ke saath-saath tark ka aaveg hai; ki srushtikrta ne hamein svatantrata aur pavitra sammaan ke saath sampann kiya hai, jabki Bhagwan ka nyaaya kamjor aur vinmr ka khyaal rakhata hai; ki jeevan kartavya aur pareekshan ka samay hai - yeh poori prushthabhoomi hai jo svatantrata ki ghoshana ko arth deti hai... .is aadhyaatmik prushthabhoomi ke bina, America ki sansthaapak peedhi mein aajaadi ke yuddh ke liye jigr naheen hota ... ki unke gair kaanooni lagne vaale vidroh ne vaastav mein parameshvar ki ichha poori ki hai. "
  63. aaiseksan, 2003,p.354
  64. ref naam = "aaiseksan, 2003"/, p.5-18
  65. Old South Church. "Isaacson,2003, p.15". Oldsouth.org. http://www.oldsouth.org/history.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  66. Old South Church. "Old South Church: History". Oldsouth.org. http://www.oldsouth.org/history.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  67. novaak 2002, pp. 12,26,42,84,173-5,218n2, 242n63; aaiseksan, 2003, pp. 10,25,26,31,49,59,92,102,486,489,490
  68. aaiseksan, 2003, p.486; novaak, 2002, pp 11-12,2,84,173-5,218n2, 242n63
  69. novaak 2002, pp. 11-12
  70. novaak 2002, p.12
  71. aaiseksan, 2003, p. 26
  72. aaiseksan, 2003,p .26
  73. aaiseksan, 2003,p. 102
  74. Michael E. Eidenmuller. "Online Speech Bank: Benjamin Franklin's Prayer Speech at the Constitutional Convention of 1787". Americanrhetoric.com. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/benfranklin.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  75. aaiseksan, 2003,p. 110
  76. aaiseksan.2003 pp.107, 110,112,113
  77. a aa Franklin beinjaamin "Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography". bhaag 2 UShistory.org par punarmudrit
  78. "Benjamin Franklin". History.hanover.edu. http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111frank2.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  79. aaiseksan p 485
  80. aaiseksan, 2003, p.149, 92,486,490
  81. bailin, barnaard. ameriki kraanti ke vaichaarik mool. Harvard university press, 1992 p. 273-4, 299-300
  82. bailin, 1992 p.303
  83. vaichaarik, 2003, p 10,102,489
  84. vebar, maiks the proteseint ethik end the "spirit of kaipitlijm" (penguin books, 2002), Peter behar aur gaurdan si. vels, pp dvaara anuvaadit. 9-11
  85. aaiseksan, 2003 p. 93ff
  86. a aa bailin, 1992, p. 248
  87. a aa bailin, 1992, p. 249
  88. aaiseksan, 2003, p. 112
  89. aaiseksan, 2003, p. 93ff
  90. aaiseksan, 2003, p. 46
  91. Franklin, beinjaamin. Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography adhyaaya IV. USGenNet.org par punarmudrit.
  92. "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain". Historycarper.com. http://www.historycarper.com/resources/twobf1/m7.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  93. a aa "Isaacson, 2003, p. 45". Books.google.com. 2004-11-30. http://books.google.com/books?id=oIW915dDMBwC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=%22A+Dissertation+on+Liberty+and+Necessity,+Pleasure+and+Pain%22+%22Benjamin+Franklin%22+embarrassment&source=bl&ots=6ZvGpRe4Pe&sig=aDgglZ7Z8In3w7BQhgZ0r4fd-j0&hl=en&ei=GgA2SszELJq_twe1r435Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  94. aaiseksan, 2003, p 46, 486
  95. "Historical Writings — Benjamin Franklin's letter to Thomas Paine". WallBuilders. 2001-09-11. http://www.wallbuilders.com/LIBissuesArticles.asp?id=58. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  96. maurgan, David ti. beinjaamin Franklin: champion of jenarik rilijn the historiyn 62#4 2000. pp 722
  97. beinjaamin Franklin tu richrd price, 9 Oct. 1780 retings 8:153-54
  98. skaausen, dablyoo klion. the five thaausand iar leep . national center for kansteetyooshanal stadeej (1981), pp. 17-18. kaise is samiti ne muhar ke liye pehle prastaavit dijaain ko banaaya aur manjoori di (jise antat: naheen apnaaya gaya).
  99. First Great Seal Committee – July/August 1776 Great Seal.com.
  100. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin page 38 forward beinjaamin freinkalin dvaara
  101. Benjamin Franklin: In His Own Words. Congress pustakaalaya
  102. The Last Will and Testament of Benjamin Franklin. freinkalin sansthaan vigyaan sangrahaalaya.
  103. The Doctor Will Freeze You Now Wired.com se
  104. Engines of Creation E-drexler.com
  105. spaarks, pp529-530.
  106. richrd price. ameriki kraanti ke mahatva par prekshan aur use vishv ke liye laabhadaayak banaane ka matlab. jiske saath joda gaya, M. turgot ka ek patra, France ke vitt ke svargeeya kantrolar-general: ek parishisht ke saath, jismein tha M. fortoon rikaard ki vaseeyat ka anuvaad, jise baad mein France mein prakaashit kiya gaya. London: ti. kedel, 1785.
  107. "Excerpt from Philadelphia Inquirer article by Clark De Leon". Mathsci.appstate.edu. 1993-02-07. http://www.mathsci.appstate.edu/~sjg/class/1010/wc/finance/franklin1.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  108. "History of the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology". Bfit.edu. http://www.bfit.edu/aboutus/history.php. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  109. faayarasaain theatre kot, vyangya roop se lekin bhaavanaatmak.
  110. "Benjamin Franklin House". Benjamin Franklin House.. http://www.benjaminfranklinhouse.org/site/sections/default.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-21.
  111. The Craven Street Gazette (PDF), beinjaamin Franklin house ke mitron ke nyoojlaitar, ank 2, 1998 sharad ritu

sandarbh

aatmakathaaen

  • Carl Becker, "Franklin". 1931 mein likhi vidvataapoorn laghu jeevani, sootron ke link ke saath.
  • H. dabloo. brainds the first American: the life end times of beinjaamin Franklin (2000) poorn jeevani
  • vaaltar iseksan. beinjaamin freinkalin: ऍn American life shamaun aur shoostar (2003). ISBN 0-684-80761-0 or ISBN 0-7432-5807-X (peparabaik); poorn jeevani.
  • mark skaausen. the Compleated otobaayograafi baai beinjaamin Franklin (2005) freinkalin ke hi shabdon mein kaha gaya.
  • raalf L kecham, beinjaamin Franklin (1966) laghu jeevani.
  • edamand S maurgan. beinjaamin freinkalin (2003). pramukh vidvaanon dvaara laghu parichay
  • kaarl vaan doren. beinjaamin Franklin (1938; 1991 punarprakaashit). poorn jeevani.
  • gaurdan vud, the ameriknaaijeshan of beinjaamin Franklin (2005) pramukh vidvaanon dvaara vyaakhyaatmak nibandh

yuva paathakon ke liye

  • fleming, kaindaas. ben freinkalins almanaik: beeng a troo account of the gud jeintalamains life. atheenum/aini shvaart, 2003, 128 panne, ISBN 978-0-689-83549-0.

gahan adhyayan

  • dagalas Anderson. the raidikl inlaaitenameint of beinjaamin Franklin (1997). bauddhik itihaas ke sandarbh mein BF
  • aaisek aasimov. The Kite That Won The Revolution [mrut kadiyaaain], bachchon ke liye ek jeevani jo Franklin ke vaigyaanik aur kootaneetik yogadaan par keindrit hai.
  • em. H. baksabaaum., Ed. kritikl esej on beinjaamin freinkalin (1987)
  • I. barnaard kohen beinjaamin freinkalins science (1990). freinkalin ke vigyaan par kohen dvaara kai kitaabon mein se ek.
  • paul dablyoo konar. puar richaards politiks (1965). inlaaitenameint ke sandarbh mein BF ke vichaaron ka vishleshan karti hai
  • dre, Phillip. steeling gauds thandar: beinjaamin frainkalins laaitaning road end invenshan of America. raindam house, 2005. 279 pp.
  • "Franklin as Printer and Publisher" the century mein (April 1899) v. 57 pp. 803–18. paul leesestar Ford dvaara.
  • "Franklin as Scientist" the century mein (sitmbar 1899) v.57 pp. 750–63. paul leesestar Ford dvaara.
  • "Franklin as Politician and Diplomatist" the century mein (October 1899) v. 57 pp. 881–899. paul leesestar Ford dvaara.
  • gleesan, Phillip. "trabal in the kalonial melting paut." journal of American ethanik history 2000 20(1): 3-17 poorn paath injeinta aur ebsako mein online ISSN 0278-5927. freinkalin dvaara 1751 ke ek pemfalet mein janasaankhyikeeya vikaas aur kaaloniyon par usaka prabhaav tippani ke raajaneetik parinaam par vichaar karta hai. unhonne peinsilveniya jarman ko "pelaateen buars" kaha jo kabhi angrejon ki tarah 'rang' naheen haasil kar sakte aur "kaale aur tauneej" ko kaaloniyon ki saamaajik sanrachana ko kamjor karne vaale ke roop mein kaha. haalaanki freinkalin ne jaahira taur par uske baad sheegra hi us par vichaar kiya aur us vaakyaansh ko pustika ke baad ke sabhi mudran se hata diya gaya, unke vichaaron ne ho sakta hai 1764 mein unki raajaneetik haar mein bhoomika ada ki hogi.
  • monaaghan, J. E. (2005). aupaniveshik America mein likhna aur padhna seekhate hue. baustan, MA: maisaachusets university press.
  • olsan, lestar si. beinjaamin frainkalins vijn of American kamyuniti: a stadi in ritaurikl aaikonoloji south kairolina vishvavidyaalaya press 2004. 323 pp.
  • skaausen, dablyoo klion. the five thaausand iar leep (1981). ameriki sansthaapak janakon dvaara America ke samvidhaan mein kaaryaanvit 28 vichaaron ke baare mein laghu saaraansh.
  • shif, stesi. a great improvaaijeshan: Franklin, France, end the barth of America (2005) (Britain mein sheershak dau॰ freinkalin goj tu France)
  • shifr, Michael Brian. draw the laaitaning daaun: beinjaamin Franklin end ilektrikl teknoloji in the ej of inlaaitenameint California vishvavidyaalaya press 2003. 383 pp.
  • sethi, arjun the morailiti of vailyooj (2006) Online Version
  • Stuart Sherman "Franklin" Franklin ke lekhan par 1918 ka lekh.
  • Michael slechar, 'domestisiti: the hyuman side side of beinjaamin Franklin', maigajeen of history XXI (2006).
  • valdastrechar, David. ranaave America: beinjaamin Franklin, slevari, end American rivolyooshan. hil aur vaing, 2004. 315 pp.
  • vaaltars, keri S. beinjaamin Franklin end hij gaud ilinois vishvavidyaalaya press, 1999. 213 pp. yeh, di. H. Lawrence dvaara 1930 mein Franklin ke dharm ki uthale upayogeetaavaadi naitiktaavaad mein fansa burjuaa vyavasaayeekaran se jyaada kuchh naheen ke roop mein kathor ninda aur Franklin ke "bahudevavaadi" dharm ki gatisheelata aur parivrtanasheel charitra ke oven eldrijes ke 1967 ke sahaanubhooti bhare vyavahaar madhya mein sthaan leta hai.

praathamik srot

  • saaileins doogud, the biji baudi end arli raaitings (J. A. liyo leme, Ed.) (laaibreri of America, 1987 ek khand, 2005 do khand) ISBN 978-1-931082-22-8
  • otobaayograafi, puar richrd, end letar raaitings (J. A. liyo leme, Ed.) laaibreri of America, 1987 ek khand, 2005 do khand) ISBN 978-1-883011-53-6
  • beinjaamin freinkalin reedar vaaltar aaijaikasan dvaara sanpaadit (2003)
  • Houston, elan, Ed. freinkalin: the otobaayograafi end adar raaitings on politiks, ikonomiks, end varchyu. Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya press, 2004. 371 pp.
  • kecham, raalf, Ed. the politikl thaut of beinjaamin freinkalin (1965, 2003 punarprakaashit). 459 pp.
  • [1] lionaard labaari, eight al., eds., the pepars of beinjaamin freinkalin, aaj tak 37 khand (1959-2006), 1783 se nishchit sanskaran. BF ke lekhan ka yeh vishaal sangrah aur patra, bade academic pustakaalayon mein upalabdh hai. yeh vishisht vishyon par vistrut shodh ke liye sabse upayogi hai. The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online
  • "the ve tu velth ." epalavood books, November 1986. ISBN 0-918222-88-5
  • "the otobaayograafi of beinjaamin freinkalin " dovar pablikeshan, 7 June 1996. ISBN 0-486-20097-3
  • "puar richaards olmanaik " Peter paupar press; 1983 November. ISBN 0-88088-918-7
  • beinjaamin freinkalin dvaara puar richrd improovd (1751)
  • raaitings (Franklin)

lekhan ISBN 0-940450-29-1

  • "on mairej "
  • "sataayars end baagaatels "
  • "A deejrteshan on librti end nesesiti, plejr end pen "
  • "faart praaudali: raaitings of beinjaamin Franklin you nevar reed in school " kaarl japikse, Ed. frog limited, punarmudran Ed. May, 2003. ISBN 1-58394-079-0
  • "heeroj of America beinjaamin Franklin "

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|PLACE OF BIRTH=Boston, Massachusetts |DATE OF DEATH=April 17, 1790 |PLACE OF DEATH=Philadelphia, Pennsylvania }}

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