barmi lipi

barmi lipi ke akshar

myaanmaar lipi ya barmi lipi (barmi bhaasha: ဗaaမaaာaaအaaကaa္aaခaaရaaာ / bamaaakkhara ya မaaြaaနaa်aaမaaာaaအaaကaa္aaခaaရaaာ / mranmaaakkhara ), barmi bhaasha likhne ke liye prayukt hoti hai. yeh braahmi parivaar ki lipi hai. iske akshar gol hote hain jo taadpatr par lekhan mein suvidha pradaan karte the kyonki seedhi rekhaaeain likhne se patton ke fatne ka dar rahata hai.

anukram

barmi uchchaaran ki kuchh vishishtataaeain

barmi lipi, braahmi lipi se vyutpann hai kintu kuchh-kuchh shabdon ki vartani aur uchchaaran mein bahut antar hota hai. udaaharan ke liye,

  • r ko praay: ya uchchaarit karte hain. (paali, hindi tatha videshi shabdon ko chhodkar)
  • ch ko s uchchaarit karte hain.
  • s ko /t/the/g uchchaarit karte hain.
  • p ko b uchchaarit karte hain.

kuchh anya aniymittaaeain

  • -နaa်, ံ, -မaa် se ant hone vaale shabdon ke ant mein anunaasik ( n ) uchchaarit hota hai.
  • -ပaa် aur -တaa် se ant hone vaale shabdon ke uchchaaran mein ant mein t aata hai.

svar

svatantr svar svar (maatra ke roop mein)
sanket devanaagari IPA sanket devanaagari IPA
a [], [ə] က k [ka̰], []
အaaာ aa [à] ကaaာ ka []
အaaာaaး aa: [á] ကaaာaaး kaa: []
i [] ကaaိ ki [kḭ]
E [ì] ကaaီ ki []
အaaီaaး i: [í] ကaaီaaး kee: []
u [] ကaaု ku [kṵ]
oo [ù] ကaaူ koo []
ဦaaး oo: [ú] ကaaူaaး koo: []
ဧaa့ A [] ကaaေaa့ ke [kḛ]
A [è] ကaaေ ke []
ဧaaး e: [é] ကaaေaaး ke: []
အaaဲaa့ ai [ɛaa̰] ကaaဲaa့ kai [kɛaa̰]
အaယa်a‌ ai [ɛaà] ကaယa်a‌ kai [kɛaà]
အaaဲ ai: [ɛaá] ကaaဲ kai: [kɛaá]
အaaိaaုaa့ O [] ကaaိaaုaa့ ko [ko̰]
အaaိaaု O [ò] ကaaိaaု ko []
အaaိaaုaaး o: [ó] ကaaိaaုaaး ko: []
အaaေaaာaa့ au [ɔaa̰] ကaaေaaာaa့ kau [kɔaa̰]
au [ɔaà] ကaaေaaာaa် kau [kɔaà]
au: [ɔaá] ကaaေaaာ kau: [kɔaá]

yahaaain : (visrg) ka arth vaastavik visrg naheen hai balki iske lagaane ka arth sangat maatra ko bada(sudeergh) karna hai.

vyanjan

barmi vyanjan paali uchchaaran barmi uchchaaran barmi uchchaaran aaipeee paali uchchaaran aaipeee MLCTS lipyantaran
က k k [ka'] k
kh kh [kʰaaa'] hk
g g [ɡaaa'] g
gh g [ɡaaa'] [ɡaaʰaaa'] gh
[ŋaaa'] ng
ch s [sa'] c
chh sh [sʰaaa'] hc
j za [za'] j
jh j [za'] [jʰaaa] jh
nya nya [ɲaaa] ny
t t [ta'] [ṭaa] t
th th [tʰaaa'] [ṭaha] ht
d the [da'] [ḍaa] d
dh the [da'] [ḍaaʰaaa] dh
n na [na'] [ṇaa] n
‍a‍aတ t t [ta] t
th th [tʰaaa'] ht
the the [da'] d
dh the [da'] [dʰaa] dh
na na [na'] n
p p/b [pa'] p
f f [pʰaaa'] hp
b b [ba'] b
bh b [ba'] bh
m m [ma'] m
ya ya [ja'] y
r ya [ja'] [ɹaaa] r
l l [la'] l
va va [wa'] w
s th [θaaa'] s
h h [ha'] h
l l [la'] [ḷaa] l
a a [ʔaaa'] [a] rien

barmi ank

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Diacritics

There are several diactric marks that alter the vowel sound of a letter. Two diacritics are used exclusively for Pali and are rarely seen elsewhere.

Diacritic naam tippani
ရaaေaaးaaခaaျ ဝaိaုaကa်aခaျa၊ မaaေaaာaaကaa်aaခaaျ creates low tone
ိ (ဣ) လaaုaaံaaးaaကaaြaaီaaးaaတaaငaa် creates an i sound at creaky tone ( e.g. English seat)
ီ (ဤ) လaaုaaံaaးaaကaaြaaီaaးaaတaaငaa်aaဆaaနaa်aaခaaတaa် creates an i sound at low tone
ု (ဥ) တaaစaa်aaခaaျaaေaaာaaငaa်aaးaaငaaငaa် creates a u sound at creaky tone (e.g. English truce)
ူ (ဦ) နaaှaaစaa်aaခaaျaaေaaာaaငaa်aaးaaငaaငaa် creates a u sound at low tone
ေ (ဧ) သaaဝaaေaaထaaိaaုaaး creates an ei sound at high tone (e.g. English cane)
ဲ (ဩ) နaaေaaာaaကaa်aaပaaစaa် creates an è sound at high tone (e.g. English pet)
အaaသaaတaa်, တaaံaaခaaွaaနaa် viraam (ဝaaိaaရaaာaaမ) ; modifies the sound quality of a letter and varies with letters (usually creates a consonant final)
◌aး ဝaaစaa္aaစaaပaaေaaါaaကaa်, ရaaှaaေaa့aaကaaပaaေaaါaaကaa်, ရaaှaaေaa့aaဆaaီaaး visrg; creates high tone, but cannot be used alone
သaaေaaးaaသaaေaaးaaတaaငaa် anunaasik, creates nasalised -n final
အaaေaaာaaကaa်aaမaaြaaစaa် anusvaar, creates short tone
keval paali mein prayukt
keval paali mein prayukt

One or more of these accents can be added to a consonant to change its sound. In addition, other modifying symbols are used to differentiate tone and sound, but are not considered diacritics.

myaanmaar lipi ka lipyantaran

barmi lipi ke romaneekaran ki chaar pranaaliyaaain prachalit hain. iname se do pranaaliyaaain lipyantaran (transliterations) kahi ja sakti hain tatha anya do ka jor uchchaaran par hai isaliye unhein taanskripshan (transcriptions) kah sakte hain.

lipyantaran ki pranaaliyaaain hain- MLC Transcription System (Wikipedia article) tatha ALA-LC Romanization bhi dekhein. taansakripshan pranaaliyaaain hain- BGN/PCGN romanization (kuchh parivrtanon ke saath) tatha John Okell dvaara prayukt pranaali.

in pranaaliyon ka vistrut vivechan neeche ki saaraniyon mein diya gaya hai-

aarambhik (Syllable onsets)

Syllable onsets (ya "initials") ka romaneekaran nimnavat kiya jaata hai-

barmi IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
က saaaincha:IPAchar k k k k
ကaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar ky ky ky c
ကaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar kr kr ky c
ကaaျaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] kyw kyv kyw cw
ကaaြaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] krw krv kyw cw
ကaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] kw kv kw kw
saaaincha:IPAchar hk kh hk hk
ခaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar hky khy ch hc
ခaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar hkr khr ch hc
ခaaျaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hkyw khyv chw hcw
ခaaြaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hkrw khrv chw hcw
ခaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hkw khv hkw hkw
saaaincha:IPAchar g g g g
ဂaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar gy gy gy j
ဂaaျaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] gyw gyv gyw jw
ဂaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] gw gv gw gw
saaaincha:IPAchar gh gh g g
saaaincha:IPAchar ng ng ng
ငaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hng ṅah hng hng
ငaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar ngr ṅar ny ny
ငaaြaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hngr ṅaarh hny hny
ငaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hngw ṅaavh hngw hngw
saaaincha:IPAchar c c s s
စaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] cw cv sw sw
saaaincha:IPAchar hc ch hs hs
ဆaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hcw chv hsw hsw
saaaincha:IPAchar j j z z
ဇaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] jw jv zw zw
saaaincha:IPAchar jh jh z z

saaaincha:IPAchar ny ñ
ñañ
ny ny
ဉaaှ
ညaaှ
saaaincha:IPAchar hny ñah
ñaañaah
hny hny
ညaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] nyw ñav nyw nyw
ညaaွaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hnyw ñaahv hnyw hnyw
saaaincha:IPAchar t t t
saaaincha:IPAchar ht ṭah ht ht
saaaincha:IPAchar d d d
saaaincha:IPAchar dh ḍah d d
saaaincha:IPAchar n n n
saaaincha:IPAchar t t t t
တaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] tw tv tw tw
saaaincha:IPAchar ht th ht ht
ထaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] htw thv htw htw
saaaincha:IPAchar d d d d
ဒaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] dw dv dw dw
saaaincha:IPAchar dh dh d d
saaaincha:IPAchar n n n n
နaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hn nh hn hn
နaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] nw nv nw nw
နaaွaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hnw nvh hnw hnw
saaaincha:IPAchar p p p p
ပaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar py py py py
ပaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar pr pr py py
ပaaြaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] prw prv pw pw
ပaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] pw pv pw pw
saaaincha:IPAchar hp ph hp hp
ဖaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar hpy phy hpy hpy
ဖaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar hpr phr hpy hpy
ဖaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hpw phv hpw hpw
saaaincha:IPAchar b b b b
ဗaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar by by by by
ဗaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar br br by by
ဗaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] bw bv bw bw
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
bh bh b
hp
b
hp
ဘaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] bhw bhv bw bw
saaaincha:IPAchar m m m m
မaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hm mh hm hm
မaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar my my my my
မaaျaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hmy myh hmy hmy
မaaြ saaaincha:IPAchar mr mr my my
မaaြaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hmr mrh hmy hmy
မaaြaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] mrw mrv mw mw
မaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] mw mv mw mw
မaaွaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hmw mvh hmw hmw
saaaincha:IPAchar y y y y
ယaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hy yh sh hy
ယaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] yw yv yw yw
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar[2]
r r y
r
y
r
ရaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hr rh sh hy
ရaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] rw rv yw yw
ရaaွaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hrw rvh shw hyw
saaaincha:IPAchar l l l l
လaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar hl lh hl hl
လaaျ saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
ly ly ly
y
ly
y
လaaျaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
hly lyh hly
sh
hly
hy
လaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] lw lv lw lw
လaaွaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hlw lvh hlw hlw
saaaincha:IPAchar[1] w v w w
ဝaaှ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hw vh hw hw
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
s s th
dh
th
သaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] sw sv thw thw
saaaincha:IPAchar h h h h
ဟaaွ saaaincha:IPAchar[1] hw hv hw hw
saaaincha:IPAchar l l l
saaaincha:IPAchar (none) ' (none) (none)
tippani
  1. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya t th d dh n t th the dh na p f b bh m ya But see below for what happens before တaa်, နaa်, ပaa်, မaa် and with ံ.
  2. In some loanwords only

antim (Syllable rhymes)

Syllable rhymes (ya "finals") ka romaneekaran nimnavat kiya jaata hai. is saarani mein barmi varn 'k' က saaaincha:IPAchar ko aadhaar ke roop mein prayog kiya gaya hai.

barmi IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
က saaaincha:IPAchar ka. ka ka.
ကaaကaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kak kak' ket keʔ
ကaaငaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kang kaṅ' kin kiñ
ကaaစaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kac kac' kit kiʔ
ကaaညaa် saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
kany kañaañ' ki
ke
ki
kei
ke
ကaaဉaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kañ' kin kiñ
ကaaတaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kat kat' kat kaʔ
ကaaနaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kan kan' kan kañ
ကaaပaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kap kap' kat kaʔ
ကaaမaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kam kam' kan kañ
ကaaယaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kai kay' ke
ကaaံ saaaincha:IPAchar kam kaṃ kan kañ
ကaaာ saaaincha:IPAchar ka ka ka
ကaaိ saaaincha:IPAchar ki. ki ki.
ကaaိaaတaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kit kit' keik keiʔ
ကaaိaaနaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kin kin' kein keiñ
ကaaိaaပaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kip kip' keik keiʔ
ကaaိaaမaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kim kim' kein keiñ
ကaaိaaံ saaaincha:IPAchar kim kiṃ kein keiñ
ကaaီ saaaincha:IPAchar ki ki ki
ကaaု saaaincha:IPAchar ku. ku ku.
ကaaုaaတaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kut kut' kok kouʔ
ကaaုaaနaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kun kun' kon kouñ
ကaaုaaပaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kup kup' kok kouʔ
ကaaုaaမaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kum kum' kon kouñ
ကaaုaaံ saaaincha:IPAchar kum kuṃ kon kouñ
ကaaူ saaaincha:IPAchar ku ku ku
ကaaေ saaaincha:IPAchar ke ke ke kei
ကaaဲ saaaincha:IPAchar kai: kai kè:
ကaaေaaာ saaaincha:IPAchar kau: ko kaw:
ကaaေaaာaaကaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kauk kok' kauk kauʔ
ကaaေaaာaaငaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kaung koṅ' kaung kauñ
ကaaေaaာaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kau ko' kaw ko
ကaaိaaု saaaincha:IPAchar kui kui ko kou
ကaaိaaုaaကaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kuik kuik' kaik kaiʔ
ကaaိaaုaaငaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kuing kuiṅ' kaing kaiñ

ကaaွaaတaa်, ဝaaတaa်, ityaadi

In sequences with ွ or ဝ before တaa်, နaa်, ပaa်, မaa် or together with ံ, the vowel pronounced is saaaincha:IPAchar rather than the expected saaaincha:IPAchar. This is reflected in the BGN/PCGN and Okell transcriptions, but not in the MLCTS and ALA-LC transliterations.

Burmese IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
ကaaွaaတaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kwat kvat' kut kuʔ
ကaaွaaနaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kwan kvan' kun kuñ
ကaaွaaပaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kwap kvap' kut kuʔ
ကaaွaaမaa် saaaincha:IPAchar kwam kvam' kun kuñ
ကaaွaaံ saaaincha:IPAchar kwam kvaṃ kun kuñ
ဝaaတaa် saaaincha:IPAchar wat vat' wut wuʔ
ဝaaနaa် saaaincha:IPAchar wan van' wun wuñ
ဝaaပaa် saaaincha:IPAchar wap vap' wut wuʔ
ဝaaမaa် saaaincha:IPAchar wam vam' wun wuñ
ဝaaံ saaaincha:IPAchar wam vaṃ wun wuñ

svatantr svar

The independent vowel letters are transcribed the same as the vowels formed with , except in ALA-LC, where those formed with take a preposed apostrophe ('):

barmi IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
အaaိ
saaaincha:IPAchar i. 'i
i
i. í
အaaီ
saaaincha:IPAchar i
ī
i i
အaaု
saaaincha:IPAchar u. 'u
u
u. ú
အaaူ
saaaincha:IPAchar u
ū
u u
အaaေ
saaaincha:IPAchar e 'e
e
e ei
အaaေaaာ
saaaincha:IPAchar au: 'o
o
aw: ò
အaaေaaာaa်
saaaincha:IPAchar au 'o'
o'
aw o

ton (Tones)

The low tone and checked tone are represented as shown in the table above. The representation of the high tone and creaky tone varies depending on the respective syllable rhyme: sometimes they are inherent in the vowel symbol used, and sometimes they are indicated by a diacritic mark. The ALA-LC romanization indicates these two tones explicitly only in cases where diacritic marks are used; the other three romanizations indicate them regardless of how they are spelled. Examples:

Tone Burmese IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
High ကaaဲ saaaincha:IPAchar kai: kai kè:
ကaaေaaာ saaaincha:IPAchar kau: ko kaw:
ကaaာaaး saaaincha:IPAchar ka: kāa″ ka:
ကaaနaa်aaး saaaincha:IPAchar kan: kan'″ kan: kàañ
Creaky က saaaincha:IPAchar ka. ka ka.
ကaaိ saaaincha:IPAchar ki. ki ki.
ကaaု saaaincha:IPAchar ku. ku ku.
ကaaဲaa့ saaaincha:IPAchar kai. kai′ kè.
ကaaနaa့aa် saaaincha:IPAchar kan. kan'′ kan. káañ

laghu silaibal (Minor syllables)

Minor syllables in Burmese contain only the vowel saaaincha:IPAchar in the rhyme and do not bear tone. They are always followed by a major syllable (any other kind of syllable). In the orthography, they are most commonly spelled as if their rhyme was saaaincha:IPAchar (i.e. with no vowel diacritic at all), but are often spelled in other ways. In the MLCTS and ALA-LC systems, minor syllables are romanized exactly as they are spelled in Burmese orthography. In the modified BGN/PCGN system and in the Okell system, minor syllables are indicated by the letter ă regardless of the Burmese orthography. Examples:

Burmese IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
ခaaလaaုaaတaa် saaaincha:IPAchar hka.lut khalut' hkăaalok hkăaalouʔ
စaaာaaရaaေaaး saaaincha:IPAchar care: cāare″ săaaye: săaayeì
ငaaါaaးaaဥ saaaincha:IPAchar nga:u. ṅaaāaa″aau ngăaau. ngăaú
သaaူaaငaaယaa် saaaincha:IPAchar su-ngai sūaaṅaaay' thăaangè thăange

silaibal ka vibhaajan

Where two consonants appear next to each other between two vowels in a romanization, use hyphens as necessary to avoid ambiguity. For example (the following are not necessarily real words of Burmese):

Burmese IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
အaaကaa်aaယaaနaa်
အaaာaaကaaျaaနaa်
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
ak-yan
a-kyan
'ak'yan'
'āaakyan'
et-yan
a-kyan
eʔaayañ
acañ
ကaaတaa်aaဝaaကaa်
ကaaာaaတaaွaaကaa်
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
kat-wak
ka-twak
kat'vak'
kāaatvak'
kat-wet
ka-twet
kaʔaaweʔ
katweʔ
တaaနaa်aaဂaaါ
တaaာaaငaaါ
saaaincha:IPAchar
saaaincha:IPAchar
tan-ga
ta-nga
tan'gā
tāaṅaā
tan-ga
ta-nga
tañaaga
tanga

vyanjan ka uchchaaran (Consonant voicing)

In many words, a written voiceless (aspirated or unaspirated) consonant is pronounced voiced when it appears after a vowel or saaaincha:IPAchar. This is indicated in the BGN-PCGN and Okell transcriptions, but not in the MLCTS and ALA-LC transliterations. In BGN-PCGN, the letter for the voiced consonant is used; in Okell, the letter for the voiceless consonant is used but underlined. Examples:

Burmese IPA MLCTS ALA-LC BGN-PCGN Okell
ဆaaီaaပaaုaaံaaး saaaincha:IPAchar hcipum: chīapuṃa″ hsibon: hsipoùañ
အaaုaaနaa်aaးaaဆaaီ saaaincha:IPAchar un:hci 'un'″achī on:zi oùañhsi
အaaညaaာaaသaaာaaး saaaincha:IPAchar a.nyasa: 'añaāasāa″ ăaanyadha: ăanyathà

barmi yoonikod

U+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1000 က
1010
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1030
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1080
1090

inhein bhi dekhein

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