barmi saahitya

anya deshon ki bhaaainti barma ka bhi apna saahitya hai jo apne mein poorn evam samruddh hai. barmi saahitya ka abhyudaya praaya: kaavyakala ko protsaahan denevaale raajaaon ke darbaar mein hua hai isliye barmi saahitya ke maanavi kaviyon ka sambandh vaibhavashaali maheepaalon ke saath sthaapit hai. raajasi vaataavaran mein abhyudaya evam prasaar paane ke kaaran barmi saahitya atyant sushlisht tatha prabhaavashaali ho gaya hai.

barmi saahitya ke antargat buddhavachan (tripitk), attakatha tatha teeka granthon ke anuvaad sammilit hain. barmi bhaasha mein gadya aur padya donon prakaar ki saahitya vidhaaeain maulik roop se milti hain. ismein ayurvedik granthon ke anuvaad bhi hain. paali saahitya ke prabhaav se iski shaili bhaarateeya hai tatha boli apni hai. paali ke paaribhaashik tatha maulik shabd is bhaasha mein barmeekrut roop mein paae jaate hain. ras, chhand aur alankaaron ki yojana paali evam sanskrut se prabhaavit hai.

barmi saahitya ke vikaas ko drushti mein rakhakar vidvaanon ne ise nau kaalon mein vibhaajit kiya hai, jismein pratyek yug ke saahitya ki apni visheshata hai.

anukram

pagan yug (E. 1100-1297)

is yug ke saahitya ka gyaan shilaalekhon dvaara hota hai, jinki rachana saral tatha alankaaraviheen hai. us kaal mein milnevaala sabse praacheen shilaalekh myajeti hai jisko 1112 E. mein Rajkumar naamak ek Rajkumar ne khudavaaya tha. usamein barmi bhaasha ke atirikt paali, moon, proo, in teen bhaashaaon ka prayog bhi milta hai. isse yeh gyaat ho jaata hai ki us kaal mein un bhaashaaon ka bhi prachalan tha. uske baad 1224 E. ka bhi ek shilaalekh milta hai jisko anantasooriya (anantasoorya) dampati ne khudavaaya tha. isko shin pin bodhi shilaalekh kehte hain. tadanantar Rajkumari thingathoo ka min vain lekh, tatha mahaaraani fvaaso ka shilaalekh bhi ulalekhaneeya hai. bhaasha aur bhaav ki drushti se pehle shilaalekhon ki apeksha peechhe ke shilaalekh achhe hain.

yadyapi is yug mein gadyapadyaatmak saahitya shaastr ki upalabdhi naheen hoti, fir bhi inka nirmaan avashya hone laga tha, kyonki anantasoorya ka kaavya aaj bhi barma mein prachalit hai. barmi raajaaon dvaara tripitk ka adhik adhyayan hone se barmi saahitya par paali ka atyadhik prabhaav padne laga.

pinya yug (1298-1364 E.)

is yug mein barmi saahitya ki unnati pagan yug se adhik hui. tripitk ka adhyayan adhik hone se barmi saahitya mein ras, alankaar aadi paali se seedhe pravisht hone lage. darshan ka vivechan hone se saahitya mein gambheerta bhi aane lagi. is yug mein chaturangabal naamak mantri ka kaavya alankaar aur ras donon hi drushtiyon mein pagan yug se adhik unnat hai.

is yug mein bhi shilaalekh milte hain jo pagan yug ke shilaalekhon ki apeksha bhaasha ki drushti se adhik samruddh hain.

av yug (1364-1538)

is yug ko barmi saahitya ka svarnakaal kaha jaata hai. jis prakaar kaalidaas aadi sanskrut ke kaviyon ne apni rachana ka aadhaar raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat aadi ko banaaya, usi prakaar barmi saahityakaaron ne apni kaavyarachanaaon ka aadhaar paali saahitya ko banaaya. isi samay mahaakaavya, khandakaavya evam naatak aadi anek naveen saahityavidhaaon ka nirmaan hua. inka saahitya hrudaya ki anubhootiyon ka prateek hai tatha bhaav ki garima ke kaaran pad mein bhi laalitya evam madhurima aa gayi hai. is yug ke saahityakaaron mein bhikshu hi adhik hain. hindi saahitya mein sant kaviyon ki tarah bhikshuon ne barmi saahitya par aadhiptya kar liya hai. bhikshu kaviyon mein shin mahaaseelavansh, shin uttamajau, shin tejosaar evam shin mahaaradrusaar aadi prasiddh hain.

ketumati yug (1530-1597)

yeh barmi saahitya ke vistaar aur prasaar ka yug hai. is samay yuddh ka vaataavaran rahane ke kaaran abhiyaan geeton ki prachur maatra mein rachana hui hai. navade, vanyaaabalan aur naintaayit aadi is yug ke prasiddh kavi hain. ketumati ki vijay evam av ki paraajaya ho jaane se sabhi kavi ketumati mein hi paae jaate hain.

dviteeya avayug (1597-1750)

is kaal mein paali shaasakon ke aadhaar par mahaakaavyon evam khandakaavyon ke saath hi samvaad ka bhi nirmaan hua. sab rachanaaeain bauddh dharm sambandhi hi huin. yug ke varaamisanghanaath ka "manikundal" naamak kathaasaahitya kathaagranthon mein sabse achha maana jaata hai. yeh katha sanskrut ki tarah samaasabahul aur alankaarayukt hai. samaas ka hone par bhi prachalit shabdon ka hi yathaasthaan prayog kiye vah saadhaaran vyaktiyon ke liye bhi subodh hai. is yug mein rachanaaon ke atirikt bauddh dharmashaastron ka pranayan evam naam se manusmruti ka anuvaad bhi hua. is yug mein 'padesh' naamak raajyamantri ka saahitya atyant prasiddh hai.

ratanaasindh yug (1751-1885) (kunmo)

is yug kaviyon ka abhaav sa hai, is kaaran ismein nai shaili viksit hui aur usamein bhaav ki apeksha ras ko mahatva diya jaane laga. raajaaon ki stuti prachur maatra mein (ritu) naamak nae kaavyon ka praadurbhaav hua. ismein prakrutivrnan ka hi aadhikya hota hai. is yug mein "oo O" kavi hue jo 15 varsh ki avastha se hi saahitya ka karne lage. sinhasoor, nandasoor aur laive sundar ka ratu atyant hua. usamein prakruti ka chitran bahut safalta se kiya.

amarapoor yug (1886-1900)

is yug mein bade bade hue hain. inmein "oo to" ka naam ullekhaneeya hai. "raamarakan" ki rachana ki hai. is samay barmi mein paaainch Ram par paaainch prakaar ki raamaayan milti hai, yatha hindu Ram, samatra Ram, shyaam Ram aur barmi Ram. inmein se bodhistv Ram hain aur Ram sanskrut ke raamaayan Ram hain. yahaaain oo to ne apne raamarakan ka nirmaan shyaam Ram ke raamaayan ke aadhaar par kiya. is aaj tak barmi saahitya mein ek prasiddh rachana ke roop kiya jaata hai. is yug mein oo ja, oo omaas aur di ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. stri saahityakaaron ki bahulata.

mandale yug (1900-1940)

is yug ka saahitya bhi raajaaon hai. anek bhaashaaon se anuvaad bhi is yug mein hue. punya ka naam bahut aadar se liya jaata hai. unhonne mukhi lekhani se anek prakaar ke sahitya ka srujan kiya. unke naatak lokapriya hain. bhaasha, shaili, bhaav aadi ki saahitya atyant ooaincha maana jaata hai. isliye unhein 'barmi kaalidaas' evam 'sheksapeeyar' kaha gaya hai.

aadhunik yug (1941-)

taङamo - myaanmaar ke aadhunik kaal ke kavi

is yug mein angreji saahitya naveen kathaasaahitya ka nirmaan hone laga jo kathaaon se bhinn hai. kavitaaon mein bhi kraantikaari ki gayi. jaise-jaise maanav ka vichaar parivrtit hota vaise vaise hi kaviyon ki shaili mein parivartan haana svaabhaavik hai. is yug mein min thuvan (min svarn) ne chhandamukt kavita ka nirmaan kiya hai. inhein aarambh mein anek aalochakon ka saamana karna pada kintu baad mein sabhi inka anukaran karne lage. is yug mein jauji, dvetaayi, nuyin, bamo bonvai, tinte, taito, jeya, yan O aadi kavi, kavayitri evam saahityakaar ullekhaneeya hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain