baloch bhaasha aur saahitya

balochi ya baloch bhaasha (بaaلaaوaaچaaی) dakshin-pashchimi Pakistan, poorvi Iran aur dakshini afgaanistaan mein basane vaale baloch logon ki bhaasha hai. yeh Irani bhaasha parivaar ki sadasya hai aur ismein praacheen avastaai bhaasha ki jhalak nazar aati hai, jo swayam vaidik sanskrut ke bahut kareeb maani jaati hai. uttarapashchim Iran, poorvi Turkey aur uttar iraak mein bole jaani kurdi bhaasha se bhi balochi bhaasha ki kuchh samaanataaeain hain. ise Pakistan ki nau sarkaari bhaashaaoain mein se ek hone ka darja praapt hai. anumaan lagaaya jaata hai ke ise poore vishv mein lagbhag 80 lakh log maatrubhaasha ke roop mein bolte hain.

Pakistan mein ise adhiktar balochistaan praant mein bola jaata hai, lekin kuchh sindh aur Punjab mein base hue baloch log bhi ise un praanton mein bolte hain. Iran mein ise adhiktar sistaan va baluchestaan praant mein bola jaata hai. omaan mein base hue bahut se baloch log bhi ise bolte hain. samay ke saath balochi par bahut si anya bhaashaaoain ka bhi prabhaav pada hai, jaise ki hindi-urdoo aur arabi. Pakistan mein balochi ki do pramukh shaakhaaeain hain: makaraani (jo balochistaan se dakshini arab saagar ke tateeya ilaakon mein boli jaati hai) aur sulemaani (jo madhya aur uttari balochistaan ke sulemaan shrrunkhala ke pahaadi ilaakon mein boli jaati hai).[1] Iran ke baluchestaan va sistaan soobe mein bhi iski do upashaakhaaeain hain: dakshin mein bole jaani waali makaraani (jo Pakistan ke balochistaan ki makaraani se milti hai) aur uttar mein bole jaani waali rakhshaani.

anukram

saahitya

baloch bhaasha ka gadya saahitya is samay keval kisse kahaaniyon hi tak seemit hai par iska padya saahitya adhik vistrut tatha unnat hai. baloch kavita ke aaranbhik kaal mein keval lokageet the. parantu baloch itihaas ke sabse bade vyaktitv vaale meer chaakar khaaain "rind" ne san 1487 E. mein gaddi par baithane ke anantar baloch kavita mein yuddh-vishyak geeton ka aarambh kiya aur meer gavaahiraam, laashaari, naud bandag, bebarg, shah mureed, haani, shaahadaad, maahanaaj, umarakhaaain nohaani, baalaach aur dooda aadi ne lambi yuddheeya kavitaaeain likheen tatha sajeev saahitya utpann kar baloch saahitya ko utkarsh par pahuainchaaya. in yuddheeya kavitaaon ki rachana ki prerak baloch jaati ke itihaas ki vahi ghatanaaeain theen jo us kaal mein ghatit hui theen; jaise rind tatha laashaari kabeelon ka 30 varsheeya sangharsh, haani-shah mureed ke amar prem ki vishd kahaani, bebarg tatha giraanaaj tatha aakhyaan, shaahadaad tatha maahanaaj ki virhakatha, humaayooain ki mitrata ke kaaran Panipat ke yuddh mein shaahadaad tatha uske anuyaayiyon ki veerata evam saahas, jusoor tatha gyoor baalaach ki ekanaamata (sanmi) ke liye bebarg pusar ke viruddh yuddh tatha isi prakaar ki anya ghatnaaon ne aisi uchch koti ki yuddheeya kavita ko janm diya, jo faarasi ke chhandashaastr (arooj) ki kathinaaiyon se khaali hai par vedana, ullaas tatha prabhaavotpaadakata mein anupam hai. ab tak ye melon tatha mahafilon mein badi ruchi ke saath padhi tatha suni jaati hain.

18veen shati

18veen shati isavi mein baloch bhaasha mein aisi premakavita ka prachaar hua, jismein saundarya tatha prem bhara hai tatha kesh, kapol va adhar ki gaatha hai. is kaal ki kavita saundarya ki svachh anubhooti tatha premika se door rahanevaale du:khi hrudaya ki kahaani hai jo baloch pravrutti ke bhaavon ka aadarsh bhi hai. premageeton ka sabse prasiddh kavi jaam darak maana jaata hai jo meer naseer khaaain hoori ka sabhaakavi tha aur baloch shaasak ne ise "shaayaron ka shaayar" (kaviyon ka kavi) ki upaadhi di thi. isne swayam jitne geeton aur kavitaaon ki rachana ki un sabamein sundar mukhon, kaale keshon, meinhadi lagi laal uaingaliyon, muktaavali se daaainton, kataar si bhauhon, rang birang ke aaainchalon tatha sugandhit pallon ke hi ullekh milte hain. par is kaal ke sabhi kavi laukik premika ki khoj mein vyast naheen hain. yeh avashya hai ki ve ek chalti firti tatha dikhaai denevaali premika ki khoj mein nikalte hain par aisa bhi hota hai ki ve aisi laukik premika ki khoj karte hue vaastavik (hakeeki) premika ko pa lete hain. jab kabhi aisa hota hai, saansaarik kavita soofi kavita ki seemaaon ko chhooti hui dikhlaai padti hai. is kaal ke prasiddh kaviyon mein tavakkuli, mulla faajil seemak, mulla kareemadaad, ijjt panjagori mulla baharaam, mulla kaasim tatha malik deenaar ke naag agraganya hain.

angrejon ka prabhaav

19veen shati isavi ke ant mein tatha 20veen shati ke aarambh mein angrej balochistaan mein apne saath keval nai shaasanavidhi hi naheen le gaye pratyut unhonne parvaton, registaanon tatha ghaatiyon ki bhoomi mein ek nai sabhyata ki neenv daali. inki vidyaaon tatha kalaaon ke pradarshan se baloch saahitya ka svaroop bhi prabhaavit hua. baloch kaviyon ne kalpana ke nae roop apanaae. jaisoor ne aisi kavitaaeain likheen jinmein nae shabd tatha nai yojana thi. aajaad jamaaladeeni ne angrejon ki shakti mein jaati tatha desh ki avanati samajhi. muhammad husen unka ne motaron tatha kaaron ke pahiyon ke neeche daridron ki ichhaaon ka khoon hote dekha. javaaain saal ne adhaarmik vichaaron ke prakaashan ki rok thaam ke liye prashansaatmak tatha vyaavahaarik kavitaaeain prastut keen. raham Ali bajlaaj bhi angrejon ke balochistaan mein aagaman se bhavishya mein hone vaale prabhaav se aparichit na rah sake aur unki shaili tatha bhaasha mein vishesh parivartan ho gaya. ab aisi kavitaaeain ki jaane lagi jinmein balochon ko unke beete gaurav ka smaran dilaaya gaya, svatantrata devi ki prashansa mein geet kahe gaye aur janasaadhaaran ko svaatantrya yuddh ke liye taiyaar kiya gaya. nirantar yuddh ke anantar san 1947 E. mein jab svatantrata mili Pakistan ki doosari praanteeya bhaashaaon ke samaan baloch bhaasha ki bhi unnati hui. radio Pakistan Quetta ke sthaapit hone se balochi kaviyon tatha gadya lekhakon ka utsaah badha aur nae lekhakon ka ek poora mandal maidaan mein aa utara.

is samay muhammad husen unka, aajaad jamaaladeeni aur gul khaaain naseer yadyapi puraane lekhak hain, tathaapi ve vichaaron tatha abhivyanjana ki drushti se nae lekhakon mein aa milte hain. nae lekhakon mein muraad saahir, isahaak shameem, abdurraheem saabir, Ahmad jheer, jahoor shaah haashimi, Anwar khataani, malik Saeed, Ahmad jigr, shaukat hasarat, Akbar baloch, naagumaan, dostamuhammad bekas, aajij, raunak baloch tatha ataashaad ullekhaneeya hain jo nae vaastavik (nafsiyaati) dhang ko apnaane or vidya sambandhi nae anubhav karne mein nirbheek hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. Anwar roomaan (2005). "Balochi language and literature". lekhan va anusandhaan sanstha (baloochistaan, Pakistan). http://books.google.com/books?id=1-9jAAAAMAAJ.