basav

Basava statue crop.png

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guru basav athva guru basav (kannad: ಬaaಸaaವaaಣaa್aaಣ) ya Basaveshwara (kannad: ಬaaಸaaವaaೇaaಶaa್aaವaaರ), (1134-1196)) ek daarshanik aur saamaajik sudhaarak tha. vah hindu dharm mein jaati vyavastha aur anushthaan ke khilaaf ladi. vah bhi vishv guru aur bhakti bhandaari kaha jaata hai. apni shikshaaon aur preachings sabhi seemaaon se pare jaana aur kar rahe hain saarvabhaumik aur anant hai. vah ek mahaan maanaveeya tha. guru basavannaajismein paramaatma anubhav jeevan ling, jaati aur saamaajik sthiti ki paravaah kiye bina sabhi ummeedavaaron ko samaan avsar dene ka kendra tha jeevan ki ek nai tarah ki vakaalat ki. apne aandolan ke peechhe aadhaarashila parameshvar ke ek saarvabhaumik avadhaarana mein drudh vishvaas tha. guru basavannaamonotheistic niraakaar Bhagwan ki avadhaarana ke ek samarthak hai.[1] [2]

ek sachche dooradarshi apne samay se aage vichaaron ke saath, vah ek hai ki vikaas ke charam par ek aur sab ko samruddh samaaj ke anuroop. ek mahaan rahasyavaadi ja raha hai, ke alaava guru basavannaapradhaanamantri ne dakshini Kalachuri saamraajya dakshin Bhaarat mein gaya tha aur ek saahityik kraanti Vachana saahitya shuroo karne se utpann. guru basavannaasvabhaav, vikalp, peshe se ek raajaneta, svaad, sahaanubhooti dvaara ek maanavataavaadi aur saja se ek saamaajik sudhaarak dvaara patra ki ek aadmi ek aadarshavaadi dvaara ek fakeer kiya gaya hai karne ke liye kaha jaata hai. kai mahaan yogiyon aur samay ke rahasyavaadi yeh ki Bhagwan hai aur jeevan mein dekhne ka ek naya tareeka ko paribhaashit Vachanas (Lit. baatein - kannad mein pavitra bhajan) ke roop mein divya anubhav ka saar ke saath samruddh apne aandolan mein shaamil ho gaye.

guru basavannaake raaste baad mein diya hai ek nai dharm (ya "sanpradaaya") kaha jaata hai Lingavanta dharm ya Lingayata janm. Lingayata ke liye anya samaanaarthak shabd hain: basav dharm, Sharana dharm, Vachana dharm.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

guru basavannaavarsh 1134 (hindu calendar Ananada naam samvatsara vashakah masada akshaya triteeya rohini nakshatr) Ingaleshwar ke chhote se shahar mein rahane vaale ek shaiv Kamme braahman parivaar mein paida hua tha, Bagewadi uttari Karnataka, guru basavannaBijapur jile mein pale ek sakht, dhaarmik ghar jahaan vah ek pavitra dhaaga jaana jaata hai ke roop mein Janivara pahanane ke liye banaaya gaya tha. unhonne Janivara ko sveekaar naheen kiya. vah asveekaar kar diya[krupaya uddharan jodein] dharm ke aadhaar par agamas, shaastron aur niymapoorvak jo sanskrut mein likha gaya tha aur aam logon ke liye pahuainch se baahar naheen the. vah sanskaar ke anushthaan ko sveekaar naheen kiya. shreenivaas moorti, apni pustak 'Vachana dharm saara' mein likhte hain:

Vachana Sahitya is not borrowed from other languages, they are the Original and Unique to Kannada language. What ever is there in Vedas and Upanishads is available in Vachanas, but what ever is there in Vachanas is not there in Vedas and Upanishads. Guru Basavanna with his original and creative thinking added much value to Kannada language through Vachana Sahitya.

mahaan dhaarmik gatividhiyon

usane Bagewadi chhod diya aur agale 12 saal Sangameshwara, Kudala Sangama ka to-shaiv gadh mein adhyayan kar kharch kiya. vahaaain hai, unhonne vidvaanon ke saath conversed aur apne saamaajik samajh ke saath sahayog mein unke aadhyaatmik aur dhaarmik vichaaron ka vikaas kiya. Jáatavéada muni, bhi roop mein jaana jaata Eesháanya guru, use shiksha praapt karne mein madad. basavannaIshtalinga ka aavishkaar kiya aur sansthaapak aur Lingayathism ke pehle nabi ban gaya hai. Basvanna koi guru hai. apne gyaan uske liye guide hai. apne vachana mein se ek mein vah pahuainchein guru kehte hain. kai samakaaleen Vachanakaras uske aatm, ke roop mein varnit hai jo hai, Swayankrita saaainvale.

Ishtalinga Sthavaralinga aur Charalinga se bahut alag hai. Ishtalinga parameshvar ke saarvabhaumik prateek hai. yeh kisi bhi moorti hindu devataaon ka pratinidhitv naheen karta hai. Sthavaralinga Dhyana mudra mein Shiv ka pratinidhitv karta hai. Charalinga Sthavaralinga ki chhoti hai.

Veerashaivas Chara Linga jo Ishtalinga se alag hai pahanane ke liye istemaal kiya hai. Chara Linga untouchability ko door naheen kiya tha. basavannaaIshtalinga untouchability ke unmoolan, sabhi maanav jaati, aadhyaatmik gyaan aur samaaj seva praapt karne ke liye ek saadhan ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata ke beech samaanata sthaapit karne ke liye istemaal kiya. basavannaake sabhi kaaryon diya bahut alag roop Veerashaivism hai jo Lingayatism ko janm.

apne vichaar vishvaas hai vahaaain keval ek hi sach hai, sahi Bhagwan shaamil; [2] iske atirikt, ve log hain, jo untouchability, andhavishvaas, bhram, mandir sanskruti aur pujaari ko hataane ki tarah saamaajik sevaaon pradarshan banaaya hai. unka maanana tha ki log hain, jo ek jhoothi Bhagwan ko sahi tareeke se dikhaaya jaaega ki jaroorat ki talaash mein the. vah maanav jaati ke beech samaanata ka prachaar aur jaati, dharm aur yaun sambandh, sabhi baadhaaon ki ninda ki jaati vyavastha ke khilaaf lad rahe the. vah bhi roop mein jaana jaata 12veen sadi ke saamaajik vyavastha mein apni kraanti ke liye Krantikari (kraantikaari) guru basavannaahai.

Guru Basavanna Statue in Bangalore
Kudala Sangama in Bagalkot district, where Guru Basavanna's samadhi is located

guru basavannaaadaalat Kalachuri ke raaja Bijjala, kalyaani Chalukya ke ek feudatory mein Mangalaveda par ek ekaaunteint ke roop mein apna kairiyr shuroo kiya. jab Bijjala basavakalyaan, mein satta mein Tailapa chaturth (Vikramaditya VI, mahaan Chalukya raaja ke pote) jordaar dvaara adhigrahan kar liya hai, basavannaabhi kalyaan karne ke liye chala gaya. apni imaandaari, kadi mehnat aur dooradarshi mission ke saath, jo 1162 se shaasan raaja Bijjala, ki adaalat mein pradhaanamantri ki sthiti ke liye basav gulaab-1167 kalyaan (vartamaan mein naam basavakalyaan) par. vahaaain, vah Anubhava Mantapa, Lingayatism, jo Bhaarat mein kai sannyaasiyon se aakarshit kiya khule taur par charcha karne ke liye ek aadhyaatmik sansad ki sthaapana ki. vah siddhaant Káayakavé Kailáasa mein vishvaas (kaarya daalata tum svarg ke liye raaste par, kaarya svarg hai); ek kadam aage raveendranaath Tagore ke 'kaam hai' pooja ki. yeh is samay hai ki Vachanas, saral aur aasaan-samajhne ke liye kaavya lekhan jo aavashyak shikshaaon, nihit likha gaya tha. neeche likha tha ki Vachanas ke hajaaron mein se ek bauddh dharm par aadhaarit hai:

gyaan ki shakti ajnyaaan ko nasht kar;
prakaash ki shakti andhere dissipates;
satya ki shakti sabhi asatya ka dushman hai;
Sharana anubhav Bhagwan ke duniyaadaari ke ekamaatr ilaaj hai;
-Bhagwan Kudala Sangamadeva
ಜaa್aaಞaaಾaaನaaದ ಬaaಲaaದaaಿaaಂaaದ ಅaaಜaa್aaಞaaಾaaನaaದ ಕaaೇaaಡaaು ನaaೋaaಡaaಯaa್aaಯ
ಜaa್aaಯaaೋaaತaaಿaaಯ ಬaaಲaaದaaಿaaಂaaದ ಅaaಂaaಧaaಕaaಾaaರaaದ ಕaaೇaaಡaaು ನaaೋaaಡaaಯaa್aaಯ
ಸaaತaa್aaಯaaದ ಬaaಲaaದaaಿaaಂaaದ ಅaaಸaaತaa್aaಯaaದ ಕaaೇaaಡaaು ನaaೋaaಡaaಯaa್aaಯ
ಕaaೂaaಡaaಲ ಸaaಂaaಗaaನ ಶaaರaaಣaaರ ಬaaಲaaದaaಿaaಂaaದ ಆaaತaa್aaಮaaನ ಅaaಹaaಂaaಕaaಾaaರaaದ ಕaaೇaaಡaaು ನaaೋaaಡaaಯaa್aaಯ
-ಕaaೂaaಡaaಲ ಸaaಂaaಗaaಮ ದaaೇaaವ.
rob naheen, naheen maar, kabhi kabhi jhooth
gussa ho naheen, doosaron ke baare mein nakaaraatmak lagta hai ki naheen
aatm ka varnan naheen, doosaron ke tang mat karo
yeh aatm sammaan ki tarah hai, is tarah ke dvaara duniya ka sammaan praapt karne ke liye hai.
yeh apne Bhagwan Koodala sangam deva pataane ki tarah hai.
ಕaaಳaaಬaaೇaaಡ, ಕaaೊaaಲaaಬaaೇaaಡ, ಹaaುaaಸaaಿaaಯ ನaaುaaಡaaಿaaಯaaಲaaುaaಬaaೇaaಡ
ಮaaುaaನaaಿaaಯaaಬaaೇaaಡ, ಅaaನaa್aaಯaaರaaಿaaಗaaೆ ಅaaಸaaಹaa್aaಯ ಪaaಡaaಬaaೇaaಡ
ತaaನaa್aaನ ಬaaಣaa್aaಣaaಿaaಸaaಬaaೇaaಡ, ಇaaದaaಿaaರaaು ಹaaಳaaೆaaಯaaಲaaುaaಬaaೇaaಡ
ಇaaದaaೆ ಅaaಂaaತaaರaaಂaaಗ ಶaaುaaದaa್aaದaaಿ, ಇaaದaaೆ ಬaaಹaaಿaaರaaಂaaಗ ಶaaುaaದaa್aaದaaಿ
ಇaaದaaೆ ನaaಮaa್aaಮ ಕaaೂaaಡaaಲ ಸaaಂaaಗaaಮ ದaaೆaaವaaನaaೊaaಲaaಿaaಸaaುaaವ ಪaaರaaಿ.

basav itna vivaad sakriya roop se saamaajik jaati pranaali hai, jo vah khatm karne ki kaamna ke saath jude niyamon ki anadekhi kar rahi dvaara banaai gayi. Untouchables apne nivaas par dopahar ke bhojan ke liye anumati dene aur ek braahman mahila aur ek achhoot aadmi ki aitihaasik shaadi ki prashansa karke, basav roodhivaadi sadasyon ke raaja Bijjala adaalat ka raaja aisi kahaaniyaaain, kuchh sach hai aur kuchh galat ke saath jaane ke liye kaaran hai. Bijjala, ek sambhav roodhivaadi samaaj mein, vidroh ke dar kathorata se saja di jaani karne ke liye nae shaadeeshuda jode ka aadesh diya. kuchh ko dandit karne se pehle Bijjala basav jaati vyavastha ke saath sahamat karne ke liye kaha; lekin basav jordaar jaati vyavastha ka virodh kiya tha aur kaha ki donon Haralayya aur Madhuvaras Lingayats the aur jaati vyavastha ke niyam unhein karne ke liye laagoo naheen kiya gaya hai. Bijjala basavannaake vichaaron ke saath sahamat naheen tha; aur basavannaachup ho aur kuchh ke liye dand sveekaar karte hain ya kalyaan chhodne ke liye kaha. "saja hone ke naate" (dande-gonda) basavakalyaanake saath ek bhaari dil chhod diya hai aur Kudala Sangama ki or chadhaai. vah kalyaan 1196 ismein naam samvatsara, phalguna masada 12 din Kudala Sangama ke liye aur raaste ke mein E Kudala sangama ko chhod, ve logon ko maanavata, naitikta, imaandaari, saadagi aur garima shram, sabhi manushya, maanav adhikaar, aadi ke beech samaanata ke baare mein prachaar kiya. vah shareer aur aatma ke bandhan jaari kiya ja raha hai ek sahi yogi aur nirvaan (Lingaikya) par 30-7-1196 liya E (hindu calendar: NaLanama samvatsarada shravan shuddha panchami), Kudala Sangama Devá, ya Lingadeva sarvashaktimaan se call karne ke liye javaab mein.

darshan

chitr:Basava linga.jpg
Tha aikya linga of basav at Kudalasangama

basav ne kaha ki saamaajik jeevan ki jadein samaaj ki kreem mein naheen balki samaaj ke mail mein embeded hain. yeh apni majaakiya kah rahi hai ki gaaya ke doodh uske jo apni peeth par baithata hai dena naheen hai, lekin yeh use jo apne pairon par squats doodh deta hai. apne vistrut sahaanubhooti ke saath, vah uchch aur kam ek jaise apne guna mein bharti karaaya. Anubhava Mantapa basav dvaara ki sthaapana ki neeche saamaajik lokatantr ki neenv rakhi. basav ka maanana tha ki aadmi mahaan ho jaata hai apne janm se naheen balki apne moolya samaaj ke dvaara. yeh aadmi aur vishvaas hai ki ek aam aadmi ki sthiti ke ek aadmi ke roop mein ke roop mein achha samaaj ke ek bhaag ke sammaan mein vishvaas ka matlab hai.

unhonne ghoshana ki ki raajya ke sabhi sadasyon ke majadoor hain: ho sakta hai kuchh bauddhik majadooron aur doosaron ke mainual majadoor ho sakta hai. vah abhyaas ke niyam se pehle rakha hai aur apne jeevan ki kathor tha rectitude. basav hom self-purification ka sabak karne ke liye apne deshvaasiyon laaya hai. vah desh mein saarvajanik jeevan ke naitik star ko badhaane ki koshish ki aur unhonne jor dekar kaha ki aacharan ke ek hi niyam ke roop mein samaaj ke sadasyon ke alag-alag karne ke liye vyavasthaapak karne ke liye laagoo hota hai. vah bhi pooja ke roop mein kaam par jor de dvaara mainual shram ki garima sikhaaya. har tarah ke mainual shram, jo par uchch jaati ke logon dvaara dekha gaya tha, par dekha jaana chaahiye pyaar aur sammaan ke saath, vah tark hai. is prakaar kala aur shilp nikhra hai aur ek nai neenv bhoomi ke arthashaastr ke itihaas mein rakhi gayi thi.

basav krushi, baagavaani, silaai, bunaai, rangaai aur badhigeeri jaise vibhinn vyavasaayon ka pratinidhitv logon ki samitiyon ka gathan kiya. sabhi vyavasaayon samaan moolya ke roop mein maana gaya aur sadasyon ke sabhi prakaar ke vyavasaayon ke liye tha. is prakaar Jedara Dasimayya ek julaaha, shankar Dasimayya ek darji, Madiváal Máachayya ek log, Myadar Ketayya ek tokari-nirmaata, Kinnari Bommayya ek sunaar, Vakkalmuddayya ek kisaan, Hadap Appanna ek naai, Jedar Madanna ek sainik, Ganada Kannappa ek oilamain, Dohar Kakkayya ek taannar, Mydar Channayya ek mochi aur Ambigara Chowdayya ek ferryman tha. vahaaain the unke sambandhit vyavasaayon ke saath aise Satyakka, Ramavve aur Somavve ke roop mein mahilaaon ke anuyaayiyon hai. in sabhi aur kai aur adhik apne vyavasaayon ke baare mein Vachanas (baatein) mein ek bahut hi vichaarottejak kalpana gaaya hai ki dilchasp baat thi.[3]

basavannaake Vachanas

kannad: ಉaaಳaa್aaಳaaವaaರaaು ಶaaಿaaವaaಾaaಲaaಯ ಮaaಾaaಡaaುaaವaaರaaು ನaaಾaaನaaೇaaನaaು ಮaaಾaaಡaaಲaaಿ ಬaaಡaaವaaನaaಯaa್aaಯaaಾ ಎaaನaa್aaನ ಕaaಾaaಲaaೇ ಕaaಂaaಬ, ದaaೇaaಹaaವaaೇ ದaaೇaaಗaaುaaಲ, ಶaaಿaaರaaವaaೇ ಹaaೊaaನaa್aaನ ಕaaಳaaಸaaವaaಯaa್aaಯaaಾ ಕaaೂaaಡaaಲaaಸaaಂaaಗaaಮaaದaaೇaaವaaಾ ಕaaೇaaಳaaಯaa್aaಯaaಾ, ಸaa್aaಥaaಾaaವaaರaaಕaa್aaಕaaಳaaಿaaವaaುaaಂaaಟaaು ಜaaಂaaಗaaಮaaಕaa್aaಕaaಳaaಿaaವaaಿaaಲaa್aaಲ', uLLavaru shiváaalaya máaaduvaru náaanéaanu máaadali badavanayyá

enna káaale kambha dehavé degula shiravé honna kaLashavayyá

Kúadala Sangama Devá keLayya sthavarakkaLivunTu jangamakaLivilla [?]


ameer ke liye Shiv mandir kar dega. main, ek gareeb aadmi hai, kya hoga?
mere pairon ke khanbhe, shareer mandir, pramukh sone ki ek cupola rahe hain.
suno, he prabhu Kudal Sangama deva, haalaat khade gir jaaega, lekin chalti kabhi rahana hoga.

Kudala Sangama deva hai - apne billa kannad mein apne sabhi vachanas ki.

raamaanujam apni pustak mein, Shiv ki baat kar raha hai anuvaad basavannaaka prateek chinh Kudala Sangama deva baithak nadiyon ke prabhu mein. lekin yeh keval shaabdik anuvaad hai. yeh paribhaasha ki Kudala Sangama dvaara basavannaako dekhte hue deva ke liye fit naheen hai.

basavannaabhagavaan ke roop mein paribhaashit karta hai:

jagadagala mugilagal migeyagal,
nimmagala, pataLadindattatta nimma shricarana,
brahmanDadindattatta nimma shri mukuta,
agammya, agOcara, apramana lingave,
neevenna karasthalakke bandu
cuLukadirayya kudala sangamadeva.

is Vacana mein, yeh spasht hai ki, guru basav bana diya hai naheen Bhagwan ki baithak nadiyon mein Kudala Sangamadeva. vah anant, anant aur shaareerik indriyon ki pahuainch se baahar hai. basavannaIshtalinga ke roop mein sahi aakaar niraakaar aur poorn parameshvar ke liye deta hai. is prakaar Ishtalinga anant, omnipresence hai aur nirpeksh parameshvar ka pratinidhitv karta hai.

Basaveshwara par vichaar aaj

Bhaarat ke times 17 May 1918 dinaank apne ank mein ek chamak shraddhaanjali basav karne ke liye bhugataan kiya hai:

'yeh apne mission hai ki use pehle Bhaarat mein shaanadaar dhaarmik aur saamaajik sudhaarakon jabki pratyek ek ya dharm aur saamaajik sudhaar, ya to yeh karne ke liye aur adhik ya kam anya item subordinating ya unhein poori tarah anadekhi ke anya madon par usaka jor rakha tha ki vishisht suvidha thi, basav sketched aur aise mukaam par pahunch ek vishaal aur vyaapak kaaryakram ke unnayan aur uske maargadarshak bindu ke roop mein naareetv ki svatantrata ke saath saamaajik sudhaaron ke baahar kaam karne ki koshish ki. na to saamaajik sammelanon jo aam taur par in dinon mein Bhaarat ke kai bhaagon mein aayojit kar rahe hain aur na hi bhaarateeya saamaajik sudhaarakon, ke roop mein anivaarya karne ke liye ki kaaryakram par sudhaar kar sakte hain. Bhaarat mein vartamaan din saamaajik sudhaarak bhaasha bol raha hooain aur basav ke man ko laagoo karne ki maang par hai."

aandolan Anubhava Mantapa ke maadhyam se basav dvaara shuroo kiya pyaar aur vishvaas ka ek sanpradaaya ke aadhaar ban gaya. yeh aachaar aur shiksha par ek baar saral aur mahaan ki ek pranaali ko janm diya hai. is tarah Bhaarat ke koi pichhle vishvaas kiya tha ke roop mein yeh saamaajik aur dhaarmik svatantrata ke aadarshon ko prerit karne ki maang ki. jo saampradaayik irshya dvaara visheshata thi madhyayugeen yug mein, yeh shed prakaash aur gharon par vishvaas ki ek kiran hai aur logon ke dilon mein madad ki. lekin intermarriage ki basav suvidha ek achaanak ant karne ke liye aaya hai jab kuchh ke liye ek hi raaja dvaara dandit kiya gaya ke baad aatma jaldi hi gaayab ho gaya. vargaheen samaaj ka sapana hil gaya tha aur basav ehsaas jald hi chhod diya aur namr chitr ke liye Kudala Sangama aur ek varsh ke baad mar gaya. kai log maanate hain ki yeh dvaara ki vifalta ke kaaran dard ke kaaran self-annihilation ke maadhyam se gaya tha.

aandolan desh, jo ek shaastreeya jeebh ki garima upalabdh saahitya ki sthaaneeya bhaasha bhaasha mein ek saahitya ke kaafi moolya diya hai. iska uddeshya aur jaati ki untouchability, untouchable uchch janm ke baraabar karne ke liye sthaapana hataane ke liye baadhaaon ke unmoolan tha. kadi mehnat parivaar ke rishton aur naareetv ki sthiti mein sudhaar ki pavitrata the kar liye, jabki ek hi samay mein sanskaar aur anushthaan, vrat aur teerth ka mahatva kam ho gaya tha. yeh seekhane aur chintan Bhagwan ke pyaar aur vishvaas ke maadhyam se protsaahit kiya. Polytheism ki jyaadatiyon deplored the aur ekeshvaravaad ke vichaar ko protsaahit kiya gaya tha[1].[krupaya uddharan jodein] aandolan khada, raashtra aam taur par donon ke vichaar aur kaarravaai mein ki kshamata ki ek uchch star ko badhaane ke liye kai maayanon mein. haalaanki, ek poori tarah se vargaheen samaaj ke baare mein laane ke liye sanpradaaya mein vifal raha.

saamaanya gyaan

vahaaain ab kar rahe hain kai samoohon ne aaj abhyaas basavannaaaur doosare ki shikshaaon. is tarah ek samooh ke uttari America, ya VSNA Veerashaiva Samaja hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

bhakti aandolan Kalachuri raajya Akka Mahadevi Allama prabhu maadeevaala Machideva

sandarbh

usaki pavitrata Mahatapasvi shri Kumarswami ne Veershaivism ke bhavishyadvaktaaon.

  1. a aa M. R. Sakhare, History and Philosophy of the Lingayat Religion, Prasaranga, Karnataka University, Dharwad
  2. a aa [1]
  3. [2]

baahari kadiyaaain