bangaali saahitya

bangala saahitya

Charyapada.jpg
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.jpg Rabindranath Tagore in 1909.jpg Nazrul.jpg
Begum Rokeya.jpg Mir mosharraf hossain.jpg Sharat Chandra Chatterji.jpg
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charyaapad puthi
bankimchandr chattopaadhyaaya, raveendranaath thaakur, kaaji najrul islaam
begam rokeya, meer mashaararaf hosen, sharatchandr chattopaadhyaaya

upendrakishor raayachaudhuri jeevanaanand das sukaant Bhattacharya
shaamasur Rahman, suneel gangopaadhyaaya, mahaashveta devi
baangla saahitya
baangla bhaasha
saahitya ka itihaas
baangla saahitya ka itihaas
bangala saahityakaaron ki taalika
kaalaanukramik taalika - varnaanukramik taalika
bangaali saahityakaar
lekhak - upanyaasakaar - kavi
saahityadhaara
praacheen aur madhyayugeeya
charyaapad - mangalakaabya - vaishnab padaavali aur saahitya - naathasaahitya - anuvaad saahitya -isalaami saahitya - shaaktapadaavali - baaul gaan
aadhunik saahitya
upanyaas - kavita - naatak - laghukatha - prabandh - shishusaahitya - kalpavijnyaaan
pratishthaan aur puraskaar
bhaasha shikshaayan
saahitya puraskaar
samparkit praveshadbaar
saahitya praveshadbaar
baङag prabeshadbaar

baingala bhaasha ka saahitya sthool roop se teen bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai -

1. praacheen (950-1,200 E.),

2. madhya kaaleen (1,200-1,800 E.) tatha

3. aadhunik-(1,800 ke baad).

praarambhik saahitya Bengal ke jeevan tatha uske gun-dosh-vivechan ki drushti se hi adhik mahatvapoorn hai. chandeedaas, kruttivaas, maalaadhar, piplaai, lochanada, jnyaaanadaas, kavikankan, mukundaraam, krushnadaas, kaasheeraam das, bhaaratachandaraaya, gunaakaar aadi kavi isi kaal mein hue hain.

anukram

praacheen baingala saahitya (950 se 1200 E. tak)

Bhaarat ke anya vidvaanon ki tarah Bengal ke bhi vidvaan sanskrut ki rachanaaon ko hi vishesh mahatva dete the. unki drushti mein vahi "amar bhaarati" ka pad sushobhit kar sakti thi. bolachaal ki bhaasha ko ve parivrtanasheel aur asthaayi maanate the. kintu janasaadhaaran to apne vichaaron aur bhaavon ko prakat karne ke liye usi bhaasha ko pasand kar sakte the jo unke hrudaya ke adhik nikat ho. usi bhaasha mein ve upadesh aur shiksha grahan kar sakte the. puraatan Bengal mein is tarah ki do bhaashaaeain prachalit theen-ek to sthaaneeya bhaasha, jise ham praacheen baingala kah sakte hain, doosari akhil bhaarateeya jan saahityik bhaasha, jo saamaanyat: samooche uttar Bhaarat mein samajhi ja sakti thi. ise naagar ya shauraseni apabhransh kah sakte hain jo mote taur se pashchimi uttar pradesh, poorvi Punjab tatha Rajasthan ki bhaasha thi. saamaanya janta ke liye in donon bhaashaaon mein thoda sa saahitya vidyamaan tha. prem aur bhakti ke geet, kahaavatein aur lokageet maatrubhaasha mein paae jaate the. bauddh tatha hindu dharm ke upadeshak janta mein prachaar karne ke liye jo rachanaaeain taiyaar karte the ve praaya: puraani baingala tatha naagar apabhransh, donon mein hoti theen.

puraatan baingala ki upalabdh rachanaaon mein 47 charyaapad vishesh mahatva ke hain. ye praaya: aath (ya kuchh adhik) panktiyon ke rahasyamaya geet hain jinka sambandh mahaayaan bauddhadharm tatha naathapanth, donon se sambaddh gupt sanpradaaya se hai. inka saamaanya baahari arth to praaya: yon hi samajh mein aa jaata hai aur goodh arth bhi saath ki sanskrut teeka ki sahaayata se, jo is sangrah ke saath hi shri haraprasaad shaastri ko praapt hui thi, samjha ja sakta hai. in geeton ya padyon mein "kavita" naam ki cheej to naheen hai kintu jeevan ki ekaadh jhalak avashya kisi kisi mein dekh padti hai. isse milti julati kuchh anya padyaatmak rachanaaeain Nepal se bhi dau॰ prabodhachandr baagachi tatha Rahul saankrutyaayan aadi ko praapt hui theen".

12veen shataabdi ke ant tak puraatan baingala mein yathesht saahitya taiyaar ho chuka tha jisse us samay ke ek bangaali kavi ne yeh garvokti ki thi "log jaisa ganga mein snaan karne se pavitra ho jaate hain, vaise hi ve 'Bengal vaani' mein snaat hokar pavitra ho sakte hain." kintu durbhaagyavash ukt 47 charyaapadon tatha thode se geeton ya padon ke siva us kaal ki anya bahut hi kam rachanaaeain aaj upalabdh hain.

geetagovind ke rachayita jayadev Bengal ke hindu raaja Lakshman sen (lagbhag 1180 E.) ke shaasanakaal mein vidyamaan the. raadha aur Krishna ke prem ka varnan karanevaale is sundar kaavya mein 24 geet hain jo atukaant na hokar, sabke sab tukaant hain. sanskrut mein praaya: tukaant naheen milta. yeh to apabhransh ya navodit bhaarateeya-aarya bhaashaaon ki visheshata hai. kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki in padon ki rachana moolat: puraani baingala mein ya apabhransh mein ki gayi thi aur fir unamein thoda parivartan kar sanskrut ke anuroop bana diya gaya. is tarah jayadev puraatan Bengal ke prasiddh kavi maane ja sakte hain jinhonne sanskrut ke atirikt sambhavat: puraani baingala mein bhi rachana ki. jo ho, Bengal ke kitne hi paragaami kaviyon ko unase prerana mili, ismein sandeh naheen.

madhyakaaleen baingala saahitya (1,200 se 1,800 E. tak)

puraani baingala mein koi bada prabandh kaavya racha gaya ho, iska koi pramaan naheen milta. us samay aisi rachanaaeain Bengal mein bhi praaya: apabhransh mein hi hoti theen. jo ho, mithila (Bihar) ke prasiddh kavi vidyaapati ne jab prasiddh aitihaasik kaavya (keertilta) ki rachana ki (lagbhag 1,410 E.) tab unhonne bhi iska pranayan apni maatrubhaasha maithili mein na kar apabhransh mein hi kiya, yadyapi beech-beech mein ismein maithil shabdon ka bhi prayog hua hai. 15veen shati tatha vishesh roop se 16veen shati se hi bade prabandh kaavyon evam varnanaatmak rachanaaon ka nirmaan praarambh hua, udaaharanaarya aadarsh naari bihula aur uske pati lakheedhar ki katha, kaalaketu aur fullara ka kathaanak, ityaadi.

san 1203 mein pashchimi Bengal par turkon ka aakraman hua. vyaapak lootamaar, apaharan, hatyaakaand, mahalon tatha pustakaalayon ke vinaash tatha balaat dharmaparivrtan ki baadh si aa gayi. aisa samay saahityik vikaas ke anukool ho hi kaise sakta tha. udaar rukh apanaanevaali soofi prachaarakon ke aagaman mein abhi der thi.

sankramanakaaleen saahitya (1200-1350)

is samay ki saahityik rachanaaon ke koi vishisht praamaanik granth naheen bataae ja sakte. puraane gaayakon aur lokageetakaaron mein bihula aadi ki jo kathaaeain prachalit theen, unheen ke aadhaar par kuchh agyaat kaviyon ne rachanaaeain prastut ki jinhein baingala ke praarambhik prabandh kaavya ki sanjnyaa di ja sakti hai. isi avadhi mein baingala bhaashi musalim aabaadi ka udbhav hua aur usamein kramash: vruddhi hoti gayi. turk aakramanakaariyon mein se bahuton ne Bengal ki striyon se hi vivaah kar liya aur dheere-dheere "yahaaain ki bhaasha, rahan sahan aadi ko" apna liya. Turkey ko ve bhool hi gaye aur arabi keval dharm-karm ki bhaasha rah gayi. Bengal mein hindu jameendaaron aur saamanton ki hi vyavastha abhi prachalit thi, falat: musalim vichaaron aur paddhatiyon ka janajeevan par abhi drushtigochar hone yogya vishesh prabhaav naheen padne paaya tha.

praarambh ka madhyakaaleen saahitya (1350 se 1607 tak)

kuchh kaal ke anantar Bengal mein shaanti sthaapit hone par jab fir sanskrut ke adhyayan, prachaar aadi ki suvidha praapt hui tab shiksha aur saahitya ka maano praathamik punarjaagaran praarambh hua. maadhyamik baingala ke pratham mahaakavi, jinke sambandh mein hame kuchh jaankaari hai, sambhavat: kruttivaas ojha the (janm lagbhag 1399 E.). sanskrut raamaayan ko baingala mein prastut karanevaale (lagbhag 1418 E.) ve pehle lokapriya kavi the jinhonne Ram ka chitran vaalmeeki ki tarah shuddh maanav aur veer purush ke roop mein na kar Bhagwan ke karunaamaya avataar ke roop mein kiya jiski or seedhi saadi bhaktimya janta ka hrudaya sahaj bhaav se aakarshit ho sakta tha. isi tarah krushnaagaatha ka varnan usi shataabdi mein (1475 E.) maalaadhar Basu ne kiya. yeh Bhagwat puraan par aadhaarit hai.

bihula ki katha, jo vivaah ki pratham raatri mein hi manasa devi dvaara preshit sarp ke dvaara pati ke dase jaane par vidhva ho gayi thi aur jisne badi badi kathinaaiyaaain jhelakar devataaon ko tatha manasa devi ko bhi prasann kar pati ko pun: jeevit kara lene mein safalta praapt ki thi, pativrata naari ke prem aur saahas ki vah apoorv parikalpana hai jiska aavirbhaav kabhi kisi bhaarateeya mastishk mein hua ho. yeh katha shaayad musalmaanon ke aagaman ke pehle se hi prachalit thi kintu usapar aadhaarit pratham kathaakaavya baingala mein 15veen shati mein rache gaye. inmein se ek ke rachayita vijyagupt aur doosari ke vipradaas piplaai maane jaate hain.

poorvamaadhyamik baingala ke ek prasiddh kavi chandeedaas maane jaate hain. inke naam se koi 1200 pad ya kavitaaeain prachalit hain. unki bhaasha, shaili aadi mein itna antar hai ki ve ek hi vyakti dvaara rachit naheen jaan padteen. aisa prateet hota hai ki maadhyamik baingala mein is naam ke kam se kam teen kavi hue. pehle chandeedaas (anant badu chandeedaas) shreekrushnakeertan ke praneta the jo chaitanya ke pehle, lagbhag 1400 E. mein, vidyamaan the. doosare chandeedaas dvij chandeedaas the jo chaitanya ke baad mein ya uttar kaal mein hue. inhonne hi raadha Krishna ke premavishyak un adhikaansh geeton ki rachana ki jinse chandeedaas ko itni lokaprasiddhi praapt hui. teesare chandeedaas deen chandeedaas hue jo sangrah ke teen chauthaai bhaag ke rachayita prateet hote hain. chandeedaas ki keerti ke mukhya aadhaar pratham do chandeedaas hi the, ismein sandeh naheen jaan padta.

15veen shataabdi mein Bengal par turk tatha pathaan sulataanon ka shaasan tha par unamein yathesht bangaaleepan aa gaya tha aur ve baingala saahitya ke samarthak ban gaye the. aisa ek shaasak husenashaah tha (1493-1519). usane chatagaaainv ke apne soobedaaron aur putr naasiruddeen nasarat ke dvaara mahaabhaarat ka anuvaad baingala mein karavaaya. yeh rachana "paandavavijya" ke naam se kaveendr dvaara prastut ki gayi thi.

isi samay prasiddh vaishnav kavi chaitanya ka aavirbhaav hua (1486-1533). samasaamayik kaviyon aur vichaarakon par unka gahra prabhaav pada. unke aavirbhaav aur mrutyu ke uparaant santon tatha bhakton ke jeevanacharitron ke nirmaan ki parampara chal padi. inmein se kuchh ye hain-vrundaavanadaas krut chaitanyabhaagavat (lag. 1573), lochanadaas krut chaitanyamangal; jayaanand ka chaitanyamangal tatha krushnadaas kavirtn ka chaitanyacharitaamrut (lag. 1581). Krishna aur raadha ke divya prem sambandhi bahut se geet aur pad bhi is samay rache gaye. Bengal ke is vaishnav geet saahitya par mithila ke vidyaapati ka bhi yathesht prabhaav pada jiski charcha pehle ki ja chuki hai.

isi samay ke lagbhag baingala par "brajabuli" ka bhi prabhaav pada. mithila ka raajya musalim aakramanon se praaya: achhoota raha. Bengal ke kitne hi shikshaarthi smruti, nyaaya, darshan aadi ka adhyayan karne vahaaain jaaya karte the. mithila ke sanskrut ke vidvaan apni maatrubhaasha mein bhi rachana karte the. swayam vidyaapati ne sanskrut mein grantharachana ki kintu maithili mein bhi unhonne bahut sundar premageeton ka nirmaan kiya. unke ye geet Bengal mein bade lokapriya hue aur unke anukaran mein yahaaain bhi rachana hone lagi. bankimchandr tatha raveendranaath thaakur tak ne is tarah ke geeton ki rachana ki.

vaishnav premageetakaar ke roop mein jayadev kavi ki charcha ham oopar kar chuke hain. unke baad baduchandeedaas tatha chaitanya ke anuyaayi aate hain. inmein udeesa ke ek kshatrap raamaanand the jinhonne sanskrut mein bhi rachana ki. govindadaas kaviraaj (1512-1) ne brajabuli mein kitne hi sundar geet prastut kiye. bardavaan jile ke kaviranjan vidyaapati ne bhi brajavuli mein premageet likhe jinke kaaran ve "chhote vidyaapati" ke naam se prasiddh hue. 16veen shati ke do kaviyon ne kaalaketu aur usaki stri fullara tatha dhanapati aur uske putr shreemant ke aakhyaan ki rachana ki jismein chandi ya durgaadevi ki mahima varnit ki gayi. kavikankan mukundadaas chakravarti ne chandeekaavya banaaya jo aaj bhi lokapriya hai. ismein tatkaaleen baingala jeevan ki achhi jhalak dekh padti hai. padyalekhak hote hue bhi ve ek tarah se bankimchandr tatha sharachchandr chatarji ke poorvag maane ja sakte hain.

uttarakaaleen maadhyamik baingala saahitya (1600-1800)

vaishnav geetakaaron tatha jeevani lekhakon ki parampara 17veen shati mein chalti rahi. jeevaneelekhakon mein ishaan naagar (1564) aur nityaanand (1600 E.) ke baad yadunandanadaas (karnaanand ke lekhak, 1607), raajavallabh (kruti muraleevilaas), manoharadaas (1652, kruti "anuraagavalli") tatha ghanashyaam chakravarti (kruti, bhaktirtnaakar tatha narottamavilaas) ka naam liya ja sakta hai. geetalekhakon ki sankhya 200 se adhik hai. vaishnav vidvaanon tatha kaviyon ne inke kai sangrah taiyaar kiye the jinmein se vaishnavadaas (1770 E.) ka "padakalpataru" vishesh prasiddh hai. ismein 170 kaviyon dvaara rachit 3101 pad aae hain.

isi samay kuchh dhaarmik dhang ki kathaaeain bhi likhi gain. inmein rooparaam krut dharmamangal vishesh prasiddh hai jismein laaoosain ke saahasik kaaryon ka varnan hai. is katha ke dhang par maanik gaanguli tatha ghanaraam chakravarti ne bhi rachanaaeain prastut keen. ek aur kathaanak jiske aadhaar par 17veen, 18veen shati mein rachanaaeain prastut ki gain, raaja Gopichand ka hai. ve raaja maanikchandr ke putr the. jab ve gaddi par baithe to unki maata mayanaamati ko pata chala ki unke putr ko raajapaat tatha stri ka parityaag kar yogi ban jaana chaahiye, naheen to unki akaalamrutyu ki sambhaavana hai. at: maata ke aadesh se unhein aisa hi karna pada. bhavaaneedaasakrut "mayanaamatir gaan" tatha durlabh malik ki rachana "govindachandr geet" isi kathaanak par aadhaarit hain.

bihula ki katha par 18veen shati mein bhi prabandh kaavya vansheedaas, ketakaadaasatatha kshemaanand ityaadi dvaara-rache gaye. aalha ke dhang par kuchh veerakaavya ya gaathaakaavya bhi 17veen shati mein rache gaye. inka ek sangrah angreji anuvaad sahit dineshachandr sen ne taiyaar kiya jo Calcutta vi. vidyaalaya dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya. isi samay bangaali musalmaan lekhakon ne arabi aur faarasi ki prem tatha dharm kathaaeain bangala mein prastut karne ka prayatn aarambh kiya. in kaviyon ne us samay ke upalabdh baingala saahitya ka hi adhyayan naheen kiya varan sanskrut, arabi tatha faarasi ke granthon ka bhi anusheelan kiya. unhonne avadhi ya koshali se milti julati ek aur bhaasha-gohaari ya goaari-bhi seekhi. isi tarah poorvi hindi ke kshetr se jo soofi musalmaan poorvi Bengal pahuainche, ve apne saath naagari varnamaala bhi lete gaye. silhat ke musalmaan kavi bahut dinon tak isi silet naagari" lipi mein baingala likhte rahe. us samay ke kuchh musalmaan kavi ye hain-daulat kaaji, jisne "lorachanda" ya "sati maina" sheershak premakaavya likha, kureshi maagan thaakur jisne "chandraavati" ki rachana ki, muhammad khaaain, jiski do rachanaaeain (mautulahusen tatha keyaamatanaama) prasiddh hain; tatha abdul nabi jisne badi sundar shaili mein "aameer haamaja" ka pranayan kiya. inke siva 17veen shati ke ek aur prasiddh musalim kavi aala ol hain jinki kruti "padmaavati" (1651) yathesht lokapriya rahi. yeh hindi kavi malik muhammad jaayasi ki isi naam ki rachana ka roopaantar hai. inki anya rachanaaeain hain-saiful mulk badeeujjamaaain (sahasrarajaneecharitr ke aadhaar par rachit premakaavya), haft paikaar, sikandaranaama tatha tohafa.

17veen shati ke teen hindu kaviyon - kaasheeraamadaas, jinhonne mahaabhaarat ka anuvaad baingala padya mein kiya, unke bade bhaai krushnakinkar, jinhonne shreekrushnavilaas banaaya, tatha jagannaathamangal ke lekhak gadaadhar.

18veen shati ke kuchh prasiddh kavi ye hain - raamaprasaad sen (mrutyu 1775) jinke durga sambandhi geet aaj bhi lokapriya hain; bhaaratachandr, jinka "annadaamangal" (ya kaalikaamangal) kaavya baingala ki ek parishkrut rachana hai; raaja jayanaaraayan, jinhonne padmapuraan ke kaasheekhand ka baingala mein anuvaad kiya aur us samay ke banaaras ka bahut hi manoranjak vivran usamein samaavisht kar diya. is kaal mein halake fulake geeton tatha samasyaapoorti ke roop mein likhe gaye sadya:prastut padyon ka kaafi jor raha. kuchh musalmaan kaviyon ne muharram tatha karbala ke sambandh mein rachanaaeain prastut keen (muharram parv ya janganaama haayat muhammad, nasarulla khaaain tatha yaakoob Ali dvaara rachit). laila majanoo par daulat vajeer baharaam ne likha aur muhammad saahab ke jeevan par bhi granth prastut kiye gaye.

baingala gadya ke kuchh namoone san 1550 ke baad patron tatha dastaavejon ke roop mein upalabdh hain. kaithalik dharm sambandhi kai rachanaaeain portagaali tatha anya paadariyon dvaara prastut ki gain aur 1778 mein natheniyl braasi halahad ne bangala vyaakaran taiyaar kar prakaashit kiya. 1799 mein fort William kaalej ki sthaapana ke baad baaibil ke anuvaad tatha baingala gadya mein anya granth taiyaar karaane ka upakram kiya gaya.

aadhunik baingala saahitya (1800 se 1950 tak)

19veen sadi mein angreji bhaasha ke prasaar aur sanskrut ke naveen adhyayan se baingala ke lekhakon mein nae jaagaran aur utsaah ki lahar si daud gayi. ek or jahaaain company sarkaar ke adhikaari baingala seekhane ke ichhuk angrej karmachaariyon ke liye baingala ki paathyapustakein taiyaar kara rahe the aur bepatist mission ke paadari kruttivaaseeya raamaayan ka prakaashan tatha baaibil aadi ka baingala anuvaad prastut karaane ka prayatn kar rahe the, vahaaain doosari or bangaali lekhak bhi gadya-granthalekhan ki or dhyaan dene lage the. raamaraam Basu ne raaja prataapaaditya ki jeevani likhi aur mrutyujanya vidyaalankaar ne baingala mein "purush pareeksha" likhi. 1818 mein "samaachaaradarpan" naamak saaptaahik ke prakaashan se baingala patrakaarita ki bhi neenv padi.

raaja raamamohan rai ne bhaarateeyon ke "aadhunik" banane par bal diya. unhonne brahmasamaaj ki sthaapana ki. unhonne katipya upanishdon ka baingala anuvaad taiyaar kiya. angreji mein baingala vyaakaran (1826) likha aur apne dhaarmik tatha saamaajik vichaaron ke prachaaraarth baingala aur angreji, donon mein chhoti chhoti pustikaaeain likheen. isi samay raaja raadhaakaant Dave ne "shabdakalpadrum" naamak sanskrut kosh taiyaar kiya aur bhavaaneecharan Bannerjee ne kalakatiya samaaj par vyangyaatmak rachanaaeain prastut keen.

praarambhik gadyalekhakon ki bhaasha, prachalit sanskrut shabdon ke prayog ke kaaran, kuchh kathin thi kintu 1850 ke lagbhag adhik saral aur prabhaavapoorn shaili ka prachalan aarambh ho gaya. ishvarachandr vidyaasaagar, pyaareechand mitr aadi ka ismein vishesh haath tha. vidyaasaagar ne angreji tatha sanskrut granthon ka anuvaad baingala mein kiya aur gadya ki sundar, saral shaili ka vikaas kiya. pyaareechand mitr ne "aalaaler gharer dulaal" naamak saamaajik upanyaas likha (1858). akshayakumaar datt ne vividh vishyon par kai nibandh likhe. anya gadyalekhak the - raajanaaraayan Basu, taaraashankar tarkaratn (jinhonne "kaadanbari" ka sankshipt roopaantar baingala mein prastut kiya) tatha taarakanaath gaanguli (jinhonne pratham yathaarthavaadi saamaajik upanyaas "svarnalata" prakaashit kiya).

maaikel madhusoodan datt ko ham us samay ke "yuvak Bengal" ka pratinidhi maan sakte hain jiske hrudaya mein anya yuvakon ki tarah aatmavikaas tatha aatmaabhivyakti ka bahut seemit avakaash hi hindu samaaj mein milne ke kaaran ek prakaar ka asantosh sa vyaapt ho utha tha. iska ek vishesh kaaran unka angreji tatha anya videshi saahitya ke sampark mein aana tha. isaai dharm mein abhishikt hone ke baad madhusoodan ne pehle angreji mein, fir baingala mein likhna aarambh kiya. unhonne bhaarateeya vishyon par hi lekhani chalaai par unhein yuropeeya dhang par sainvaara, sajaaya. unki mukhya rachanaaeain hain - meghanaadavadh kaavya, veeraangana kaavya tatha vrajaangana kaavya. unhonne baingala mein anupraasaheen kavita ka prachalan kiya aur itailiyn sonet ki tarah chaturdashapadiyon ki bhi rachana ki.

bankimchandr chattopadhyaaya raveendranaath thaakur ke aagaman ke poorv baingala ke sarvashreshth lekhak maane jaate hain. unka saahityik jeevan angreji mein likhit "raajamohan ki stri" naamak upanyaas (1864) se aarambh hota hai. baingala mein pehla upanyaas unhonne dugeinshanandini (1865) ke naam se likha. iske baad unhonne ek darjan se adhik saamaajik tatha aitihaasik upanyaas likhe. inke kaaran baingala saahitya mein unhein sthaayi sthaan praapt ho gaya aur aadhunik Bhaarat ke vichaarasheel lekhakon tatha chintakon mein unki ganana hone lagi. 1872 mein unhonne "bangadarshan" naamak saahityik patra nikaala jisne baingala saahitya ko naya mod diya. unke aitihaasik upanyaason mein raajasinh, seetaaraam, tatha chandrashekhar mukhya hain. saamaajik upanyaason mein "vishvruksh" tatha "krushnakaanter vil ka sthaan ooaincha hai. unka "kapaalakundala" shuddh prem aur kalpana ka utkrusht namoona maana ja sakta hai. "aanandamath" prasiddh raajaneetik upanyaas hai jiska "vandemaataram" geet chirkaal tak Bhaarat ka raashtreeyagaan maana jaata raha aur aaj bhi is roop mein iska samaadar hai. unke upanyaason tatha anya rachanaaon ka Bhaarat ki praaya: sabhi bhaashaaon mein anuvaad ho chuka hai.

ek aur prasiddh vyakti jise Bhaarat ke punarjaagaran mein mukhya sthaan praapt hain, svaami vivekaanand hain. Bhaarat ki gareeb janta ("daridranaaraayan") ki seva hi unka lakshya tha. unhonne amareeka aur Europe jaakar apne prabhaavakaari bhaashanon dvaara hindu dharm ka aisa vishd vivechan upasthit kiya ki use pashchimi deshon mein achhi pratishtha praapt ho gayi. baingala tatha angreji, donon ke ve prabhaavasheel lekhak the. rangalaal bandyopaadhyaaya ne raajapooton ki veeragaathaaon ke aadhaar par "padmini" (1858), karmadevi (1862) tatha soorasundari (1868) ki rachana ki. kaalidaas ke "kumaarasanbhav" ka baingala anuvaad bhi unhonne prastut kiya.

baingala naatakon ka udaya 1870 ke aaspaas maana ja sakta hain, yadyapi iske pehle bhi is disha mein kuchh prayaas kiya ja chuka tha. Bengal mein pehle ek tarah ke dhaarmik naatak prachalit the jinhein "yaatra" naatak kehte the. inmein drushya aur parade naheen hote the, gaayan aur vaadya ki pradhaanata hoti thi. ek roosi naagrik jeraasim lebedev ne 1795 mein Calcutta aakar baingala ki pratham naatyashaala sthaapit ki, jo chali naheen. sanskrut naatakon ke siva angreji naatakon tatha kalakatte mein sthaapit angreji rangamanch se baingala lekhakon ko prerana mili. deenabandhu mitr ne kai sukhaant naatak likhe. unke ek naatak neeladarpan (1860) mein nilhe goron ke utpeedn ka maarmik chitran hua tha jisse is pratha ki buraaiyaaain door karne mein sahaayata mili.

raaja raajeindralaal mitr (1822-91) itihaasalekhak aur pratham bangaali puraatatvajnya the. bhoodev mukhopaadhyaaya (1825-94) shikshaashaastri, gadyalekhak aur patrakaar the. samaaj aur sanskruti ke sanrakshan tatha punaruddhaar sambandhi unke lekhon ka aaj bhi yathesht mahatva hai. kaaleeprasann Singh kattar hindu samaaj ke ek aur pragatisheel lekhak the. unhonne mahaabhaarat ka baingala gadya mein tatha sanskrut ke do naatakon ka bhi anuvaad kiya. unhonne kalakatte ki bolachaal ki baingala mein "hutom peinchaar naksha" naamak rachana prastut ki jismein us samay ke kalakatiya samaaj ka achha chitran kiya gaya tha. baingala ke pratishthit saahitya mein iski ganana hai. hemachand bandopaadhyaaya (1838-1903) ne sheksayir ke do naatakon 'romiyon aur jooliyt' tatha 'teinpest' ka baingala mein anuvaad kiya. meghanaadavadh se protsaahit hokar unhonne "vruttasanhaar" naamak mahaakaavya ki rachana ki. naveenachandr sen (1847- 1909) ne kurukshetr, raivatak tatha prabhaas naatak banaae tatha buddh, isa aur chaitanya ke jeevan par Amitabh, khreesht tatha amrutaabh naamak lambi kavitaaeain likheen. palaaseer yuddh tatha rangamati aur bhaanumati ke bhi lekhak vahi the. paaainch khandon mein apni jeevani ""aamaar jeevan"" bhi unhonne likhi.

raveendraanaath thaakur ke sabse bade bhaai dvijeindranaath thaakur (1840-1926) kavi, sangeetajnya tatha darshanashaastri the. unki prasiddh rachana "svapnaprayaan" hai. raveendranaath ke ek aur bade bhaai jyoteendranaath thaakur the. unke likhe chaar naatak bade lokapriya the - puruvikram, sarojini, aashumati tatha svapnamayi. unhonne French bhaasha, angreji tatha maraathi se bhi kai granthon ka anuvaad kiya.

rameshachandr datt ne rigved ka baingala anuvaad kiya. bhaarateeya arthashaastr ke bhi ve lekhak the aur unhonne kai upanyaas bhi likhe- 1. rajput jeevanasandhya, 2. Maharashtra jeevanasandhya; 3. maadhavi kankan; 4. sansaar, tatha 5. samaaj. inke samasaamayik gireeshachandr ghosh baingala ke mahaan naatakakaar the. unhonne 90 naatak, prahasan aadi likhe, jinmein se kuchh ye hain - bilvamangal, prafull, paandav gaurav, buddhadevacharit, chaitanya leela, siraajuddaula, ashok, haaraanidhi, shankaraachaarya, shaasti ki shaanti. sheksapiyr ke mekabeth naatak ka baingala anuvaad bhi unhonne kiya. amrutalaal Basu bhi gireeshachandr ghosh ki tarah abhineta naatakakaar the. haasya ras se poorn unke naatak tatha prahasan baingala bhaashiyon mein kaafi lokapriya hain. ve Bengal ke moliye kahalaate the, jis tarah gireeshachandr bangaali sheksapiyr maane jaate the.

haasyaras ke do aur baingala lekhak is samay hue - trailokyanaath mukhepaadhyaaya (1847-1919), upanyaasakaar tatha laghukatha lekhak aur indranaath bandopaadhyaaya (1849-1911), nibandhalekhak tatha vyangyakaar.

sanskrut aur itihaas ke prasiddh vidvaan haraprasaad shaastri (1853-1931) ka ullekh pehle 47 charyaapad ke silsile mein kiya ja chuka hai. ve upanyaasakaar aur achhe nibandhalekhak bhi the. unke do upanyaas hain- "bener meye" tatha "kaanchanamaala". bhaarateeya saahitya, dharm tatha sabhyata ke sambandh mein unke lekh vishesh mahatvapoorn hain. unka likha "vaalmeekir jaya" naamak gadyakaavya badi sundar aur prabhaavotpaadak baingala mein likha gaya hai.

raashtreeya aandolan ki shuruaat 1857 ke aaspaas ho chuki thi. 1885 mein raashtreeya mahaasabha ki sthaapana se ise bal mila aur 1905 mein laard karjan dvaara kiye gaye Bengal ke vibhaajan ne ismein aag fooaink di. svadeshi ka jor badha aur bhaasha tatha saahitya par bhi iska gahra prabhaav pada. san 1913 mein raveendranaath thaakur ko Nobel puraskaar milne se Bengal tatha Bhaarat mein raashtreeya bhaavana ki prabalata badh gayi aur baingala saahitya mein ek nae yug ka aarambh hua jise ham "raveendranaath yug" ki sanjnyaa de sakte hain.

raveendranaath thaakur (1861-1941) mein mahaan lekhak hone ke lakshan shuroo se hi dekh padne lage the. kya kavita aur kya naatak, upanyaas aur laghu katha, nibandh aur aalochna, sabhi mein unki bahumukhi pratibha ne naya chamatkaar utpann kar diya. unke vichaaron aur shaili ne baingala saahitya ko maano naya mod de diya. vyaapak drushti aur gahari bhaavana se sanprukt utkrusht saundarya tatha agyaat ki rahasyamaya anubhooti unki rachanaaon mein sthaan sthaan par abhivyakt hoti dekh padti hain. geet rachanaakaar ke roop mein ve adviteeya hain. prem, prakruti, ishvar aur maanav par likhe gaye unke geeton ki sankhya 200 se oopar hai. ye geet paramaatm aur aadhidaivik shakti ki rahasyamaya bhaavana se otaprot hain, is kaaran sansaar ke mahaan rahasyavaadi lekhakon mein unki ganana ki jaati hai. unke nibandh svasth chintan ev suspasht vivechan ke liye prasiddh hain. ve buddhiprak bhi hain tatha kalpanaapradhaan bhi, yaathaarthik bhi hain aur kaavyamaya bhi. unke upanyaas tatha laghukathaaeain tathyaatmak, naatakeeyata poorn evam anrtadrushti prerak hain. ve antararaashtreeyata evam maanav ekta ke baraabar samarthak rahe hain. unhonne athak roop se is baat ka prayatn kiya ki Bhaarat apni gauravapoorn praacheen baaton ki raksha karte hue bhi vishv ke anya deshon se ekta sthaapit karne ke liye tatpar rahe.

raveendranaath ke samasaamayik lekhakon mein kitne hi vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. unke naam hain-

1. gorvidchandradaas, kavi;

2. deveindranaath sen, kavi;

3. akshayakumaar badaal, kavi;

4. shreemati kaamini rai, kavayitri;

5. shreemati suvarnakumaari devi, kavayitri;

6. akshayakumaar maitreya, itihaasalekhak;

7. raamedrasundar trivedi, nibandhalekhak, vaigyaanik evam darshanashaastri;

8. prabhaatakumaar mukharji, upanyaasakaar tatha laghukatha lekhak;

9. dvijeindralaal rai, kavi tatha naatakakaar;

10. ksheerodachandr vidyaavinod, lagbhag 50 naatakon ke praneta;

11. raakhaaladaas vandyopaadhyaaya, itihaasakaar aur aitihaasik upanyaason ke lekhak,

12. raamaanand chatarji, suprasiddh patrakaar jinhonne 40 varsh tak maadarn review tatha baingala pravaasi ka sanpaadan kiya;

13. jaladhar sen, upanyaasalekhak tatha patrakaar;

14. shreemati nirupama devi tatha

15. shreemati anuroopa devi, saamaajik upanyaason ki lekhika.

aadhunik baingala ke sarvaprasiddh upanyaasakaar sharachchandr chatarji (1876-1938) maane jaate hain. saral aur sundar bhaasha mein likhe gaye inke kuchh upanyaas ye hain - shreekaant, gruhadaah, palli samaaj, dena paavana, devadaas, chandranaath, charitraheen, shesh prashn aadi.

yadyapi samast baingaal pradesh mein parinishth baingala ka hi saahitya mein vishesh prayog hota hai fir bhi bahut se granth Calcutta tatha aas paas ki bolachaal ki bhaasha mein likhe gaye hain tatha likhe ja rahe hain. upanyaason mein rangamanch par tatha radio aur cinema mein usaka prayog bahulata se hota hai. pichhle 30-35 varsh mein, raveendrayug ki pradhaanata hote hue bhi, kitne hi yuvak lekhakon ne nagn yathaarthavaad ke path par chalne ka prayatn kiya, yadyapi ismein ab yathesht shithilta aa gayi hai. iske baad kuchh lekhakon mein samaajavaad tatha saamyavaad (kamyoonijm) ki bhi pravrutti dekh padi. isi tarah angreji tatha roosi saahitya ka bhi bahut kuchh prabhaav baingala lekhakon par pada. kintu vartamaan baingala saahitya mein kathaasaahitya ki hi vishesh pradhaanata hai, jiska lakshya maanav jeevan aur maanav svabhaav ka samyag roop se chitran karna hi hai. kitne hi lekhak Ravindra tatha sharad babu ki parampara par chalne ka prayatn kar rahe hain. kuchh ke naam ye hain - (kaviyon mein) jateendramohan baagachi, karunaanidhaan bandyopaadhyaaya, kumudaranjan malik, kaalidaas rai, mohitlaal majoomadaar, shreemati raadhaaraani devi, amiya chakravarti pregeindr mitr, sudheendranaath datt, vimlachandr ghosh, vishnu de, ityaadi. gadyalekhakon mein inke naam liye ja sakte hain- taaraashankar bainarji, vibhootibhooshan bainarji (pather paanchaali, aaranyak ke lekhak jinhonne Bengal ke graamya jeevan ka chitran kiya hai), raajashekhar vasu (haasya kathaalekhak), aanandashankar rai, dau॰ balaaichaaaind mukharji, sateenaath bhaadudi, maanik bainarji, shailajaanan mukharji, prathamanaath vasu, Narendra mitr, gaureeshankar Bhattacharya, samaresh vasu, vaajid Ali, buddhadev, kaaji abdul vadood, nareindradev, dau॰ sukumaar sen, gopaal haaladaar, shreemati shaantaadevi, seetaadevi, avadhoot, ityaadi.

yahaaain shri avaneendranaath thaakur (1871-1951) ka bhi ullekh kar dena chaahiye. unhonne kitni hi pustakein baalakon ki drushti se likheen aur unki chitrasajja swayam prastut ki. ye pustakein kalpanaatmak saahitya ke anya premiyon ke liye bhi atyant rochak hain. unhonne kuchh chhote-chhote naatak bhi likhe aur kala par kuchh gambhir nibandh bhi prakaashit kiye. isi tarah yogi Arvind ghosh ka bhi naam yahaaain liya jaana chaahiye jinki mahatvapoorn rachanaaon se baingala saahitya ki shreevruddhi mein sahaayata mili.

yadyapi vibhaajan ke poorv kuchh musalim raajaneetijnyaon ki rai thi ki baingala mein musalim bhaavanaaon se prerit svatantr musalim saahitya ka vikaas hona chaahiye kintu shreshth musalim lekhakon ne bhaasha mein is tarah ke paarthakya ki kabhi kalpana naheen ki, bhale hi kuchh lekhakon ne apni krutiyon mein hinduon ki apeksha adhik arabi-faarasi shabdon ka prayog karna shuroo kar diya. puraane musalim kaviyon mein kaikovaad adhik prasiddh hai aur upanyaasalekhakon mein masharaf husen ka naam liya ja sakta hai jinke janganaama ki tarj par likhit "vishaad sindhu" ke ek darjan se adhik sanskaran prakaashit ho chuke hain. shikshit musalim samaaj mein kitne hi lekhak upanyaas, kahaani, aalochna tatha nibandh likhne mein khyaati praapt kar rahe hain. upanyaasakaar kaaji abdul vadood ka naam oopar liya ja chuka hai. unhonne Ravindra saahitya par vivechanaatmak pustak likhne ke baad gete par bhi ek granth do khandon mein prakaashit kiya. keindreeya sarkaar ke poorvakaaleen vaigyaanik anusandhaan mantri humaayooain kabeer baingala ke pratibhaavaan kavi tatha achhe gadyalekhak hain. kuchh anya musalim lekhakon ke naam ye hain - (kavi) gulaam mustafa, abdul kaadir, bande Ali, faarukh Ahmad, ehasaan haveeb aadi; (gadyalekhak) dau॰ muhammad shaheedulla, avoo saiyid ayoov, mutaahar husen chaudhari, shreemati shamasun nahar, abul mansoor Ahmad, abul fjal, mahaboobul aalam. vibhaajan ke baad yadyapi Pakistan sarkaar ne prayatn kiya ki poorvi Bengal ke musalmaan apni bhaasha arabi lipi mein likhne lagein, par ismein safalta naheen mili. musalim chhaatron tatha anya logon ne is prayatn ka tatha bangaaliyon par urdoo laadne ka jordaar virodh kiya aur bangalaadesh ka udaya hua.

aadhunik yug ke baad

tees ke dashak mein jo kavign aaye ve baangla kavita ki jagat mein pashchimi prabhaav ko panapane ka avsar diya aur rabindranaath ke baad ke kavita ko ek nayi disha di. unamein pradhaan the buddhadeb Basu, sudheendrunaath datt, vishnu de, jeevanaanand das pramukh. chaalis ke dashak mein baamapannthi kaviyon ka bolabala raha jismein pradhaan the beerendranaath chattopadhyaaya, subhaash mukhopaadhyaaya, Krishna dhar pramukh. pachaas ke dashak se patrika-kendrit kaviyon ka aabirbhaav huya, jaise ki shatabhisha, kruttibaas ityaadi. shatabhisha ke aalok sarakaar, alokranjan daashagupta pramukhon ne naam kamaaye, jabki kruttibaas ke suneel gangopaadhyaaya, sharatakumaar mukhopaadhyaaya, taaraapado rai, samarendr senagupta naam kiye. saath ke dashak mein shuru huye andolanasamooh jo kavita ka charitra hi badal daala. aandalanon mein pradhaan tha bhukhi peedhi (Hungary jenareshan) jiske kavi-lekhakon par bahut saare aarop lagaaye gaye. bhukhi peedhi ke sadasyon ne samaaj ko hi badalne ka ailaan kar daala. unalogon ke lekhanaprakriya se bangaali samaaj bhi khafa ho gaye the. sadasyon ke viruddh mukadamein daayar huye evam aakhirkaar malaya raayachaudhureeko unke kavitaake chalte kaaraavaas ka dand diya gaya tha.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain