baaul lok gaayan

Bengal ka baaul lok gaayan

baaul ek prakaar ka lok (fok) gaayan hai, iska gaayan karne vaale ko Bengal mein baaul kehte hai. isi baaul ka dusara rup bhaat hota hai jo jyaadaatar Rajasthan evam madhya-pradesh mein paaye jaate hai. uttar-pradesh mein ise fakeer ya jogi bhi kaha jaata hai. saamaanyataur par aaul, baaul, fakeer, saai, darabes, jogi evam bhaat baaul ke hi rup hai. in sabhi mein ek samaanata hoti hai ki ye ishvar ki bhakti me is tarah leen hote hai ki inhe baaul paagal bhi kaha jaata hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki iski shuruvaat bangalaadesh se hui. vahaaain ise baaul ya paagal kaha jaata hai. baaul vishvavyaapi hai yeh hindu-muslim koi bhi ho sakta hai. baaul ka rahan-sahan, pahanaava evam jeevan vyateet karne ka tareeka vaishnav dharm ke bahut kareeb hota hai. jyaadaatar baaul vaishnav dharm ka paalan karte hai vaishnav dharm mein purush vaishnav evam stri ko vaishnvi kehte hai.

visheshata

Arun patuaa shreekhol ya mrudang bajaate hue
gubagubi

baaul ek aisa gaayak hota hai jo kabhi bhi apna jeevan ek-do din se jyaada ek sthaan par vyateet nahi karta hai. yeh gaaainv-gaaainv jaakar Bhagwan vishnu ke bhajan evam lok geet gaakar bhiksha maagan kar apna jeevanayaapan karte hai. lekin yeh jaruri nahi ki har vaishnavi baaul gaakar bhiksha maange parantu baaul (aaul, fakeer, saai, darabes, jogi evam bhaat) gaakar hi bhiksha maaganta hai. vaishnavi vishnu ke pujaari hote hai. vaishnavi khanjani, karataal (jise aajkal khadataal bhi kehte hai) evam khaul bajaakar bhiksha maagante hai. vaishnavi baaul ke paridhaan safed hote hai vah safed lungi, kurta, evam pagadi pahanate hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki baaul ka chit bhi safed kapadon ke samaan shaant, pavitra evam paavan hota hai. lekin baaul ka paridhaan safed lungi, geruva kurta evam pagadi, gale mein maala tatha lalat evam kanth par mitti tatha chandan ke mishran ka tilk lagaate hai. baaul mukhyata ekataara, dugi, gubagubi, pairon mein ghungaru kandhe par jhola jo chhote-chhote vibhinn rangeen kapadon se bana hota hai daalkar chalta hai. baaul apna jeevan ishvar ki bhakti evam maanav ki bhalaai mein vyateet karta hai. baaul ko moh-maaya, dhan-daulat, ghar-baahar ki koi chinta nahi hoti hai.

Bengal mein jahaaain baaul gaayak rahate hai us sthaan ko aakhara ya aakhara aashram kehte hai. aaj ke prasiddh baaul shri poorn das, baaleeganj, Calcutta (jinka janm sthaan baulapur, shaantiniketan, jila-veerabhoom hai) jinhone vishv mein baaul gaayan ka pradarshan kar baaul gaayan ki pehchaan duniya bhar (America, jaapan, bangalaadesh, british) ke baaul gaayak shaantiniketan ke najadeek baulapur mein Ajay nadi ke paas jayadev mandir ke bagal mein keduli mela (ise jayadev mela ke naam se bhi jaante hai) jo 14 din ke liye lagta hai mein bhaag lene ke liye aate hai. yeh paush sankraanti ke din shuru hota hai baaul gaayan kitna mahatvapurn hai yeh isi se pata chalta hai ki is mele ke pehle 3 din baaul gaayan ke liye hi hote hai.

aisa sabhi baaul gaayako ka maanana hai ki baaul gaayan ki shuruvaat Bhaarat (Bengal) mein kenduli naamak sthaan jo jila veerabhoom ke anrtagat aata hai jisko ab Bengal ke prasiddh saahityakaar evam kavi jayadev kenduli ke naam se jaana jaata hai se hui. Ajay nadi ke paas kenduli mela lagne ka ek bahut bada kaaran yeh ho sakta hai ki paush sankraanti ke din Ajay nadi jo kaatava, varadamaan naam sthaan par bhageerathi nadi mein milti hai jo ganga nadi ka hi ek bhaag hai ka paani subah kuchh kshanon ke liye ulata bahata hai. is samay ya is din nadi mein snaan karne se ganga mein snaan karne ke samaan hota hai. shri purn das baaul baaleeganj, Calcutta bataate hai ki baaul gaayan jagat mein sabse jyaada gaayan bhaba paagala ka likha gaya hai. bhaba paagala muslim samudaaya se sanbadhit the vah bangalaadesh ke prasiddh evam aise baaul geetkaar the jo khud gaana likhte, gaate aur bajaate the. bhaba paagala ke alaava bhi anek baaul gaayak is gaayan mein jaane jaate hai jaise bangalaadesh ke laalan fakeer jinke gaayan se Bhaarat ke khyaati praapt lekhak Ravindra naath Tagore bhi prabhaavit hue the. baaul laalan fakeer ne angrejon evam dusht jameendaaron ke khilaaf gaayan kiya tha. shri purn das baaul aage kehte hai ki jyaadaatar baaul bolapur jila veerabhoom ke aas paas paaye jaate hai lekin baaul gaayan jyaadaatar bangalaadesh mein jaana evam gaaya jaata hai.

shri Arun patuaa, jila veer bhoom ke anusaar unke guru shri nimaai das baaul bataate hai ki baaul ek saada evam sachcha jeevan vyateet karta hai. vah apne haath se banaaya saadha niraamees khaana khaata hai, saadha peeta hai evam apne haath se saadha seela kapada pahanata hai. shri Krishna charan baaul, manahor pur, jila veer bhoom bataate hai ki baaul roj maagaita hai aur roj khaata hai aane vaale kal ki use chinta naheen hoti hai.