banaarasi saadi

banaarasi saadi ka aanchal aur border

banaarasi saadi ek vishesh prakaar ki saadi hai jise vivaah aadi shubh avsaron par hindu striyaaain dhaaran karti hain. uttar pradesh ke chandauli, banaaras, jaunapur], aajamagadh, mirjaapur aur sant ravidaasanagar jile mein banaarasi saadiyaaain banaai jaati hain. iska kachcha maal banaaras se aata hai. pehle banaaras ki arthavyavastha ka mukhya stambh banaarasi saadi ka kaam tha par ab yeh chintaajanak sthiti mein hai.

resham ki saadiyon par banaaras mein bunaai ke sang jri ke design milaakar bunane se taiyaar hone waali sundar reshami saadi ko banaarasi reshami saadi kehte hain. ye paaramparik kaam sadiyon se chala aa raha hai aur vishvaprasiddh hai. kabhi ismein shuddh sone ki jri ka prayog hota tha, kintu badhti keemat ko dekhte hue nakali chamakadaar jri ka kaam bhi joron par chaaloo hai. inmein anek prakaar ke namoone banaaye jaate hain. inhein 'motif' kehte hain. bahut tarah ke motifon ka prachalan chal pada hai, parantu kuchh pramukh paramparaagat motif jo aaj bhi apni banaarasi pehchaan banaae hue hain, jaise booti, boota, koniya, bail, jaal aur jangala, jhaalar aadi.

shikaaragaah-banaarasi saadi

anukram

itihaas

banaarasi saadi ka mukhya kendra banaaras hai. banaarasi saadi mubaarakapur, maoo, khairaabaad mein bhi banaai jaati hain. yeh maana ja sakta hai ki yeh vastr kala Bhaarat mein mugal baadshaahon ke aagaman ke saath hi I. pataka, sheravaani, pagadi, saafa, dupatte, baid-sheet, masand aadi ke banaane ke liye is kala ka prayog kiya jaata tha. choonki Bhaarat mein saadiyon ka prachalan adhik tha iraan, Iraq, bukhaara shareef aadi se aae hathakaragha ke kaareegaron dvaara vibhinn prakaar ke dijaainon ko saadiyon mein daala jaata tha yatha bail, booti, aanchal evam koniya aadi. us samay mein resham evam jri ke dhaagon ka prayog kiya jaata tha. taane mein kataan aur baane mein paat baana prayog kiye jaate the jis ke parinaam svaroop vastr ati mulaayam va gafadaar bante the. poorv mein naksha, jaala se saadiyaaain banaai jaati theen. uske baad daabi tatha jekaard ka prayog hone laga jo ki parampara se hatkar maana ja sakta hai aur ab yeh power-loom ke roop mein viksit hui maani ja sakti hai. banaarasi saadi banaane vaale jyaadaatar kaareegar musalmaan - anasaari hote hain. kavi kabeer bhi bunakar the. is saadi ke khareedadaar gujaraati, maaravaadi, rajput aur jimmedaar gharaanon ke log hote hain. praacheen samay se hi banaarasi saadiyon ka prayog visheshataur se vivaah samaarohon mein dulhan va navavivaahita striyon dvaara prayog kiya jaata tha aur aaj tak yeh parampara chalti aa rahi hai.

naksha jaala

motif

booti

banaarasi saadi

booti chhote-chhote tasveeron ki aakruti liye hue hota hai. iske alag-alag paitarn do ya teen rango ke dhaage ki sahaayata se banaaye jaate hain aur yadi paaainch rang ke dhaagon ka prayog kiya jaata hai to ise pacharanga (jaamevaar) kaha jaata hai. yeh banaarasi saadi ke liye pramukh aavashyak tatha mahatvapoorn dijaainon mein se ek hai. isse saadi ki jameen ya mukhya bhaag ko susajjit kiya jaata hai. pehle rang ko 'hunar ka rang ' kaha jaata hai. jo saamaanyat: gold ya silver dhaage ko ek eksatra bharani se banaaya jaata hai jiske liye sirki (baubin) ka prayog kiya jaata hai. haalaaainki aajkal iske liye reshami dhaagon ka bhi prayog kiya jaata hai jise meena kaha jaata hai jo reshami dhaage se hi banta hai. saamaanyat: meene ka rang hunar ke rang ka hone chaahiye.

boota

jab booti ki aakruti ko bada kar diya jaata hai to is badhi hui aakruti ko boota kaha jaata hai. chhote bade ped-paudhe jiske saath chhoti-chhoti pattiyaaain tatha fool lage hon isi aakruti ko boote se ubhaara jaata hai. yeh ped paudhe bhi ho sakte hain aur kuchh fool bhi ho sakte hain. gold, silver ya reshami dhaage ya inke mishran se boota kaadha jaata hai. rangon ka chayan dijaain tatha aavashyakta ke anusaar kiya jaata hai. boota saadi ke border, pallu tatha aanchal mein kaadha jaata hai jabki broked ke aangan (pot) mein ise kaadha jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi saadi ke kinaare mein ek khaas prakaar ke boote ko kaadha jaata hai, jise yahaaain ke log apni bhaasha mein koniya kehte hain.

koniya

patti, bail, koniya, shikaaragaah, jangala

jab ek khaas prakaar ki (aakruti) ke boote ko banaarasi vastron ke kone mein kaadha jaata hai to use koniya kehte hain. dijaain aakruti ko is tarah se banaaya jaata hai jisse ve kone ke aakaar mein aasaani se aa sakein tatha boote se vastr aur achhi tarah se aalankrut ho sake. jin vastron mein svarn tatha chaaaindi ke dhaagon ka prayog kiya jaata hai unheen mein koniya ko banaaya (kaadha) jaata hai. saamaanyat: koniya kaadhne ke riye reshami dhaagon ka prayog naheen kiya jaata hai kyonki reshami dhaagon se shuddh fool pattiyon ka design sahi dhng se naheen ubhar paata. pallu dijaain ke baad, kone se koniya banaaya jaata hai jo ki praaya: aam ke aakaar ka rahata hai jise banaana bahut kathin hota hai kyonki ek saath ismein teen jaalon se bunaai ki jaati hai. yeh ek paaramparik kala hai.

bail

yeh ek aari ya dhaareedaar fool pattiyon ya jyaamiteeya dhang se sajaae gaye dijaain hote hain. inhein kshaitij, aade ya tede mede tareeke se bataaya jaata hai, jisse ek bhaag ko doosare bhaag se alag kiya ja sake. kabhi-kabhi bootiyon ko is tarah se sajaaya jaata hai ki ve patti ka rup le lein. bhinn-bhinn jagahon par alag-alag tareeke ke bail boote banaae jaate hain. bail saadi ke kinaare par lagti hai aur chaar angul mein naapi jaati hai. isse ghunghat ka naap tay hota hai. bail mein fool-pattiyon ke atirikt vibhinn pashu-pakshiyon va maanav aakrutiyon ke motif bhi banaae jaate hain.

jaal aur jangala

jaal, jaise naam se hi spasht hota hai jaal ke aakruti liye hue hote hain. jaal ek prakaar ka paitarn/bandish hai, jiske bheetar booti banaai jaati hai tatha ise jaal- jangala kehte hain. jangala dijaain praakrutik tatvon se kaafi prabhaavit hai. jangala kataan aur taana ka plane vastr hai. taana-baana kataan ka rahata hai aur dijaain ke liye sunahari ya chaaaindi ki jri ka prayog hota hai jismein samast fool, patte, jaanavar, pakshi ityaadi bane hote hain. jangala, jaal se kaafi milta julata hota hai. yadi jangale mein meenaakaari karni ho to alag alag rangon ke resham ke dhaagon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. isi prakaar bail jangala bhi banaaya jaata hai.

jhaalar

border ke turant baad jahaaain kapde ka mukhya bhaag jise angana kaha jaata hai ki shuruaat hoti hai vahaaain ek khaas dijaain vastr ko aur adhik alankrut karne ke liye diya jaata hai, jise jhaalar kaha jaata hai. saamaanyat: yeh border ke dijaain se rang tatha maiteeriyl mein milta hota hai. jhaalar mein tota, mor, paan, kairi, tin patiya, paaainch patiya motiv dijaain banaae jaate hain. jhaalar bail ke aakhir mein saadiyon ke alaava jaradoji ka kaam bhi yahaaain chaaloo ho chuka hai. ye banaaras ki apni alag parampara naheen hai parantu ab logon ne banaarasi saadi mein bhi jaradoji ka kaam karna praarambh kar diya hai. banaaras mein banaarasi saadi tatha vastr ke alaava anya saadi, soot ke kapde, dres maiteeriyls, parda, kushan kavar aadi mein bhi adhikaanshat: muslim sampradaaya ke log (kalaakaar) lage hue hain. jaradoji bahut hi kalaatmak tatha dhairya ka kaam hai. iski baareeki ko samajhne ke liye yeh jaroori hai ki ise kam umr se hi seekha jaae. falat: jaradoji ke peshe mein bachche tatha auratein bhi lage hue hain.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain