bankimchandr chattopaadhyaaya

vande maataram ke rachayita bankimchandr chattopaadhyaaya

bankimchandr chattopaadhyaaya (bangala: বaaঙaa্aaকaaিaaমaaচaaনaa্aaদaa্aaর চaaটaa্aaটaaোaaপaaাaaধaa্aaযaaাaaযaa়) (1838 - 1894) bangala ke prakhyaat upanyaasakaar, kavi, gadyakaar aur patrakaar the. Bhaarat ke raashtreeya geet 'vande maataram' unki hi rachana hai jo bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke kaal mein kraantikaariyon ka preranaasrot ban gaya tha. raveendranaath thaakur ke poorvavarti baangla saahityakaaron mein unka anyatam sthaan hai.

aadhunik yug mein bangala saahitya ka utthaan unneesaveen sadi ke madhya se shuru hua. ismein raaja raamamohan rai, ishvar chandr vidyaasaagar, pyaareechaaaind mitr, Michael madhusudan datt, bankim chandr chattopaadhyaaya, raveendranaath thaakur ne agrani bhoomika nibhaayi. iske pehle Bengal ke saahityakaar bangala ki jagah sanskrut ya angreji mein likhna pasand karte the. bangala saahitya mein janamaanas tak paith banaane vaalon me shaayad bankim chandr chattopaadhyaaya pehle saahityakaar the.

anukram

jeevani

bankim chandr chattopaadhyaaya ka janm 27 June san 1838 ko uttari chaubees paragana ke kanthalapaada mein ek paramparaagat aur samruddh bangaali parivaar mein hua tha. unki shiksha hugali college aur preseedeinsi college mein hui. 1857 mein unhonne beee paas kiya aur 1869 mein kaanoon ki degree haasil ki. iske baad unhone sarkaari naukri kar li aur 1891 mein sarkaari seva se retire hue. unka nidhan April 1894 mein hua. preseedeinsi kaalej se bi. A. ki upaadhi lenevaale ye pehle bhaarateeya the. shikshaasamaapti ke turant baad deputy magistrate pad par inki niyukti ho gayi. kuchh kaal tak Bengal sarkaar ke sachiv pad par bhi rahe. raayabahaadur aur si. I. E. ki upaadhiyaaain paain.

rachanaaeain

bankimchandr chatarji ki pehchaan baangla kavi, upanyaasakaar, lekhak aur patrakaar ke roop mein hai. unki pratham prakaashit rachana raajamohans vaaif thi. iski rachana angreji mein ki gayi thi. unki pehli prakaashit baangla kruti 'durgeshanandini' March 1865 mein chhapi thi. yeh ek roomaani rachana hai. unki agali rachana ka naam kapaalakundala (1866) hai. ise unki sabse adhik roomaani rachanaaon mein se ek maana jaata hai. unhonne 1872 mein maasik patrika bangadarshan ka bhi prakaashan kiya. apni is patrika mein unhonne vishvruksh (1873) upanyaas ka kramik roop se prakaashan kiya. krushnakaanter vil mein chatarji ne angreji shaasakon par teekha vyangya kiya hai.

aanandamath (1882) raajaneetik upanyaas hai. is upanyaas mein uttar Bengal mein 1773 ke sanyaasi vidroh ka varnan kiya gaya hai. is pustak mein deshbhakti ki bhaavana hai. chatarji ka antim upanyaas seetaaraam (1886) hai. ismein muslim satta ke prati ek hindu shaasak ka virodh darshaaya gaya hai.

unke anya upanyaason mein durgeshanandini, mrunaalini, indira, raadhaaraani, krushnakaanter daftar, devi chaudharaani aur mocheeraam gaurer jeevanacharit shaamil hai. unki kavitaaen lalita O maanas naamak sangrah mein prakaashit hui. unhonne dharm, saamaajik aur samasaamaayik muddon par aadhaarit kai nibandh bhi likhe.

bankimchandr ke upanyaason ka Bhaarat ki lagbhag sabhi bhaashaaon mein anuvaad kiya gaya. baangla mein sirf bankim aur sharatachandr chattopaadhyaaya ko yeh gaurav haasil hai ki unki rachanaaen hindi sahit sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein aaj bhi chaav se padhi jaati hai. lokapriyta ke maamale mein bankim aur sharad aur raveendr naath thaakur se bhi aage hain. bankim bahumukhi pratibha vaale rachanaakaar the. unke katha saahitya ke adhiktar paatr shahari madhyam varg ke log hain. inke paatr aadhunik jeevan ki traasadiyon aur praacheen kaal ki paranparaaon se judi dikkaton se saath saath joohjte hain. yeh samasya Bhaarat bhar ke kisi bhi praant ke shahari madhyam varg ke samaksh aati hai. lihaaja madhyam varg ka paathak bankim ke upanyaason mein apni chhavi dekhta hai.

granth taalika

upanyaas

  • seetaaraam
  • upakatha

(indira,yugalaaङagureeya aur raadhaaraani trayi sangrah)

  • Rajmohan's Wife

prabandh granth

  • kamalaakaanter daptar
  • lokarahasya
  • Krishna charitra
  • bijnyaaanarahasya
  • bibidh samaalochana
  • prabandh-pustak
  • saamya
  • Krishna charitra
  • bibidh prabandh

vividh

  • lalita (puraakaalik galp)
  • dharmmatattb
  • sahaj rachana shiksha
  • shreemadbhagabadageeta
  • kabitaapustak

(kichhu kabita, eban lalita O maanas)

sampaadit granthaavali

  • deenabandhu mitrer jeebani
  • baaङagala saahitye pyaareechaaaind mitrer sthaan
  • sanyajeebachandr chattopaadhyaayer jeebani

baahari kadiyaaain