barlin

barlin kaithedral
braandenabarg gate, Germany ke ek meal ka patthar
barlin TV tower, shahar ke liye meal ka patthar
barlin-mite ke kshitij
barlin ka olanpik stadium
bhaaloo mera saathi: bar lan ki shaanti aur svatantrata ka prateek

barlin Germany ki rajdhani aur iske 16 raajyon mein se ek hai. yeh barlin-braindanabarg metropolitan kshetr ke madhya mein, Germany ke uttar-poorvi bhaag mein sthit hai. iski janasankhya 34 lakh hai. yeh Germany ka sabse bada aur Europeeya sangh ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai. barlin Europe ki raajaneeti, sanskruti aur vigyaan ka mahattvapoorn kendra hai. Europe ke yaataayaat ke liye yeh ek dhuri ke samaan hai. yahaaain kai mahattvapoorn vishvavidyaalaya, sangrahaalaya aur shodh kendra hain. yeh shahar bahut teji se vikaas kar raha hai aur yahaaain ke samaaroh, utsav, agrani kalaaeain, vaastushilp aur raatri-jeevan kaafi prasiddh hain. barlin 13veen shataabdi mein sthaapit hua aur is kshetr ke kai raajyon aur saamraajyon ki rajdhani raha- prushiya raajya (1701 se), jarman saamraajya (1871-1918), veimaar ganatantr (1919-1932) aur teesari raaikh (1933-1945). dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad is shahar ka vibhaajan ho gaya. poorvi barlin jarman lokataantrik ganaraajya (poorvi Germany) ki rajdhani bana aur barlin deevaar se ghira pashchimi barlin pashchimi Germany ke hisse aaya. 1989 mein barlin deevaar ke tootane par barlin shahar fir ek ho gaya aur Germany ke ekeekaran ke baad poore Germany ki rajdhani bana.

anukram

sthiti

52° 32mi. uttari akshaansh tatha 13° 24mint poorvi deshaantar. yeh uttar-poorvi Germany mein baaltik saagar ke tat se 110 meal andar ki or elb aur odar nadiyon ke beech spri nadi ke donon kinaaron par basa hua hai.

itihaas

barlin kaithedral (baaen). barlin ke royal pailes (daaen), prashiya raajaaon aur jarman samraaton ke nivaas. yeh 2019 tak khangaala kiya jaaega.
barlin mein hindu mandir

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke poorv barlin ek bada samruddhishaali aur sab prakaar se unnat nagar tha. Europe mein London aur peris ke baad isi ka sthaan tha. par dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samay (1945 E.) nagar mein itna adhik parivartan hua ki iska saara dhaaaincha hi badal gaya. yeh mukhyat: do bhaagon mein vibhaajit ho gaya - ek pashchimi barlin aur doosra poorvi barlin. pashchimi barlin vastut: pashchimi Germany ke sangheeya ganaraajya ki rajdhani ke roop mein tha aur is par sanyukt raajya amareeka, great Britain tatha France ka sanyukt adhikaar tha. poorvi barlin poornataya poorvi Germany ke lokataantrik ganaraajya ke antargat ho gaya tatha vaastav mein yeh roos ki sanrakshan mein tha.

Europeeya star par barlin ek naya nagar maana jaata hai. iska vikaas praarambh mein kaaln (Kalln) aur barlin naamak do gaaainvon se shuroo hua. barlin spri nadi ke dakshin mein tatha kaaln uttar mein nadi ki donon bhujaaon dvaara nirmit taapoo par viksit hua. in donon nagaron ke niyam evam prashaasan pehle bilkul alag alag the, fir bhi donon san 1307 se saamaanya kaaryapaalika ke antargat rahe. aage chalakar san 1709 E. mein ye donon poori tarah sanyukt ho gaye.

thode samay baad poorv evam uttar-poorv ke vyaapaar ke liye in donon nagaron ki sthiti atyant mahatvapoorn prateet hui aur is drushti se inki badi unnati hui. saamarik drushti se bhi iska sthaan adviteeya samjha gaya. is prakaar teevr vyaapaarik unnati ke kaaran Germany ke pragatisheel uttari nagaron se iska sambandh hona aavashyak ho gaya aur ant mein apne uddeshyon ki poorti ke liye yeh hainsiyaatik league mein sammilit ho gaya. fir to vibhinn vaataavaran evam paristhitiyon mein barlin shanai: shanai: viksit hota raha.

19veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein barlin mein bahut si aantarik evam baahya gadbadiyaaain huin jinke kaaran is nagar ki unnati mein baadhaaeain utpann hui. aage chalakar fir vah upayukt avsar aaya jab nagar ki unnati bhali prakaar hui. san 1860 se lekar san 1920 tak barlin ki seema mein koi parivartan naheen hua, yadyapi san 1912 E. mein pramukh nagar evam uske aas paas ke kshetron ki ek sanstha ka nirmaan hua aur ismein sammilit sampoorn kshetron ko vishaal barlin ke naam se sambodhit kiya gaya. is sanstha ka uddeshya sadkon, relon tatha bhavan yojanaaon aur saamaanya niyantran rakhana, aantarik suraksha kaayam karna evam jangalon tatha bhavan nirmaan ke liye jameen upalabdh karna tha. iske sheegra hi pashchaat fir kuchh sudhaar karna aavashyak prateet hua. san 1920 mein barlin mein ek nai nagarapaalika sthaapit ki gayi jismein sabhi padosi kshetron ko prabhaavakaari unnati ki drushti se ek prashaasan ke antargat rakha gaya. is prakaar dviteeya vishvayuddh ke poorv Germany ke itihaas mein barlin ka vikaas charamotkarsh par raha.

san 1945 ke pehle nagar ki avastha ko drushtigt karte hue yeh dekha gaya ki nagar ke pashchimi bhaag ki or rahane ke liye makaan basaae gaye the arthaat isi bhaag mein log base. uttarapashchimi bhaag mein shaikshanik, vaigyaanik, evam militri sansthaaon ka vikaas hua. uttari bhaag mein yantron ke kaarya unnat hue. uttar-poorvi bhaag ooni saamaan ke nirmaan ke liye prasiddh hua. poorvi tatha dakshin-poorvi bhaag mein raingaai, furniture, dhaatu aadi ke udyog panape aur dakshini bhaag rel ke udyog ke liye prasiddh hua. rajdhani ka saamaajik kaaryaalaya sambandhi jeevan royal pailes se lekar braidenabargar taur tak antaraden linden par keindrit hua.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samay barlin ki dasha bilkul kharaab ho gayi aur yeh buri tarah tahas nahas ho gaya. jaisa oopar kaha gaya hai, yeh kai bhaagon mein vibhaajit ho gaya aur vibhinn shaktiyon ne ispar apna prabhutv jama liya. vaastav mein is samay yeh nagar raajaneetik kheencha taani ka vishay ban gaya tha. fir bhi dviteeya vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke baad se vibhinn khandon mein hote hue bhi barlin ne fir unnati karna praarambh kiya parantu vah apni puraani sthiti mein ab bhi naheen aa saka hai.

barlin mein yaataayaat tatha sandeshavaahan ko dekhne se pata chalta hai ki pashchimi barlin mein vaayuyaan dvaara aana jaana bahut adhik hota hai. ghere ke baad adhiktar videshi bhramanakaari vaayuyaanon dvaara yahaaain aate jaate rahe hain. yahaaain ke sthaaneeya udyog dhandhon ki nirmit vastueain vaayuyaanon dvaara hi baahar bheji jaati rahi hain. vaise saamaanyat: rel dvaara bhi yaataayaat prachalit hai. kabhi kabhi soviyt sarkaar dvaara kuchh baaton ko lekar beech beech mein vighn baadhaaeain utpann ho jaaya karti hain. poorvi kshetr se drutagaami rele poorvi Germany tatha madhya Europe ke anya bhaagon mein poorv, pashchim rel yaataayaat ke antargat, khoob prachalit hain. jo bhi ho, itna avashya hai ki vibhinn raajaneetik paristhitiyon ke kaaran barlin mein yaataayaat bahut baadhaapoorn raha hai. barlin mein ek bhaag se doosare bhaag ke beech yaataayaat seva prachalit hai parantu vibhaageeya seemaaon par relagaadiyaaain badalani padti hain. nitya poorvi barlin ke log pashchim barlin mein dukaanadaari aadi kaarya karne ke liye jaate rahate hain. vaastav mein dekha jaae to poorvi tatha pashchimi Germany ki samasya ne barlin ke vyaapaarik mahatva ko kam kar diya hai, visheshakar jalayaataayaat ke maamale mein.

san 1945 ke pehle barlin nagar Germany ka prasiddh vyaapaarik, beema, baiking evam dalaali ka kendra raha. saath hi asankhya vishaal bhavanon ke kaaryaalaya bhi rahe. udyog dhandhon ke maamalon mein bhi yeh nagar bejod raha aur har prakar ke vaigyaanik upakaran, bijli ke saamaan, masheenein, motarein, vastr, vaayuyaan, masheenon ke aujaar, tarbaain, traiktar, leins aadi banaane mein Europe mein iska pramukh sthaan raha. san 1945 ke baad se barlin ne apni aarthik kshamata ko fir se kaayam karne ki koshish ki parantu yahaaain ki vichitr kathin raajaneetik paristhitiyon ne pashchim barlin ko kaafi pangu bana diya jisse berojgaari ki samasya kaafi badh gayi.

yeh bhi dekhein: Germany ki arthavyavastha

bhoogol

Germany mein barlin ka sthaan
12 jilon aur barlin ke 96 jilon

prashaasan

arthashaastr

shiksha

sanskruti

khel

yaataayaat

inhein bhi dekhein

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain