badminton

badminton
Badminton Peter Gade.jpg
dainish badminton khilaadi Peter ged
sarvochch niyantran nikaaya vishv badminton sangh
sabse pehle khela gaya aththaarahaveen shataabdi
visheshataaeain
anubandh naheen
dal ke sadasya ekal, yugal, mishrit
mishrit ling mahila, purush
vargeekaran racket se khele jaane vaale khel
upakaran shatalakauk
olanpik 1992 se

badminton racket se khela jaanevaala ek khel hai, jo do virodhi khilaadiyon (ekal) ya do virodhi jodon (yugal) dvaara net se vibhaajit ek aayataakaar court mein aamne-saamane khela jaata hai khilaadi apne racket se shatalakauk ko maarkar ke apne virodhi paksh ke court ke aadhe hisse mein giraakar pvaaints praapt karte hain. ek rally tab samaapt ho jaati hai jab shatalakauk maidaan par gir jaata hai aur pratyek paksh shatalakauk ke us paar jaane se pehle us par sirf ek baar vaar kar sakta hai.

shatalakauk (ya shatal) chidiyon ke pankhon se bana prakshepya hai, jiski anokhi udaan bharne ki kshamata ke kaaran yeh adhikaansh racket khelon ki geindon ki tulana mein alag tarah se uda karti hai. khaastaur par, pankh kaheen zyaada oonchaai tak khinchi ja sakti hain, jis kaaran geind ki tulana mein shatalakauk kaheen adhik teji se avatvaran karta hai. anya racket ke khelon ki tulana mein shatalakauk ki sheersh gati bahut adhik hoti hai. choonki shatalakauk ki udaan hava se prabhaavit hoti hai, iseeliye badminton pratispardha inador mein hi khelna achha hota hai. kabhi-kabhi manoranjan ke liye bageeche ya samudra tat par bhi khule mein badminton khela jaata hai.

san 1992 se, paanch prakaar ke aayojanon ke saath badminton ek olympic khel raha hai: purushon aur mahilaaon ke ekal, purushon aur mahilaaon ke yugal aur mishrit yugal, jismein pratyek jodi mein ek puroosh aur ek mahila hoti hai. khel ke uchch star par, khel utkrusht shaareerik fitness ki maang karta hai: khilaadiyon ko erobik kshamata, dakshata, shakti, gati aur duroostata ki aavashyakta hoti hai. yeh ek takaneeki khel bhi hai, ismein achhe sanchaalan samanvaya aur parishkrut racket jumbishon ke vikaas ki jrurat hoti hai.

anukram

itihaas aur vikaas

san 1804 mein baitalador aur shatalakauk ke khel
baitalador aur shatalakauk. 1854, John leech ke puraalekh se uddhrut[1]

badminton ki shuruaat 19veen sadi ke madhya mein british Bhaarat mein maani ja sakti hai, us samay tainaat british sainik adhikaariyon dvaara iska srujan kiya gaya tha.[2] praarambhik tasveeron mein angrej balle aur shatalakauk ke angrejon ke paaramparik khel mein net ko jodte dikhaayi dete hain. british chhaavani shahar poona mein yeh khel khaastaur par lokapriya raha, iseeliye is khel ko poonaai ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.[2][3] shuroo mein, hava ya geele mausam mein uchch varg oon ke gole se khelna pasand karte the, lekin antat: shatalakauk ne baaji maar li. is khel ko sevaanivrutti ke baad vaapas lautanevaale adhikaari England le gaye, jahaan ise viksit kiya gaya aur niyam banaaye gaye.[2][3]

san 1860 ke aas-paas, London ke ek khilauna vyaapaari isahaak spraat ne badminton baitalador- ek naya khel naamak ek pustika prakaashit ki, lekin durbhaagya ki baat hai ki usaki koi prati naheen bach paayi.[4]

naya khel nishchit roop se san 1873 mein gloostarashaayar sthit byoofort ke Duke ke svaamitvavaale badminton house mein shuroo kiya gaya tha. us samay tak, ise "badminton ka khel" naam se jaana jaata tha aur baad mein is khel ka aadhikaarik naam badminton ban gaya.[5]

san 1887 tak, british Bhaarat mein jaari niyamon ke hi tahat England mein yeh khel khela jaata raha. baath badminton club ne niyamon ka maanakeekaran kiya aur khel ko angreji vichaaron ke anusaar dhaala gaya. 1887 mein buniyaadi niyam banaaye gaye.[5] san 1893 mein, England badminton association ne aaj ke niyamon jaise hi, in viniymon ke anusaar niyamon ka pehla set prakaashit kiya aur usi saal 13 sitmbar ko England ke portsamaauth sthit 6 vaivarli grov ke "danabar" naamak bhavan mein aadhikaarik taur par badminton ki shurooaat ki. [6] 1899 mein, unhonne all England open badminton championship bhi shuroo ki, jo vishv ki pehli badminton pratiyogita bani.

antarraashtreeya badminton mahaasangh (IBF) (jo ab vishv badminton sangh ke naam se jaana jaata hai) san 1934 mein sthaapit kiya gaya; Canada, denmaark, England, France, Netherland, Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland aur vels iske sansthaapak bane. Bhaarat san 1936 mein ek sahayogi ke roop mein shaamil hua. beedablyuef ab antarraashtreeya badminton khel ko niyantrit karta hai aur khel ko duniya bhar mein viksit karta hai.

haalaanki iske niyam England mein bane, lekin Europe mein pratispardhi badminton par paaramparik roop se denmaark ka dabadaba hai. Indonesia, dakshin Korea aur Malaysia un deshon mein hain jo lagaataar pichhle kuchh dashakon se vishv star ke khilaadi paida kar rahe hain aur antarraashtreeya star ki pratiyogitaaon mein haavi hain; inmein cheen bhi shaamil hai, haal ke varshon mein jiska sabse adhik dabadaba raha hai.

niyam

nimnalikhit soochana niyam ka ek saraleekrut saaraansh hai, poori pratilipi naheen hai. beedablyuef sanvidhi prakaashan niyam ka nishchit srot hai,[7] haalaanki niyam ke ankeeya vitran ke rekhaachitr ki khraab pratikrutiyaan hain.

khel ke court ka aayaam

badminton court, isometrik dekhein

court aayataakaar hota hai aur net dvaara do hisson mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. aam taur par court ekal aur yugal donon khel ke liye chihnit kiye jaate hain, haalaanki niyam sirf ekal ke liye court ko chihnit karne ki anumati deta hai. yugal court ekal court se adhik chaude hote hain, lekin donon ki lanbaai ek samaan hoti hain. apavaad, jo aksar nae khilaadiyon ko bhram mein daal deta hai ki yugal court ki sarv-lanbaai aayaam chhota hota hai.

court ki poori chaudaai 6.1 meter (20 foot) aur ekal ki chaudaai isse kam 5.18 meter (17 foot) hoti hai. court ki poori lanbaai 13.4 meter (44 foot) hoti hai. service court ek madhya rekha dvaara court ki chaudaai ko vibhaajit karke chinhit hote hain. net se 1.98 meter (6 foot 6 inch) ki doori par short service rekha dvaara aur baahari or tatha pichhli seemaaon dvaara yeh chihnit hota hai. yugal mein, service court ek lambi service rekha dvaara bhi chihnit hoti hai, jo pichhli seema se 0.78 meter (2 foot 6 inch) ki doori par hoti hai.

net kinaaron par 1.55 meter (5 feet 1 inch) aur beech mein 1.524 meter (5 feet) ooncha hota hai. net ke khambe yugal paarshvarekhaaon par khade hote hain, tab bhi jab ekal khela jaata hai.

badminton ke niyamon mein court ke oopar ki chhat ki nyoonatam oonchaai ka koi ullekh naheen hai. fir bhi, aisa badminton court achha naheen maana jaayega agar ooncha sarv chhat ko chhoo jaaya.

upakaran niyam

niyam nirdisht karta hai ki kaun-sa upakaran istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. vishesh roop se, racket aur shatalakauk ke design aur aakaar ko lekar niyam seemaabaddh hain. sahi gati ke liye shatalakauk ke pareekshan ka bhi niyam mein praavadhaan hain:

3.1 : shatalakauk ki jaanch ke liye ful andarahaind stroke ka upayog karein jo shatalakauk ko pichhli baaundri rekha tak le jaata hai. shatalakauk ko ek oopari kon par aur samaanaantar disha mein side line ki or maarana chaahiye.

3.2 : sahi gati ka ek shatalakauk anya pichhli baaundri line se kam se kam 530 mimi aur 990 mimi se zyaada door naheen girega.

scoring pranaali aur service

buniyaadi baatein

har khel 21 point par khela jaata hai, jahaan khilaadi ek rally jeet kar ek point score karta hai (yeh us puraani vyavastha se alag hai, jismein khilaadi sirf apne sarv jeetkar hi ank pa sakte the). teen khel mein sarvottam ka ek match hota hai.

rally ke aarambh mein, sarvar aur riseevar apne-apne service court mein ek-doosare ke tirchhe khade hote hain (dekhein court ke aayaam). sarvar shatalakauk ko is tarah hit karta hai ki yeh riseevar ke service court mein jaakar gire. yeh tennis ke samaan hai, sivaaya iske ki badminton sarv kamar ki oonchaai ke neeche se hit kiya jaana chaahiye aur racket shaaft adhomukhi hona chaahiye, shatalakauk ko bounce karne ki anumati naheen hai aur badminton mein khilaadiyon ko apne sarv korton ke andar khade rahana padta hai, jabki aisa tennis mein naheen hota hai.

jab sarving paksh ek rally haar jaata hai, tab sarv pratidvandvi ya pratidvandviyon ko mil jaaya karta hai (puraani vyavastha ke vipreet, yugal mein "second sarv" naheen hota hai).

ekal mein, sarvar ka score sam hota hai tab vah apne daahine service court mein aur jab usaka score visham hota hai tab vah apne baaen service court mein khada hota hai.

yugal mein, agar sarving paksh ek rally jeet jaata hai, to vahi khilaadi sarv karna jaari rakhata hai, lekin use service court badalna padta hai taaki vah baari-baari se harek pratidvandvi ke liye kaarya karta hai. agar virodhi rally jeet jaate hain aur unka naya score sam hai, tab daahine service court ka khilaadi sarv karta hai; agar visham hai to baaen service court ka khilaadi sarv karta hai. pichhli rally ke aarambh mein unki jagah ke aadhaar par hi khilaadiyon ke service court nirdhaarit hote hain, na ki rally ke ant mein jahaan ve khade the. is pranaali ka ek parinaam yeh hai ki har baar ek side ko service ka mauka milta hai, aise khilaadi ko sarvar banane ka avsar milta hai jisne pichhli baar sarv naheen kiya tha.

vivran

jab sarvar sarv karta hai, tab shatalakauk virodhiyon ke court mein short service line ke paar jaana chaahiye varana ise chook maan liya jaaega.

agar score 20-all tak pahunch chuka hai, to khel jaari rahata hai jabatak ki ek paksh do ank (jaise ki 24-22) ki badhat naheen le leta, adhiktam 30 ank tak aisa hi chalta rah sakta hai (30-29 jeet ka score hai).

match ke aarambh mein, ek sikka uchhaala jaata hai. ismein jeetanevaale yeh tay kar sakte hain ki ve pehle sarv kareinge ya receive kareinge, ya ve court ke kis chhor se pehle khelna chaaheinge. unke virodhiyon ko bache hue ka hi chayan karna padta hai. kam aupachaarik setings mein, sikka uchhaalane ke bajaay aksar hi ek shatalakauk ko hit karke oopar hava mein udaaya jaata hai, kaurk ka sira jis or ingit karta hai vo paksh sarv karega.

baad ke khel mein, pichhle khel ke vijeta pehle sarv karte hain. inhein rabars bhi kaha ja sakta hai. agar ek team ek khel jeet jaati hai to ve ek baar fir khelte hain aur agar vah ek baar fir se jeet jaati hai to vah us match ko hi jeet leti hain, lekin yadi vah haar gayi to unhein match mein jeet-haar ke liye ek aur match khelna padta hai. kisi bhi yugal khel ki pehli rally ke liye, sarving jodi faisala kar sakti hai ki kaun pehle sarv karega aur riseeving jodi faisala kar sakti hai ki kaun pehle receive karega. doosare khel ki shuruaat mein khilaadiyon ko apna chhor badalna hota hai; agar match teesare khel tak pahunchata hai, tab game ke aarambh mein aur fir jab agrani jodi ka score 11 ank tak pahunchata hai tab, unhein do baar apne chhor badalne padte hain.

sarvar aur riseevar ko seema rekha chhue bina apne service court mein rahana padta hai, jab tak ki sarvar shatalakauk ko strike naheen karta. anya do khilaadi apni ichha anusaar kaheen bhi khade rah sakte hain, tab tak jab tak ki ve virodhi sarvar ya riseevar ki nazar se door hain.

galatiyaan (fault)

khilaadi shatalakauk ko strike karke aur use virodhi paksh ke court ki seema ke andar giraakar ek rally jeete jaate hain (ekal: side traamalaains baahar hain, lekin pichhli traam andar. yugal: side traamalaains andar hain, lekin pichhli traamalaain baahar (sirf service ke liye)). khilaadi tab bhi ek rally jeet jaata hai jab virodhi koi galati karta hai. badminton mein sabse aam galati ya fault hai jab khilaadi shatalakauk ko vaapas bhejane aur virodhi court mein giraane mein vifal hota hai, lekin aur bhi anya tareeke se khilaadiyon se galati ho sakti hai.

kai galatiyaan vishesh roop se service se sambandhit hain. sarving khilaadi ki galati hogi agar sampark ke samay shatalakauk usaki kamar se oopar ho (usaki nichli pasali ke paas), ya sanghaat ke vakt uske racket ka sir adhomukhi na ho. yeh vishesh niyam 2006 mein sanshodhit hua: pehle, sarvar ke racket ko is had tak adhomukhi hona hota tha ki racket ke sir ko us haath se neeche rahana jaroori tha jisse racket ko pakada gaya hai; aur ab, samastar ke neeche koi bhi kon sveekaarya hai.

na to sarvar aur na hi riseevar ek pair utha sakte hain jab tak ki sarvar shatalakauk ko strak na kare. sarvar ko shuroo mein shatalakauk ke aadhaar (kaurk) par bhi hit karna hoga, haalaanki vah baad mein usi stroke ke ek bhaag ke roop mein pankhavaale hisse par bhi hit kar sakta hai. S-sarv ya seedek sarv ke naam se khyaat ek atyant prabhaavi service shaili ko pratibandhit karne ke liye yeh kaanoon banaaya gaya. is shaili ke jariye sarvar shatalakauk ki udaan mein avyavasthit spin paida kiya karte the.[8]

net ke paar vaapas bhejane ke pehle har paksh shatalakauk ko sirf ek hi baar strike kar sakta hai; lekin ek ekal stroke sanchalan ke dauraan koi khilaadi shatalakauk ko do baar sampark kar sakta hai (kuchh tirchhe shauts mein hota hai). baharahaal, koi khilaadi shatalakauk ko ek baar hit karne ke baad fir kisi nayi chaal ke saath use hit naheen kar sakta, ya vah shatalakauk ko thaam ya sling naheen kar sakta hai.

agar shatalakauk chhat ko hit karta hai to yeh fault hoga.

lets

agar lets hota hai to rally band kar di jaati hai aur score mein bagair koi parivartan ke fir se kheli jaati hai. kuchh anpekshit baadha ke kaaran lets ho sakte hain, masalan shatalakauk ke court mein gir jaane par (sanlagn court ke khilaadiyon dvaara hit kar diya gaya ho) ya chhote hall ke oopari bhaag se shatal chhoo jaae to ise lets kaha ja sakta hai.

jab sarv kiya gaya tab agar riseevar taiyaar naheen hai, use lets kaha jaaega; fir bhi, agar riseevar shatalakauk vaapas karne ka prayaas karta hai, to maan liya jaaega ki vah taiyaar ho gaya.

agar shatalakauk tape ko hit karta hai to vah lets naheen hoga (service ke vakt bhi)|

upakaran

badminton raikets

racket

badminton racket halake hote hain, achhe kism ke racket ka vajan taar sahit 79 aur 91 gram ke beech hota hai.[9][10] ye kai alag saamagriyon kaarban faaibar mishran (graifaait prabalit plastic) se lekar thos ispaat tak, vibhinn tarah ke padaarthon ke sanvardhan se banaaye ja sakte hain. kaarban faaibar vajan anupaat mein ek utkrusht shakti pradaan karta hai, jo kathor hai aur gatij oorja ka sthaanaantaran bahut badhiya deta hai. kaarban faaibar mishran se pehle, racket halake dhaatuon jaise elyoominiym mein banta tha. isse pehle racket lakdi ke bante the. saste racket ab bhi aksar ispaat jaise dhaatu ke bante hain, lekin atyadhik maatra mein lakdi lagne aur iski keemat ke kaaran ab saamaanya baajaar ke liye lakdi ke racket naheen bante hain. aajkal, adhik se adhik tikaaoopan dene ke liye naino maiterial jaise fullerene aur kaarban nainotyoob ko bhi racket banaane mein shaamil kiya ja raha hain.

racket design mein bahut saari vividhtaaen hain, haalaanki niyman racket ka saaij aur uske aakaar ki seema tay kar di gayi hai. alag-alag khilaadiyon ke khel ke andaaj ke liye vibhinn tarah ke racket hote hain. paaramparik oopari hissa andaakaar vaale racket abhi bhi upalabdh hain, lekin ek samamaatrik aakaar ka racket teji se aam ho raha hai. ve jyaadaatar khilaadiyon mein bahut lokapriya hain.

taar

badminton taar patale hote hain, bahut achhe pradarshan vaale taar 0.65 se 0.73 mimi motaai ki range mein hote hain. mota taar adhik tikaaoo hota hai, lekin jyaadaatar khilaadi patale taar pasand karte hain. taar ka kasaav aamtaur par 80 se 130 N (18-36 lbf) mein hota hai. peshevar ke bajaae shaukiya khilaadi aamtaur par taar kam kasaav mein rakhate hain, khaas taur se 18 aur 25 paaund-bal (110 nyootan) ke beech hota hai. peshevar ke taar ka kasaav lagbhag 25 aur 36 paaund-bal (160 nyootan) ke beech.

aksar yeh tark diya jaata hai, taar ka kasaav niyantran ko unnat banaata hai, jabki kam kasaav shakti mein vruddhi karta hai.[11] iske liye jo yukti di jaati hai vah aamtaur kachche yaantrik tark ke taur par laagoo hote hain, jaise ki kam kasaavavaale taar ka aadhaar adhik uchhaal dene wala hota hai aur isliye adhik shakti pradaan karta hai. daraasal yeh galat hai, vaastav mein, ek uchch kasaavavaale taar ke kaaran shatal racket se fisl sakta hai aur iseeliye shot theek se maar paana mushkil hota hai. ek vikalp yeh sujhaata hai ki taakat ke liye sarvottam kasaav khilaadi par nirbhar karta hai:[10] sarvaadhik taakat ke liye uchch kasaav se khilaadi apne racket ko adhik teji se aur adhik sateek taur par lahara sakta hai. kisi bhi vichaar ke liye na to kade yaantrik vishleshan ki jarurat hai aur na hi iske ya doosare ke paksh mein spasht saboot hain. ek khilaadi ke liye sabse prabhaavi tareeka hai ki ek achhe kasaavavaale taar ka vah prayog kare.

grip

pakad ya grip ki pasand khilaadi ko apne racket ke mutthe ki motaai mein vruddhi aur pakad ke liye aaraamadaayak satah ke chunaav karne ki anumati deti hai. antim parat chadhaane se pehle khilaadi ek ya anek grip ke saath racket ka muttha taiyaar kar sakta hai.

khilaadi grip ki vibhinn prakaar ki saamagri ke beech chunaav kar sakte hain. jyaadaatar PU sinthetik grip ya tauveling grip ka hi chalan hai. grip ki pasand niji praathamikta ka maamala hai. aksar khilaadiyon ke liye paseena ek samasya hai; is maamale mein, grip ya haath mein ek draaing agent lagaaya ja sakta hai, svetabainds ka istemaal ho sakta hai, khilaadi doosare kism ka grip maiterial chun sakta hai ya grip ko baar-baar badal sakta hai.

mukhya prakaar ke do grip hain: riplesameint grip aur ovaragrips . riplesameint grip mota hota hai aur aksar iska istemaal mutthe ki maap mein vruddhi mein kiya jaata hai. ovaragrips patale (1 mimi se kam) hote hain aur aksar iska istemaal antim parat ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. baharahaal, bahut saare khilaadi antim parat ke roop mein riplesameint grip ka upayog karna pasand karte hain. tauveling grip hamesha riplesameint grip hote hain. riplesameint grip chipkane wala hota hai, jabki ovaragrips tape ke shuroo mein chipkane vaale keval chhote paich hote hain aur kasaav ke aadhaar par ise lagaaya jaana chaahiye; ovaragrips un khilaadiyon ke liye aur adhik suvidhaajanak hain jo aksar grip baar-baar badalate hain, kyonki bagair kharaab hue ve antarnihit saamagri ko jaldi-jaldi badal de sakte hain.

pankh ke saath shatalakauk
ek plastic ki skart ke saath ek shatalakauk

shatalakauk

shatalakauk (aksar sankshep mein shatal aur saamaanyat: chidiya roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai) ek khula shanku aakaar ka ooncha udnevaala prakshepya hai: kaurk ke aadhaar mein solah ativyaapi ant:sthaapit pankhon se shanku banaaya jaata hai. kaurk ko maheen chamade ya sinthetik saamagri se dhank diya jaata hai.

choonki pankhon ke shatal aasaani se toot jaate hain, iseeliye aksar shaukiya khilaadiyon dvaara apni laagat ko kam karne ke liye sinthetik shatal ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. ye naayalaun shatal ya to praakrutik kaurk ya krutrim fom base aur plastic ke ghere se banaaye jaate hain.

iske atirikt, naayalaun shatalakauk teen kismon ke hote hain, harek kism alag tarah ke taapamaan ke liye hote hain. ye teen kism ke hoe hain; hara (dheemi gati jo aapko ek atirikt 40% samay/shot lanbaai dega), neela (madhyam gati) aur laal (tej gati) ke liye. isliye kaurk ke chaaron taraf chipki rangeen patti rang aur gati ki or sanket karti hai. thande taapamaan mein tej shatal ka upayog kiya jaata hai aur garm mausam mein dheemein ko chuna jaata hai.

joote

badminton joote vajan mein halake rabar ke tale ya milte-julate haai grip ke saath naun-maarking saamagri se bane hote hain.

daudanevaale jooton ki tulana mein, badminton joote thoda paarshvik avalanbanavaale hote hai. uchch star ka paarshvik avalanban gatividhiyon ke liye vahaan upayogi hai, jahaan paarshv gati avaanchhaneeya aur apratyaashit hai. baharahaal, badminton mein shaktishaali paarshv gati ki aavashyakta hoti hai. badminton mein pair ki suraksha mein ek uchch nirmit paarshvik avalanban saksham naheen hoga, iske bajaae, aisi jagah par jahaan joote ko avalanban naheen mil paata yeh vipttijnak roop se girne ka sabab ban jaaega aur khilaadi ke takhane achaanak bhaar ke liye taiyaar na hon to yeh moch ka kaaran ban sakta hai. is kaaran, badminton khilaadiyon ko saamaanya prashikshu ya dhaavak jooton ke bajaae badminton jooton ka chunaav karna chaahiye, kyoki sateek badminton jooton mein ek bahut hi patala-sa tala, vyakti ke gurutvaakarshan ke kendra ko kam karne wala hota hai aur isliye chot ki kam gunjaaish hoti hai. har tarah ke dhakke mein khilaadiyon ko surakshit aur uchit kadamon ke upayog ke saath ghutne aur pairon ke sanrekhan ko bhi sunishchit karna chaahiye. yeh na keval suraksha ke liye chinta ka vishay hai, court mein prabhaavi tareeke se gati banaaye rakhane ke liye uchit kdamon ka upayog bhi maayane rakhata hai.

stroke

fraanseska seteeaadi (Francesca Setiadi), Canada, menalo park, 2006 mein golden gate badminton club (GGBC) mein oonchi udaan

forehand aur backhand

badminton mein bahut saare buniyaadi stroke hain aur prabhaavi dhang se pradarshan ke liye khilaadiyon ko bahut hi uchch star ke kaushal ki aavashyakta hai. sabhi stroke ya to forehand ya backhand se khele ja sakte hain. ek khilaadi ka forehand side uske khelne vaale haath ka hi side hota hai: daaen haath ke khilaadi ke liye forehand side usaka daahina side hota hai aur backhand side usaka baayaan side hota hai. pramukh hatheli se forehand stroke daahine haath ke saamane se maara jaata hai (jaise hatheli se maara jaaye), jabki backhand stroke daahine haath ke peechhe se maara jaata hai (jaise haath ke jodon se maara jaaye). khilaadi aksar forehand side ki or se backhand maarane ke saath kuchh stroke khelte hain aur iska ulta bhi.

saamane ke court aur madhya court mein, ya to forehand ya fir backhand side se samaan prabhaavi tareeke se jyaadaatar stroke khele ja sakte hain; lekin court ke pichhle bhaag se khilaadi apne forehand se jitna sambhav ho utane stroke khelne ka prayaas karta hai, praay: backhand overhead ke bajaae sir ke paas se forahaind overhead (forehand "backhand ki taraf se") khelna pasand karta hai. ek backhand overhead khelne ke do mukhya nuksaan hain. sabse pehle, khilaadi apne virodhiyon ki or apni peeth jaroor karta hai, isse vah unhein aur court ko naheen dekh paata hai. doosare, backhand ovaraheds utani taakat ke saath naheen maara ja sakta jitna ki forahaind: kandhe ke jod ke kaaran maarane ki kaarravaai seemit ho jaati hai, jo backhand ke bajaae forahaind overhead sanchaalan ke bahut bade range ki anumati deta hai. khel mein adhikaansh khilaadi aur coach backhand kliyr ko kathin buniyaadi stroke maanate hain, kyonki shatalakauk court ki poori lanbaai mein yaatra kare iske liye paryaapt shakti batorane ke kram mein sateek takaneek ki jrurat hoti hai. usi kaaran se, backhand smash kamjor ho jaate hain.

shatalakauk aur riseeving khilaadi ki sthiti

lemyuel sibulo, USA, filaadelfiya, 2009 mein pehle kiye gaye service.

stroke ka chunaav is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki shatalakauk net ke kitne najadeek hai, kaheen yeh net ki oonchaai se oopar to naheen hai aur virodhi ki vartamaan sthiti kahaan hai: agar ve net ki oonchaai ke oopar shatalakauk tak pahunch sakte hain to khilaadi behtar hamle ki sthiti mein hote hain. forakort mein, ek ooncha shatalakauk net kill se milega, ise neeche ki or teji se hit karte hue rally ko turant jeetne ki koshish ki jaaegi. isi kaaran yeh behtar hai ki is sthiti mein shatalakauk ko net par hi girne diya jaae. midkort mein, ooncha shatalakauk aamtaur par ek shaktishaali smash bana diya jaata hai, yeh neeche ki or hit karta hai aur isse ek sampoorn jeet ya ek kamjor javaab ki ummeed ki jaati hai. kasarati kood smash, jahaan khilaadi neeche ki or smash kon ke liye oopar ki or uchhalata hai, yeh eleet purushon ke dabals khel ka ek aam aur shaanadaar tatv hai. riarakort mein, shatalakauk ko neeche ki or aane dene ke bajaae khilaadi us samay maarane ke liye bekaraar hota hai jab vah unke oopar hota hai. yeh overhead aaghaat unhein kai tarah ke smash, kliyrs (shatalakauk ko oonchaai se aur virodhi court ke peechhe maarana) aur draupashauts (taaki shatalakauk virodhiyon ke forakort mein dheere se neeche gire) khelne ki anumati deta hai. agar shatalakauk thoda neeche aata hai, to smash asambhav hai aur sampoorn lanbaai, ooncha kliyr mushkil hai.

chitr:BadmintonJumpSmash.jpg
rooki kaimeklaing, filipins, vartikl jamp smash ke liye taiyaari.

shatalakauk ki urdhvaadhar sthiti

jab shatalakauk net ki oonchaai se khaasa neeche hai, to khilaadiyon ke paas oopar ki taraf maarane ke alaava koi vikalp naheen rahata hai. lifts jahaan virodhiyon ke court ke peechhe le jaane ke liye shatalakauk oopar ki taraf maara jaata hai, court ke kisi bhi hisse se khela ja sakta hai. agar khilaadi lift naheen karta hai, uske paas shatalakauk ko dheere se net ki or kar dene ka hi vikalp shesh rah jaata hai: for court mein yeh net short kahalaata hai, mid court mein yeh aksar push ya block kahalaata hai.

jab shatalakauk net ki oonchaai ke kareeb hota hai, khilaadi draaivs hit kar sakte hain, joki sapaat aur virodhiyon ke midkort tatha riar court mein teji se net ke oopar se jaata hai. midkort ke saamane shatalakauk ko le jaate hue push aur bhi sapaat hit kar sakta hai. draaivs aur push midkort ya forakort se khele ja sakte hain aur iska upayog aksar dabls mein hota hai: aisa ve shatalakauk ko lif‍aat karne ya smash se bachaav ki koshish ke bajaae ve hamle ko fir se praapt karne ke liye karte hain. ek safal push ya draaivs ke baad, virodhi aksar shatalakauk ko lif‍aat karne ke liye majaboor ho jaaenge.

anya kaarak

smash se bachaav karne ke dauraan, khilaadi ke paas teen buniyaadi vikalp hote hain : lif‍aat, block, ya drive. ekal mein, net mein block bahut hi saamaanya javaabi kaaryavaahi hai. yugal mein, ek lift sabse surakshit vikalp hai, lekin aamtaur par yeh virodhiyon ko lagaataar smash ki anumati deta hai; block aur drive mukaabala karne ke stroke hain, par smash karanevaale ke saajhedaar dvaara beech mein roka ja sakta hai. bahut saare khilaadi donon forehand aur backhand side mein smash ko lautaane ke liye bainkahaind hit karte hain, kyonki seedhe shareer par aate hue smash ke liye forehand ke bajaae backhand kaheen adhik prabhaavi hota hai.

service niyam dvaara pratibandhit hai aur yeh apne hi kism ke stroke ka chunaav karne ke liye vyooh pesh karta hai. tennis ke vipreet, sarvar ka racket sarv dene ke dauraan neeche ki disha mein nishaana saadhate hue hona chaahiye saamaanyataya shatal oopar ki or maara jaana chaahiye taaki vah net par se gujaare. sarvar forakort mein lo sarv (jaise push) ka, ya service court ke peechhe mein lift ka, ya ek sapaat drive sarv ka chunaav kar sakta hai. lif‍aat sarv ya to haai sarv hona chaahiye, jahaan shatalakauk itna oopar uth jaae ki vah lagbhag khadi disha mein court ke peechhe jaakar gire, ya f‍aalik sarv, jahaan shatalakauk kam oonchaai par uthe lekin jald hi gir jaae.

chaalabaaji

ek baar khilaadi ko in buniyaadi stroke mein mahaarat haasil kar lete hain, tab ve shatalakauk ko court ke kisi bhi hisse mein poori taakat se aur dheere se jaisa jaruri ho, hit ke sakte hain. buniyaadi baaton ke alaava, tathaapi, badminton unnat stroke lagaane ke kaushal ke liye achhi kshamata pradaan karta hai jo pratispardhaatmak laabh deta hain. kyonki badminton khilaadiyon ko jaldi se jaldi ho sake kam se kam doori ko tay karna padta hai, iska uddeshya virodi ko kai bahut hi unnat stroke dena hota hai, taaki ya to vah is chaal mein pad jaae ki ek alag stroke khela gaya hai, ya vah sahi maayane mein shatal ki disha dekhne tak apni gati dheema karne ko majaboor ho jaae. badminton mein aksar in donon tareeke se "chaalabaaji" ka prayog kiya jaata hai. jab khilaadi vaastav mein chaalabaaji karta hai, aksar vah usi dam point kho dega kyonki vah shatalakauk tak pahunchane ke liye apne disha utani jaldi naheen badal sakta. anubhavi khilaadi chaal ke prati jaagruk honge aur bahut jald hi kadam badhaane ke prati sachet honge, lekin chaalabaajeeke prayaas fir bhi upayogi hote hain, kyonki yeh virodhi ko apni gati ko dheema karne ko majaboor kar dete hain. kamjor khilaadi jo stroke maaranevaala hota hai, anubhavi khilaadi us stroke se laabh uthaane ke maksad se uske shatalakauk ko hit karne se pehle hi chal padta hai.

slaaising aur shautahainded hiting action do mukhya takaneeki upakaran hain jo chaalabaaji karne mein sahooliyt dete hain. slaaising shatalakauk ko racket ke saamane ki or se kon banaate hue maarane se sambandhit hai, jisse yeh shareer aur baajuon dvaara sujhaaye gaye sanchalan ke bajaae alag disha mein jaata hai. slaaising se shatalakauk baajuon dvaara dikhaayi gayi gati ke bajaae bahut hi dheeme bhi jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek achha krausakort slaaisd draupashaurt jo shatalakauk ki kshamata aur disha donon hi virodhi ko thagate hue jor se maarane ki kaaryavaahi ka upayog karega jo seedhe kliyr ya smash hota hai. ek bahut hi parishkrut slaaising kaaryavaahi hit karne ke dauraan shatalakauk ko ghoomaane ke liye iske chaaron or taar se brashing karne se juda hai. iska istemaal net se hokar bahut hi teji se gujarte hue gaharaai mein le jaate hue shatal ke prakshep path mein vruddhi karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai; udaaharan ke liye, slaaisd lo sarv saamaanya lo sarv ki tulana mein thoda jaldi yaatra kar sakta hai, fir bhi usi jagah girta hai. shatalakauk spining netashaurt ki bhi rachana karta hai (jo tanbaling netashaurt ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai) jismein shatalakauk sthir hon se pehle apne aap kai baar ghoomti (ludhkati hai) hai; kabhi-kabhi shatalakauk ludhkane ke bajaae aundha rah jaata hai. spining netashaurt ka pramukh laabh yeh hai ki jab tak shatalakauk ka ludhkana band naheen ho jaata hai virodhi use lena naheen chaahega, kyonki pankho mein maarane ka nateeja apratyaashit stroke hota hai. spining netashaurt oonche darje ke ekal khilaadi ke liye vishesh mahatva ka hota hai.

aadhunik racket ka halkaapan khilaadi ko kai stroke ke liye aakhiri sambhaavit kshan tak shaktishaali ya halka stroke maarane ke vikalp ko banaaye rakhane ke liye short hiting kaarravaai ke istemaal karne ki anumati deta hai. udaaharan ke liye, ekal khilaadi netashaurt ke liye apne racket ko pakade rakh sakta hai, lekin iske baad shatalakauk ko vaapas karne ke liye uthale lift ke bajaae flick kar deta hai. isse bade hit se lift karne ke bajaae poore court ko kavar karte hue swing karaana virodhi ke liye kathin kaam hota hai. chaalabaajeeke liye ek short hiting kaarravaai upayogi naheen hota hai: khilaadi ke paas jab bade aarm swing ka samay naheen hota tab yeh use shaktishaali stroke maarane ki anumati deta hai. aise takaneekon mein majaboot grip bahut maayane rakhata hai aur ise aksar fingar power ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai. sanbhraant khilaadi ek had tak fingar power ko viksit karte hain taaki ve kuchh shaktishaali stroke, jaise ki racket ko 10 seinmi se kam swing karaakar net kill, maar sakein.

sauft stroke khelne ke liye hiting kaarravaai ke dheeme ho jaane se pehle shaktishaali stroke ke dvaara chaalabaajeeke is style ko ulat dena bhi sambhav hai. riarakort mein saamaanyataya chaalabaajeeki pichhli shaili bahut aam hai (udaaharan ke liye, draupashaurt khaas tarah ka smash hai), jabki baadavaali shaili forakort aur midkort mein (udaaharan ke liye lift khaas tarah ka netashaurt hai) bahut aam hai.

chaalabaajee‍ slaaising aur short hiting kaarravaai tak seemit naheen hai. jahaan khilaadi doosari disha mein maarane se racket ko bachaane se pehle ek disha mein racket ka praarambhik sanchaalan karta hai vahaan vah double motion ka bhi istemaal kar sakta hai. aamtaur par yeh krausakort kon ke istemaal ka sujhaav deta hai, lekin stroke ko seedha ya iske ulat khelta hai. tripl motion bhi sambhav hai, lekin asli khel mein yeh bahut hi virl hota hai. racket ke oopari hisse ka nakali istemaal double motion ka ek vikalp hai, jahaan praarambhik gati jaari rahate hue bhi hit ke dauraan racket ghoom jaata hai. isse disha mein halka-sa badlaav aata hai, lekin ismein zyaada samay ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai.

rananeeti

badminton mein jeet ke liye, khilaadiyon ko sahi sthiti mein vibhinn tarah ke stroke ki jrurat hoti hai. iska range shaktishaali kood kar smash karne se lekar net se vaapasi ke liye sookshm ludhakaane tak hai. aksar railiyon ka ant smash se hota hai, lekin smash ko sthaapit karne ke liye teevr stroke ki jrurat hai. udaaharan ke liye, shatalakaurk ko uthaane ke liye netashaurt virodhi ko majaboor kar sakta hai, jo smash ka avsar pradaan karta hai. agar netashaurt tang aur ludhkanevaala hai to virodhi ka lift court ke peechhe tak pahunch jaaega, jo vaapasi ke liye anuvarti smash ko bahut kathin bana deta hai.

chaalabaaji bhi mahatvapoorn hai. visheshagya khilaadi ke kai tarah ke stroke taiyaar karte hain, jo ek jaise dikhte hain aur gati ya stroke ki disha ke baare mein apne virodhiyon ko dhokhe mein daalne ke liye ve slaaising ka upayog karte hain. yadi koi pratidvandvi stroke ka anumaan lagaane ki koshish karta hai, to vah galat disha mein chala ja sakta hai aur theek samay par shatalakauk tak pahunchane ke liye apne shareer ki gati ko badalne mein asamarth ho sakta hai.

yugal

donon jodi jab kabhi sambhav ho neeche ki or smash karke laabh uthaane aur hamle ko barkaraar rakhane ki koshish karega. jab bhi sambhav ho, jodi aadarsh hamle ka vyooh banaaenge, ek khilaadi riarakort se neeche ki or se hit karta hai aur usaka saajhedaar midkort mein lift ko chhod kar sabhi smash ko beech mein hi rokate hue lautaane ke saath. agar riarakort ka hamlaavar draupashaurt khelta hai, usaka saajhedaar forakort mein jaate hue net ka khtara lete hue forakort ki or badhega. agar jodi hit naheen kar sakti hai to hamle ka laabh uthaane ki koshish mein ve sapaat stroke ka upayog kareinge. agar jodi shatalakauk ko lift ya kliyr karne ko majaboor kar di jaati hai to unhein bachaav karna chaahiye: ve riar midkort mein ve virodhi ke smash ka mukaabala karne ke liye apne court ki poori chaudaai ko kavar karne ke liye paas-paas rahane ki sthiti ko apanaaenge. yugal khel mein, khilaadi aamtaur par beech maidaan mein do khilaadiyon ke beech bhram aur takaraav ka laabh uthaane ke liye smash karta hai.

uchch star ke khel mein, backhand sarv is had tak lokapriya ho gaya hai ki peshevar khel mein forehand sarv lagbhag dikhaai hi naheen deta hai. virodhi ko hamle se laabh uthaane se rokane ki koshish mein seedhe lo sarv ka bahut adhik istemaal hone laga hai. virodhi ko pehle se hi lo sarv ki ummadi rakhane aur nirnaayak roop se hamla karne se rokane ke liye flick sarv ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.

uchch star ke khel mein yugal rally bahut hi tej hota hai. uchch anupaat mein poori taakat se kood kar smash karne ke saath purushon ka yugal badminton ka sabse aakraamak roop hai.

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ek mishrit yugal khel - 12s tournament mein skautish school, traaneint, May 2002

ekal

ekal court yugal court ki tulana mein sankara hota hai, lekin lanbaai mein ek samaan, sarv mein ekal aur yugal mein back box baahar hota hai. kyonki poore court ko kavar karne ke liye ek vyakti jaroori hota hai, ekal rananeeti virodhi ko jitna sambhav ho sake utana chalne ke liye baadhya karne par aadhaarit hoti hai; iska matlab yeh hai ki ekal stroke aamtaur par court ke kone se juda hota hai. draapsashaurt aur netashaurt ke saath lift aur kliyr ke sanyojan se khilaadi court ki poori lanbaai ka faayda uthaata hai. yugal ki tulana mein ekal mein smash kam hi dekhne mein aata hai, kyonki khilaadi smash karne ki aadarsh sthiti mein kam hi hote hain aur agar smash vaapas laut kar aata hai to smash karanevaale ko aksar chot lag jaati hai.

ekal mein, khilaadi jyaadaatar forehand haai sarv ke saath rally ki shurooaat karega. lagaataar lo sarv ya to forehand ya fir backhand ka bhi upayog hota hai. flick sarv kam hi hota hai aur drive sarv to virl hi hai.

uchch star ke khel mein, ekal mein ullekhaneeya fitness ki jararat hoti hai. yugal ke bahut hi akraamakata ke vipreet, ekal dhairyavaan sthitijnya daanv ka khel hai.

mishrit yugal

mishrit yugal mein saamane ki or mahila aur peechhe ki or puroosh ke saath donon jodi aakraamakata ko barkaraar rakhane ki koshish karti hai. iska kaaran yeh hai purush khilaadiyon jo kaafi majaboot hote hain aur isliye ve jo smash karte hain vah bahut hi shaktishaali hota hain. nateejatan, mishrit yugal mein rananeetik jaagrukta aur sookshmatar sthitijnya khel ki bahut jrurat hoti hai. chaalaak virodhi mahila ko peechhe ki taraf aur purush ko aage ki or aane ke liye majaboor karte hue unki aadarsh sthiti ko badalne ki koshish karega. is khatre se bachane ke liye, mishrit khilaadi ko apne shot ka chunaav karne mein chaukanna aur vyavasthit hona hoga. [12]

uchch star ke khel mein, sanrachana aamtaur par lacheeli hoti hai: choti ki mahila khilaadi riyrakort se poori taakat ke saath khelne mein saksham hoti hai aur jab iski jrurat ho to vah khushi-khushi aisa kar legi. baharahaal, jab mauka milta hai, mahila ko samaane ki taraf rakhakar jodi fir se maanak mishrit aakraamak sthiti mein jaaegi.

baaen haath ka ekal

baaen haath ke khilaadi ko daahine haath ke khilaadi ke khilaaf ek svaabhaavik laabh mil jaata hai. aisa isliye ki duniya mein jyaadaatar daahine haath ke khilaadi hain (aap unke saath khelne ke aadi naheen hain). agar aap baaen haath se khelte hain, forehand aur backhand badal jaata hai, isliye aapke daahine or ke court mein ek shot (daahine haath ke khilaadi ka bainkahaind) ka parinaam aapke khilaaf ek bahut hi shaktishaali smash hoga. is kaaran baaen haath ke khilaadiyon ka jhukaav unke forehand ki taraf adhik se adhik shot daalne ka hoga aur falasvaroop unka bainkahaind poori tarah se prashikshit naheen hota hai. isliye, baaen haath ke khilaadi ki mukhya kamjori usaka backhand hota hai. yeh jaanane ke baad, baaen haath ke ek khilaadi ko apne jyaadaatar shauts court ke baaen or khelne ki koshish karni chaahiye. aisa isliye kyonki daahine haath ke vyakti ka forehand hone ke baavajood, shot ki vaapasi bhi aapke forehand ki or hogi (ek samaanaantar shot ki tulana mein ek kraus-court shot ko khelna bahut mushkil hota hai.) yeh sunishchit karega ki aap smaishing jaari rakh sakte hain. yeh kaha jaata hai ki baaen haathavaalon ke smaishes behtar hote hain. yeh aanshik roop se sahi hai kyonki baaen haath ka khilaadi durlabh kon banaane mein saksham hota hai (ek halake kon vaale shot ke bajaay court ki baayeen or ek saamaanaantar shot) aur isliye bhi ki shatalakauk par pankh is tarah lage hue hote hain jo baaen haath ke khilaadi ki madad karte hain (baaen haath ke khilaadi ke forehand se kiye slaais se shatalakauk ki gati zyaada ho jaati hai, is kaaran kaheen adhik shaktishaali smash banta hai). haalaanki, ek baaen haath ka khilaadi khud ulajhan mein pad jaaega, jab vah ek samakaksh saathi ke saath khel raha ho.

baaen haath/daahine haath ki yugal jodi

unnat star ke khel mein baaen haath/daahine haath ki yugal jodi bahut hi aam hai. iski vajah yeh hai ki inhein daahine haath/daahine haath ya baaen haath/baaen haath ki yugal jodi par ek vishisht laabh praapt hota hai. sabse ullekhaneeya laabh yeh hai ki court ka koi bhi side kamjor naheen hota hai. isse virodhi team ko yeh sochane mein adhik samay lagta hai ki kaun-si side backhand hai aur shatalakauk ko vahaan bhejana hai, kyonki ek saamaanya daahini/daahini jodi ke virooddh aap aamtaur par lagbhag hamesha court ke aapki daahini or hi bhejate hain, jabki LH/RH (baayeen/daahini) jodi rally ke dauraan apne kamjor paksh mein parivartan kar liya karti hai. baaen haath ke khilaadi ko smash karne mein bhi ek anya laabh milta hai. chidiya ke pankh ke shatalakauk mein ek praakrutik spin hota hai, isliye jab baaen haath se shatalakauk ko halake se tirchhe shot lagaate hain tab aap praakrutik spin ka laabh uthaate hue use drag karke tej smash karte hain. jab ek daahine haath ka khilaadi apne backhand se shot ko slaais karta hai tab ek hi prabhaav padta hai. iska ek bahut achha udaaharan tain boon heong hain, jo ek baaen haath ke khilaadi hain, jinke naam 421 kimi/ghanta ka vishv record hai.

shaasakeeya nikaaya

vishv badminton sangh (beedablyuef) khel ka antarraashtreeya star par maanyata praapt shaasakeeya nikaaya hai. beedablyuef ke saath jude paanch kshetreeya parisangh hain:

  • Asia: badminton Asia parisangh (BAC)
  • Africa: Africa ka badminton parisangh (BCA)
  • America: badminton pain M (uttar America aur dakshin America ek hi parisangh ke hain; BPA)
  • Europe: badminton Europe (BE)
  • oceania: badminton oceania (BO)

pratiyogitaaen

aadamiyon ke yugal match.blue line badminton court ke liye hote hain. doosare rang ki laainon ka prayog anya khel niroopit karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai - yeh jatilta bahu-prayog sports hauls mein aam baat hai.

beedablyuef Thomas cup, Premier mains iveint aur Uber cup, sahit mahilaaon ke liye bhi isi tarah ki kai antarraashtreeya pratiyogitaaon ka aayojan karta hai. ye pratiyogitaaen har do saal mein ek baar hoti hain. 50 se bhi zyaada raashtreeya teemein mahaadveepeeya parisangh ke final mein sthaan paane ke liye kvaalifaaing tournament mein bhaag leti hain. antim tournament mein 12 teemein shaamil hoti hai, varsh 2004 ke baad aath teemon se ismein vruddhi ki gayi hai.

sudirmaan cup, ki shuruaat 1989 mein hui, yeh miksd team iveint har do saal mein ek baar aayojit hoti hai. pratyek desh pradarshan ke aadhaar par saat group mein vibhaajit hota hai. tournament jeetne ke liye, kisi desh ko sabhi paanch shaakhaaon (purushon ke ekal aur yugal, mahila ekal aur yugal aur mishrit yugal) mein achha pradarshan karna hota hai. football association (saukar) ki tarah, har group mein sanvardhan aur nirvaasan pranaali iski ek khaasiyat hai.

1972 aur 1988 ke greeshmakaaleen olanpik mein badminton vyaktigat spardha ek pradarshan iveint tha. 1992 ke Barcelona olanpik mein yeh ek greeshmakaaleen olanpik khel ban gaya. vishv ke 32 sarvochch sthaan praapt badminton khilaadiyon ne is pratiyogita mein bhaag liya aur pratyek desh ne teen khilaadiyon ko ismein bhaag lene ke liye bheja. vishv stareeya pratiyogita mein vishv ke keval 64 sarvochch sthaan praapt khilaadi aur pratyek desh se adhiktam teen ismein bhaag le sakte hain.

beedablyuef vishv kanishth badminton pratiyogita 19 varsh se kam aayu ke khilaadiyon ke liye aayojit ki jaati hai. ye sabhi pehle star ki pratiyogitaaeain hain.

2007 ke shuroo mein, beedablyuef ne bhi ek nae pratiyogita sanrachana ki shuruaat ki: beedabalyuef super series is star do ke tournament mein 32 khilaadiyon (pichhli seema se aadha) ke saath duniya bhar mein 12 open tournament aayojit kiye jaayeinge. khilaadi jo ank praapt kareinge, usase yeh tay hoga ki saal ke ant mein ve super series final mein khel sakeinge ya naheen.[13][14]

pebataavasan star ke tournament mein grand priks gold aur grand priks iveint shaamil honge. sheersh khilaadi world racking point praapt kar sakte hain aur jo unhein beedablyuef super series open tournament mein khelne ke liye saksham kar sakta hai. inmein kshetreeya pratiyogitaaen Asia ka (Asiaee badminton pratiyogita) aur Europe ka (Europeeya badminton pratiyogita) shaamil hain, jo pain America badminton pratiyogita ke saath hi saath duniya ke behatareen khilaadiyon ko paida karta hai.

chauthe star ka tournament, jo international chaileinj, antarraashtreeya series aur future series ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, junior khilaadiyon ko bhaageedaari ke liye protsaahit karta hai.[15]

keertimaan

badminton mein sabse shaktishaali stroke smash hai, jo teji se neeche ki taraf virodhiyon ke mid court mein maara jaata hai. smash kiye gaye shatalakauk ki adhiktam gati doosare kisi anya racket khel ke prakshepya se kaheen adhik hoti hai. khilaadi ke racket se chhootane ke tatkaal baad is gati ki rikaurding ko shatalakauk ki praarambhik gati se maapa jaata hai.

2009 Japan open mein purush yugal mein Malaysia ke khilaadi tain boon yong ne 421 kimi/prati ghante (262 meal prati ghante) ki gati ka aadhikaarik vishv keertimaan banaaya tha.[16]

racket vaale anya khelon se tulana

badminton ki tulana aksar tennis se ki jaati hai. gair vivaadaaspad tulana ki ek soochi is prakaar hai:

  • tennis mein, khilaadi ke hit karne se pehle geind ek baar uchhal sakti hai; badminton mein rally tabhi khatm ho jaati hai jab shatalakauk jameen ko chhoo le.
  • tennis mein, sarv is had tak haavi hota hai ki sarv karanevaala khilaadi apni jyaadaatar service khel ko jeetne ki ummeed rakhata hai; service mein break ka game mein bada mahatva hai, jahaan service karne wala khel haar jaata hai. jabki badminton mein, sarving paksh aur risivig paksh donon ke liye rally jeetne ka lagbhag baraabar ka mauka hota hai.
  • tennis mein, sarvar ko sahi sarv ke liye do baar prayatn ki anumati milti hai; badminton mein, sarvar ko keval ek hi prayatn ki anumati hai.
  • tennis mein agar geind net tape ko hit kare to let let on service ka mauka milta hai; badminton mein, let on service ka praavadhaan naheen hai.
  • tennis court badminton court se bada hota hai.
  • tennis racket badminton racket se chaar guna vajanadaar hota hai 10-12 auns (lagbhag 284-340 gram) banaam 70-105 gram.[17][18] tennis geind se shatalakauk se gyaarah guna adhik bhaari hota hai, 57 gram banaam 5 gram.[19][20]
  • tennis ka sabse tej darj stroke Andy raudrik 153 meal/ghanta (246 kimi/ghanta) ka sarv[21] hai ; badminton ka sabse tej darj stroke tain boon yaang 261 meal/ghanta (420 kimi/ghanta) ka smash[22] hai.

gati ki tulana aur kasarati aavashyakataaen

smash gati jaisi saankhyiki 261 meal/ghanta (420 kimi/ghanta), usase adhik, furteele badminton utsaahiyon ki anya tulanaaen adhik vivaadaaspad hain. udaaharan ke liye, aksar yeh daava kiya jaata hai ki badminton sabse teji se chalne wala racket ka khel hai.[23] haalaanki racket ke khelon mein sabse tej aaranbhik gati ka record badminton ke naam hai, anya prakshepya jaise ki tennis geindon ki tulana mein vaastavik roop se shatalakauk ka avamandan kaafi tej hota hai. iske alaava, is yogyata shatalakauk ke doori tay kiye jaane ke dvaara kaabil vivechit hona chaahiye: ek ko mita diya shatalakauk ek ki seva ke dauraan ek tennis geind se ek kam doori ki yaatra karta hai. sabse tej racket ke khel ke roop mein badminton ka daava bhi pratikriya samay ki aavashyakataaon ke aadhaar par ho sakta hai, lekin yakeenan table tennis mein isse tej pratikriya samay bhi aavashyakta hai.

is baat ke paksh mein kaafi majaboot tark hai ki tennis ki tulana mein badminton kaheen adhik shaareerik kshamata ki maang karta hai, lekin khelon ki apni alag-alag maangon ko dekhte hue is tarah ki tulana ko nishpaksh banaana mushkil hota hai. kuchh anaupachaarik adhyayanon se sanket milta hai ki badminton ko tennis khilaadiyon se adhik erobik kshamata ki jrurat hai, lekin is vishay par bahut kade shodh naheen kiye gaye hain.[24]

nimnalikhit tulana mein aur adhik santulit ravaiya sujhaaya gaya hai, haalaanki ye bhi vivaad ke vishay hain:

  • tennis ki tulana mein, badminton mein, vishesh roop se ekal mein bahut adhik erobik kshamata ki aavashyakta hai; badminton ekal mein skvaish baraabar erobik kshamata ke star ki aavashyakta hoti hai, haalaanki skvaish mein thoda aur adhik erobik aavashyakta ho sakti hai.
  • badminton ki tulana mein tennis mein oopari shareer aur mool bal ki adhik aavashyakta hoti hai.
  • badminton mein tennis ki tulana mein pairon ke bal ki bahut hi adhik aavashyakta hoti hai aur kisi bhi anya racket khel ki tulana mein badminton purush yugal mein lagaataar kai tarah se uchhal-kood kar smash karne ki jarurat ki vajah se shaayad aur bhi bahut adhik pairon ke bal ki aavashyakta hai.
  • tennis ke bajaae aur kuchh had tak skvaish se bhi adhik, badminton mein bahut adhik kasarati hone ki jarurat hai kyonki ismein khilaadiyon ko bahut hi oonchaai ya doori tak koodana padta hai.
  • tennis ya skvaish ki tulana mein badminton mein kaheen adhik tej pratikriya samay ki aavashyakta hoti hai, haalaanki table tennis mein isse bhi kaheen tej pratikriya samay ki jrurat ho sakti hai. badminton mein purushon ke dabals mein jab ek shaktishaali smash ko lautaaya jaata hai to bahut hi tej pratikriya ki jarurat hoti hain.

takaneek ki tulana

badminton aur tennis ki takaneek kaafi alag hain. shatalakauk ka halkaapan aur badminton racket ke tennis khilaadiyon ki tulana mein badminton khilaadi ko kalaai aur ungaliyon ka upayog zyaada karne ki anumati deta hai; tennis mein aam taur par kalaai sthir rahata hai aur kalaai ghumaane se chot lag sakti hai. isi ek hi kaaran se, badminton khilaadi racket ke chhote swing se taakat paida kar sakte hain: aisa hi stroke jaise net kill, mein bade khilaadi 5 se.mi. se bhi kam swing kar sakte hain. aisa stroke jismein adhik taakat ki jarurat padti hai aamtaur par lambe swing ka istemaal kiya jaaega, lekin tennis swing ki tarah badminton racket bahut Birla hi swing hoga.

aksar yeh kaha jaata hai ki badminton stroke mukhya roop se kalaai se lage jaati hai. yeh ek glatafhami hai aur do kaaranon se iski aalochna ki ja sakti hai. pehli, ise ekdam se varg truti kaha ja sakta hai: kalaai ki ek jod hai, maansapeshi naheen, baanh ki maansapeshiyaan iski harkat ko niyantrit karti hain. doosra, aage ki ya oopari baanh ke harkat ki tulana mein kalaai ki harkat kamjor hoti hai. badminton jaiv yaantriki vistrut vaigyaanik adhyayan ka vishay naheen hai, lekin kuchh adhyayan bijli utpaadan mein kalaai ki chhoti si bhoomika ki pushti karte hain aur isse sanket milta hai ki oopari aur nichli baanh ke aantarik aur baahya ghoornan mein taakat ki pramukh bhoomika hoti hai.[25] aadhunik coaching sansaadhan jaise badminton England takaneek DVD in vichaaron ko kalaai ki harkaton ke bajaae agali baanh par jor dene ke dvaara darshaate hain.[26]

shatalakauk ki khaas visheshataaen

geindon ka istemaal honevaale jyaadaatar doosare racket ke khelon se shatalakauk bahut hi alag hai.

vaayugatika drag aur sthirta

pankh majaboot drag pradaan karta hai is kaaran shatalakauk jor se kaafi door girta hai. shatalakauk bhi tej vaayugatika se sthir hota hai: praarambhik rukh ki paravaah kiye bina, yeh kork ki or se pehle ghoom kar udega aur kork ki or iska rukh rahega.

shatalakauk ke drag ka ek mahattv yeh hai ki court ki poori lanbaai mein maarane ke liye ismein paryaapt kaushal ki jrurat padti hai, jo jyaadaatar racket vaale khel ke liye naheen hai. drag shatalakauk ke oopar uthe hue udn maarg (dheeme se oopar feinka gaya) ko bhi prabhaavit karta hai: iske udn ka paravalaya bahut adhik tirchha hokar yeh oopar uthane ke bajaae ek dhalaan vaale kon se hokar girta hai. bahut oonche sarv ke saath bhi shatalakauk ekdam lanbaroop mein gir sakta hai.

firki (spin)

apni uchhaal mein parivartan ke liye geind ghoom sakti hai, (jaise ki tennis mein taupaspin aur baikaspin) aur khilaadi is tarah ke spin ke liye slaais kar sakta hai (racket se ek kon ke saath saamana karte hue strike karna); choonki shatalakauk uchhalane ki anumati naheen deta hai, isliye yeh badminton mein laagoo naheen hota hai.

shatalakauk ko aisa slaais kare ki vah ghoom jaae, haalaanki yeh prayog hai aur kuchh khaas roop se badminton ke liye hain. (takaneeki shabdon ki vyaakhya ke liye buniyaadi stroke dekhein.)

  • shatalakauk ko ek taraf se slaaising karne par khilaadi dvaara racket ya shaareerik harkat se sujhaayi gayi disha ke bajaae, ho sakta hai vah doosari disha mein chala jaae. iska istemaal vipaksh ko dhokha dene ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • shatalakauk ko ek taraf se slaaising karne par ho sakta hai yeh thoda tirchha ho kar nikle (jaisa ki oopar se dikhaaya gaya hai) aur spin ke kaaran faank se nikaalne wala stroke oopar se udte hue jaane ke raste mein achaanak hi ant mein aur adhik dheema ho jaae. iska istemaal draupashaut aur smash ke liye kiya jaata hai taaki yeh bahut teji se giraavat ke baad net se hokar gujar sake.
  • jab netashaut khelte hain, slaaising shatalakauk ko neeche ki kar deta hai, jiske kaaran yeh net se hokar gujarte hue kai baar apne aap hi (ludhak) ghoom sakta hai. ise spining netashaut ya tambaling netashaut kehte hain. vipaksh shatalakauk ko chhoone ko taiyaar naheen hoga, jab tak ki yeh apna rukh sahi na kar le.

uske pankh paraspar ek doosare par is tarah se lage hote hain ki shatalakauk praakrutik roop se apni dhuri par golaai mein chakkar lagte hue ghoomta hai. jab shatalakauk girta hai tab yeh ghadi ki vipreet disha mein jaisa ki oopar dikhaaya gaya hai ghoomta hai. praakrutik roop se ghoomane ke kaaran kuchh stroke ko prabhaavit hote hain: agar slaaising action baae se daahini or ke bajaae daahine se baayeen or ho to tambaling netashaut kaheen adhik prabhaavi hota hai.[27]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. John leech ke puraalekh se uddhrut kaartoon jismein usaka kalaakaar roop ubhar kar saamane aaya aur vah 1854 ka samay tha.
  2. a aa i Guillain, Jean-Yves (2004-09-02). Badminton: An Illustrated History. pableebuk. pa॰ 47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 2748305728.
  3. a aa Connors, M; Dupuis, D. L.; Morgan, B. (1991). The Olympics Factbook: A Spectator's Guide to the Winter and Summer Games. Michigan: Visible Ink Press. pa॰ 195. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0810394170.
  4. Masters, James. "Battledore and Shuttlecock". The Online Guide to Traditional Games. http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Battledore-Shuttlecock.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-25.
  5. a aa "The history of Badminton". The University of Southern Mississippi. http://www.usm.edu/~badminton/History.htm.
  6. "History of Badminton: Founding of the BAE and Codification of the Rules". WorldBadminton.com. http://www.worldbadminton.com/newsite/History/index.html.
  7. "Laws of Badminton". Badminton World Federation. http://www.internationalbadminton.org/page.aspx?id=10513.
  8. "The banning of the s-service". BadmintonCentral.com. 2004-06-10. http://web.archive.org/web/19960101-re_/http://www.badmintoncentral.com/badminton-central/content/view/20/35/.
  9. "SL-70". Karakal. http://www.karakal.com/index.php/8/product/72/sl-70/.
  10. a aa "Badminton Central Guide to choosing Badminton Equipment". BadmintonCentral.com. 2005-02-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070311234023/http://www.badmintoncentral.com/badminton-central/content/view/91/26/.
  11. "String tension relating to power and control". Prospeed. http://web.archive.org/web/20071028080241/http://www.prospeed.com.my/String.htm.
  12. Kumekawa, Eugene. "Badminton Strategies and Tactics for the Novice and Recreational Player". BadmintonPlanet. http://web.archive.org/web/20070126195758/http://www.badmintonplanet.com/cgi-bin/playbetter/strategies.html.
  13. "Badminton federation announces 12-event series". The Associated Press (International Herald Tribune). 2006-09-23. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. https://archive.is/rJv6F. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-25.
  14. "International badminton gets a makeover". Badders.com. 2006-12-14. http://www.badders.com/news/item/849/international-badminton-gets-a-makeover.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-25.
  15. "New Tournament Structure". IBF. 2006-07-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929134044/http://www.internationalbadminton.org/archivescontent.asp?pageid={4B7714F9-45C1-4199-B1B7-5B62C57FAE1A}.
  16. Paul, Rajes (2009-10-23). "King of smashers Boon Heong holds record". The Star. http://thestar.com.my/sports/story.asp?file=/2009/10/23/sports/4962759&sec=sports. abhigman tithi: 5 January 2010.
  17. "What is the ideal weight for a tennis racquet?". About.com. http://tennis.about.com/od/tennisracquetsfaq/f/faqracquets43.htm.
  18. "The contribution of technology on badminton rackets". Prospeed. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011150444/http://prospeed.com.my/choosing.htm.
  19. Azeez, Shefiu (2000). "Mass of a Tennis Ball". Hypertextbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/ShefiuAzeez.shtml.
  20. M. McCreary, Kathleen (2005-05-05). "A Study of the Motion of a Free Falling Shuttlecock" (PDF). The College of Wooster. http://www.wooster.edu/physics/jrIS/Files/McCreary.pdf.
  21. "Fastest Tennis Serve". Guinness World Records. http://web.archive.org/web/20060826015104/http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/content_pages/record.asp?recordid=44299.
  22. "Chinese Fu clocks fastest smash at Sudirman Cup". People's Daily Online. 2005-05-14. http://english.people.com.cn/200505/14/eng20050514_184991.html.
  23. "Badminton stakes claim as fastest racquet sport". Burbank Badminton Club. http://www.burbankbadminton.org/introduction.htm.
  24. "Tennis vs. Badminton". Brookhaven National Laboratory. http://www.badminton.bnl.gov/ten-bad.html.
  25. Kim, Wangdo (2002-10-01). "An Analysis of the Biomechanics of Arm Movement During a Badminton Smash". Nanyang Technological University. http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/home5/PG02259480/badminton_smash.pdf.
  26. "Badminton Technique DVD". Badminton England. http://www.badmintonengland.co.uk/text.asp?section=0001000100070007.
  27. the spin Doctor, power aur presijn patrika, 2006 July

baahari link