beema

beema (inshyoreins) ek prakaar ka anubandh (theka) hai. do ya adhik vyaktiyon mein aisa samjhauta jo kaanooni roop se laagoo kiya ja sake, anubandh kahalaata hai. beema anubandh ka vyaapak arth hai ki beemaapatr (paulisi) mein varnit ghatna ke ghatit hone par beema karanevaala ek nishchit dhanaraashi beema karaanevaale vyakti ko pradaan karta hai. beema karaanevaala jo saamayik pravyaaji (beemaakist, preemeeyam) beema karanevaale ko deta rahata hai, vahi is anubandh ka pratideya hai. 'beema' shabd faarasi se aaya hai jiska bhaavaarth hai - 'jimmedaari lena'. dau॰ raghuveer ne iska anuvaad kiya hai - 'aagop'. usaka angreji paryaaya "inshyoreins" (Insurance) hai.

anukram

parichay

beema us saadhan ko kehte hain jiske dvaara kuchh shulk (jise premium kehte hain) dekar haani ka jokhim doosare paksh (beemaakaar ya beemaakarta) par daala ja sakta hai. jis paksh ka jokhim beemaakar par daala jaata hai use 'beemaakrut' kehte hain. beemaakaar aamtaur par ek company hoti hai jo beemaakrut ke haani ya kshati ko baantane ko taiyaar rahati hai aur aisa karne mein vah samarth hoti hai.

beema vaastav mein beemaakarta aur beemaakrut ke beech anubandh hai jismein beemaakarta beemaakrut se ek nishchit rakam (premium) ke badle kisi nishchit ghatna ke ghatit hone (jaise ki ek nishchit aayu ki samaapti ya mrutyu ki sthiti mein) par ek nishchit rakam deta hai ya fir beemaakrut ki jokhim se hone vaale vaastavik haani ki kshatipoorti karta hai.

beema ke aadhaar ke baare mein sochane par pata chalta hai ki beema ek tarah ka sahayog hai jismein sabhi beemaakrut log, jo jokhim ka shikaar ho sakte hain, premium ada karte hain jabki unamein se sirf kuchh (bahut kam) ko hi, jo vaastav mein nuksaan uthaate hain, muaavaja diya jaata hai. vaastav mein jokhim ki sambhaavana vaalon ki sankhya adhik hoti hai lekin kisi nishchit avadhi mein unamein se keval kuchh ko hi nuksaan hota hai. beemaakarta (company) beemaakrut pakshon ke nuksaan ko shesh beemaakrut pakshon mein baantane ka kaam karti hai.

beema kis sthiti mein ho sakta hai?

juaa khelne ya baaji lagaane mein bhi do vyakti yahi samjhauta karte hain ki amuk ghatna ghatit hone par doosra vyakti amuk dhanaraashi ada karega. lekin use beema naheen kaha ja sakta kyonki swayam us ghatna ke ghatit hone ya na hone mein us baaji lagaanevaale ka koi svatantr hit naheen hota. astu, beema anubandh ke liye saamaanya anubandh ke tatvon ke saath-saath beemaahit (Insurable Interest) ka astitv aavashyak hai. udaaharanaarth k ke jeevan ka beema koi ajnabi vyakti kh naheen kara sakta kyonki k ke jeevit rahane ya na rahane mein kh ka koi svatantr hit naheen hai. lekin yadi kh k ki patni ho to k ke jeevit rahane mein kh ka hit nihit hone se kh dvaara k ke jeevan ka beema karna niymaanukool hoga.

beema hit ka arth vyaapak hai. pati patni ke jeevit rahane mein ek doosare ka hit to spasht hi hai. karjadaar ke jeevan mein mahaajan ka hit bhi vaisa hi maanya hai. isi prakaar sampatti beema ke liye beemaahit us sampatti ke svaami ko to hai hi. yeh hit us vyakti ko bhi upalabdh ho jaata hai, jise kisi anubandh ke antargat koi sampatti upalabdh hoti hai. yahi naheen, sampatti par kabja maatr hone se, bhale hi vah kabja gairkaanooni ho, beemaahit upalabdh ho jaata hai. udaaharanaarth agar kisi divaaliye ke paas uske kabje mein koi sampatti hai, bhale hi vah adhikr svat: gairkaanooni ho kyonki divaala nikalne ke baad usaki saari sampatti par adhikaari abhihstaankini ka adhikaar ho jaata hai - kintu us sampatti ka beema karaane ke liye us divaaliye ko bhi adhikaari maan liya jaata hai. kisi anubandh dvaara beema hit utpann hone ka aadhaar uttaradaayitv athva hit donon ho sakte hain. udaaharanaarth jab koi vyakti koi makaan kiraae par leta hai to us makaan ki hifaajat ka koi uttaradaayitv us par naheen hota lekin chooainki us anubandh se kiraaedaar ko suraksha ki suvidha upralabdhi hoti hai at: us makaan ki suraksha ke beeme ke liye bhi us kiraaedaar ko beema hit upalabdh ho jaata hai.

beema anubandh ke liye beema hit ki aavashyakta ukt anubandh ki vaidhata aaainkane ke liye to hai hi, kshatipoorti ke niyamon ka paalan karne ke liye bhi yeh aavashyak hai. is sambandh mein angreji vidhi (niyam) aur bhaarateeya vidhi mein kuchh antar hai. angreji vidhi ke anusaar (samudra beema vidhi 1906 aur jeevan beema vidhi 1774) aagopya hit ka vastut: astitv aavashyak hai. kintu bhaarateeya vidhi mein aisa naheen hain. bhaarateeya anubandh vidhi ki dhaara 30 ke anusaar chooainki juaa ya shart baaji aadi ke samjhaute avaidh karaar diye gaye hain isliye beemaahit ka astitv vastut: na bhi ho kintu use upalabdh karne ki uchit aadhaar par aasha ho to bhi vah beema anubandh ki vaidhata ke liye paryaapt hai.

beema anubandh ka doosra pramukh aadhaar sadbhaav evam nishkapatata hai. at: yeh aavashyak hai ki donon paksh (beema karanevaala tatha beema karaanevaala) beema vishyak sabhi tathya pragat kar dein. pragat kar dene ka arth yahi hai ki jaan boojhakar kuchh chhipaaya na jaae. yadi koi saar tathya pragat na kiya gaya ho to doosra paksh ukt anubandh se mukti praapt kar sakta hai.

is sambandh mein bhi angreji aur bhaarateeya vidhi niyamon mein kuchh antar hai. bhaarateeya beema vidhi ki dhaara 45 ke anusaar jeevan beema mein anajaane mein, jaanboojhkar tatha beimaani ki ichha se yadi koi galatabayaani ho jaae to vah kshamya maani gayi hai. lekin saamaanya vidhi (angreji kaanoon) ke anusaar anajaane mein bhi koi galatabayaani us anubandh ko prabhaavit kar deti hai.

beema anubandhon ke prakaar

beema ke anubandh do prakaar ki shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiye ja sakte hain. ve anubandh jinmein kshatipoorti ka uttaradaayitv hota hai aur ve jinmein kshatipoorti ka prashn naheen hota varan ek nishchit dhanaraashi ada karne ka anubandh hota hai. kshatipoorti vishyak beema saamudreeya (maireen inshyoreins) bhi ho sakta hai aur gairasaamudreeya bhi. pehle ka udaaharan samudra dvaara videshon ko bheje jaanevaale samaan ki suraksha ka beema hai aur doosare ka udaaharan agnibhya athva motor ka beema hai. kshatipoorti ke anubandh mein keval kshati ki poorti ki jaati hai. yadi ek hi vastu ka beema ek se adhik sthaanon (beema sansthaanon) mein hai to bhi beema karaanevaale ko kshatipoorti ki hi dhanaraashi upalabdh hoti hai. haaain, ve beema kanpaniyaaain aapas mein adaayagi ki dhanaraashi ka bhaag nishchit kar leti hain. kshatipoorti anubandh ka yeh siddhaant jeevan beema tatha durghatana beema par laagoo naheen hota. at: jeevan beema tatha durghatana beema par laagoo naheen hota. at: jeevan beema tatha durghatana beema kitni bhi dhanaraashi ke liye kiya gaya hai beema karaanevaale ko (yadi vah jeevit hai) athva uske manoneet vyakti ko vah poori rakam upalabdh hoti hai.

beema ka itihaas

agni beema

jaisa kaha ja chuka hai, agni beema kshatipoorti ka anubandh hai arthaat jo dhanaraashi beemaapatr par ankit hai vah avashya mil jaaegi, aisa naheen varan us seema tak kshatipoorti ho sakegi. agni beema anubandh yadyapi kisi na kisi sampatti ke sambandh mein hi hota hai, fir bhi vah vyaktigat anubandh hi hai arthaat ukt sampatti ke svaami athva us sampatti mein beema hit rakhanevaale vyakti ko us anubandh dvaara kshatipoorti se aashvast kiya jaata hai. at: agar beema karaanevaale ko kis sampatti mein svaamitv athva anya prakaar ka koi aisa adhikaar naheen hai jisse use beema hit upalabdh hota ho to vah beema kara lene ke baad bhi anubandh ka laabh naheen utha sakta.

sampatti ka svaamitv badalne par yadyapi beema hit hastaantarit ho jaata hai kintu beema anubandh angreji kaanoon ke anusaar svat: hastaantarit naheen hota. yadi sampatti vikraya ke saath saath tatsanbandhi anubandh laabh bhi hastaantarit karna abhipret ho to bhi beema karne vaale ki anumati aavashyak hai. bhaarateeya vidhi mein aisa naheen hai. sthir sampatti hastaantaran vidhi ki dhaara 49 aur 133 ke anusaar koi vipreet anubandh ke abhaav mein sampatti praaptakarta beema anubandh ka laabh kshatipoorti ke liye maaaing sakta hai. ek hi vastu mein ek se adhik logon ko kuchh kuchh adhikaar upalabdh ho sakte hain evam unke vibhinn prakaar ke beema hit ho sakte hain. at: ve sab apne hiton ke aadhaar par us ek ki sampatti par anek beeme kara sakte hain.

agni beema anubandh par kshatipoorti ka daava karne ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki kshati ka nikat kaaran agni hi ho aur agni ka arth hai ki chingaari nikli ho (angreji mein ise igneeshan Ignition kehte hain). kisi vastu ke atyadhik dabaav ke kaaran vastu ka jhulas jaana aag lagana naheen maana jaata. bijli girne se honevali haani par "chingaari lagne" ki anivaaryata ka niyam laagoo naheen hota. visfot dvaara hui haani agni se haani naheen kahalaati, bhale hi vah visfot agni se hi hua to. iska aadhaar yeh hai ki haani ka nikat (Proximate cause) kaaran agni hi hona chaahiye. isi prakaar agni lagne se utpann sthiti mein kisi teesare paksh dvaara kiye gaye krutyon se utpann haani bhi agni haani mein shaamil naheen ki jaati. lekin agni athva jalahaani ki seema ka nirdhaaran agni bujhane ke turant baad hi naheen kiya jaata varan us samay kiya jaata hai jab ukt beema sampatti beema karaanevaale ko saunpi jaati hai.

agni beema anubandh teen prakaar ke hote hain :

  1. moolyaankit athva amoolyaankit
  2. sampoorn tatha anishchit
  3. nirdhaarit tatha ausat

moolyaankit beema anubandh mein yadi sampatti poorn nasht ho jaae to beema patra par likhit dhanaraashi beema karanevaale ko anivaarya roop se deni padti hai. amoolyaankit beema anubandh mein yadi poorn sampatti nasht ho jaae to ukt sampatti ka moolyaankan us samay kiya jaata hai. sampoorn tatha anishchit agni beema anubandh mein vastuon ki soochi naheen di jaati varan agni se haanibhya ka beema saamaanya roop mein kiya jaata hai. nirvaarit agni beema ananbandh mein dhanaraashi nirdhaarit beema patra par likhi rahati hai. ausat agni beema anubandh mein aanupaatik kshatipoorti ki jaati hai : agni beema anubandh mein punasthaapan (Restoration or Restitution), ausat (average) tatha bhaagadaari (Partial liability) siddhaant laagoo hote hain.

jeevan beema

jeevan beema ka praarambh bhi samudri beema ke praaya: saath hi hua kyonki vyaapaarik yaatra par jaanevaale poton ke maalikon ko jahaaain pot nasht hone ki sambhaavnaaon ke viruddh prabandh karne ki chinta thi, vaheen un jahaajon ke kaptaanon ka jeevan bhi utana hi moolyavaan tha. saath hi jab kaareegaron ke sanghon ki sthaapana hone lagi aur janm mrutyu ke lekhe rahane ke saath saath aayu seema ke ausat nikaalne ke niyamon ki sthaapana ki ja saki to jeevan beema anubandh ka bhi kaafi prasaar ho saka. lekin us samay ke beema patron ki shartein kaafi kathin hoti theen. Amreeki gruhayuddh ke poorv ke jeevan beema anubandh ki sharton ke anusaar beema patra ka kaai arpan moolya (Surrender value) naheen hota tha. beeme par koi karj naheen mil sakta tha. beema pravyaaji (premium) ada karne ke liye atirikt samay (Grace period) naheen milta tha tatha aatmahatya, dvandvayuddh athva samudrayaatra karne par beema avaidh karaar de diya jaata tha.

jeevan beema do vyaktiyon - beema karaanevaale aur beema karanevaale - ke beech aisa anunbandh hai jiske anusaar beema karaanevaala nishchit avadhi tak saamayik adaayagiyon ke badle ek nishchit dhanaraashi praapt karne ka vachan leta hai aur beema karaanevaala un nirdhaarit adaayagiyon ke badle ek nishchit rakam nishchit samay par ada karne ka vachan deta hai. anya prakaar ke beema anunbandhon aur jeevan beema anubandh ka antar yahi hai ki yeh keval maanav jeevan se sambandhit hai aur beema anubandh ka prakaar athva roop kuchh bhi ho usamein mool shart yahi hoti hai ki anubandh ke chaaloo rahane ke kaal mein yadi beema karaanevaale ki mrutyu ho jaaegi to beema karanevaala beemaapatr par likhit dhanaraashi ada karega. mrutyu ka kaaran keval do sthitiyon mein hi is anubandh ko samaapt kar sakta hai. ek, yadi beema karaane vaale ke hi kisi gairkaanooni krutya dvaara usaki mrutyu hui ho. do, yadi beema karaanevaale ki mrutya aise kaaranon se hui ho jinhein beemaapatr mein baad kar diya gaya hai. is vishay par angreji vidhi aur bhaarateeya vidhi mein kuchh antar hai. Bhaarat mein aatmahatya ka prayatn karna to aparaadh hai kintu aatmahatya aparaadh naheen hai at: aatmahatya karne par aisa hi beema anunbandh samaapt kiya ja sakta hai jiske beemaapatr mein yeh shart likhit ho. angreji vidhi mein aatmahatya ka vishay pehli shreni mein aata hai.

jeevan beema mein milnevaali dhanaraashi beema karanevaale par karj maana gaya hai. isliye sampatti-hastaantaran-vidhi (T.P.A.) ki dhaara teen ke antargat yeh "sampatti" ki shreni mein aa jaata hai tatha ukt vidhi ki dhaara 130 ke anusaar iska hastaantaran kiya ja sakta tha. ab jeevan beema ki dhanaraashi ke hastaantaran ki vyavastha beema vidhi ki dhaara 38 va 39 mein ki gayi hai. ukt dhanaraashi ka hastaantaran abhihstaankan (assignment) dvaara bhi kiya sakta hai (dhaara 38) aur naamaankan (nomination) dvaara bhi (39). abhihstaankan mein beema karaanevaala us beema anubandh se utpann apan adhikaaron evam hiton ko doosare ko hastaantarit kar deta hai. naamaankan ka arth keval yeh hai ki beema karaanevaale ki mrutyu par yadi naamaankit vyakti jeevit ho to beeme ki dhanaraashi use upalabdh ho jaae. naamaankan bina soochana ke badla ja sakta hai. yadi naamaankit vyakti ki mrutyu pehle ho jaae to beema karaanevaale ko hi dhanaraashi paane ka adhikaar pun: praapt ho jaata hai. abhihstaankan mein aisa naheen hai. yadi ek baar beema anubandh ke adhikaar abhihstaankit kar diye gaye to usaki poorv anumati ke bina doosra abhihstaankan naheen kiya ja sakta. yadi beema karaanevaale ke pehle abhihstaankit ki mrutyu ho jaae to ve adhikaar beema karaanevaale ko vaapas naheen milte varan us mrut vyakti ke uttaraadhikaariyon ko upalabdh ho jaate hain.

durghatana beema

anubandh ke antargat do prakaar ki paristhitiyaaain aa sakti hain-

  • durghatanaavash doosaron ki kshatipoorti karne ka bhaar tatha
  • durghatanaavash swayam athva svasanpatti ko honevaali haani. amareeka mein ise 'kaijuelti inshyoreins' kehte hain. angreji vidhi mein ise 'kshatipoorti beema' ki shreni mein rekha jaata hai. bhaarateeya beema vidhi mein ye prakaar sveekaar naheen kiye gaye hain varan yahaaain ka vibhaajan jeevan beema tatha saamaanya beema (general inshyoreinsh) mein kiya gaya hai. at: uparyukt varnit do paristhitiyon mein baadavaali paristhiti jeevan beema ki shreni mein aati hai. is prakaar ki durghatanaaon ka beema motor savaari vidhi (1930) tatha vimaan vaahan vidhi (Air navigation act 1934) ke antargat anivaarya kar diya gaya hai taaki kshatigrast ke hiton ki raksha ho sake.

anya beemaaeain

  • svaasthya beema
  • gaadi ki beema (aatoobaail inshyoreinsh)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain