baarooth spinoja

barooch spinoja
Spinoza.jpg
janm 24 November 1632
aimstardaim, dach ganatantr
nidhan 21 fravari 1677(1677-02-21) (umr 44)
Hague, dach ganatantr
nivaas needaralaind
raashtriyta dach
yug 17 veen sadi ke darshan
kshetr paashchaatya darshan
School vivekavaad(Rationalism), spinojism(Spinozism) ke sansthaapak
abhiruchi neetishaastr (Ethics), jnyaaanameemaansa (Epistemology), tatvameemaansa (Metaphysics), ibraani vyaakaran (Hebrew Grammar)
ullekhaneeya vichaar Pantheism, determinism, neutral monism, intellectual and religious freedom, separation of church and state, criticism of Mosaic authorship of some books of the Hebrew Bible, political society derived from power, not contract

baarooth di spinoja (Baruch De Spinoza) (24 November 1632 - 21 fravari 1677) yahoodi mool ke dach daarshanik the. unka parivrtit naam 'benedikt di spinoja' (Benedict de Spinoza) tha. unhone ullekhaneeya vaigyaanik abhikshamata (aptitude) ka parichay diya kintu unke kaaryon ka mahatva unke mrutyu ke uparaant hi samjha ja saka.

parichay

spinoja ka janm Holland (emstardam) mein, yahoodi parivaar mein, san 1632 mein hua tha. ve svabhaav se ekaantapriya, nirbheek tatha nirlobh the. apne vishvaason ko tyaagane ke liye unako lobh dikhaaya gaya, unki hatya ka shadyantr racha gaya, unhein yahoodi sanpradaaya se bahishkrut kiya gaya, fir bhi ve adig rahe. saansaarik jeevan unako ek asahya rog ke samaan jaan padta tha. at: usase mukti paane tatha ishvarapraapti ke liye ve bechain rahate the.

spinoja ka sabse prasiddh granth unka 'ethiks' (neetishaastr) hai. kintu iske atirikt bhi unhonne saat ya aath granthon ka pranayan kiya hai. prinsipls ov filaasafi tatha metaafijikl kojiteshans ka prakaashan 1663 mein aur traiktetas thiyolojiko politiks (Tractatus Theologico Politicus) ka prakaashan 1670 mein, bina unke naam ke hua. unke teen adhoore granthatraiktetas politiks, traiktetas di intelektas imenadetion, graimaitises lingue hebresai (Tractatus Politicus de Intellectus Emendatione, Compendium Grammatices Linguae Hebraeae) hain - jo unke mukhya granth ethiks ke saath, unki mrutyu ke uparaant usi saal 1677 mein prakaashit hue. bahut dinon baad unke ek aur granth traiktetas brevis di dio (Tractatus Brevis de Deo) ka pata chala, jiska prakaashan 1858 mein hua. spinoja ke jeevan tatha darshan ke vishay mein anek granth likhe gaye hain jinki soochi spinoja in the laait ov vedaant (Spinoza in the light of Vedanta) mein di gayi hai.

is kalpana ka ki dravya ki srushti ho sakti hai at: vichaaratatv aur vistaaratatv dravya hain, spinoja ne ghor virodh kiya. dravya, svayanprakaash aur svatantr hai, usaki srushti naheen ho sakti. at: vichaaratatv aur vistaaratatv, jo srusht hain, dravya naheen balki upaadhi hain. spinoja aneeshvaravaadi is arth mein kahe ja sakte hain ki unhonne yahoodi dharm tatha isaai dharm mein prachalit ishvar ki kalpana ka virodh kiya. spinoja ka dravya ya ishvar nirgun, niraakaar tatha vyaktitvaheen sarvavyaapi hai. kisi bhi prakaar ishvar ko vishisht roop dena usako seemit karna hai. is arth mein spinoja ka ishvar advait vedaant ke brahm ke samaan hai. jis prakaar brahm ki do upaadhiyaaain, naam aur roop hain, usi prakaar spinoja ke dravya ki do upaadhiyaaain vichaar aur vistaar hain. ye dravya ke gun naheen hai. brahm ke svaroopalakshan ke samaan dravya ke bhi gun hain jo uske svaroop se hi siddh ho jaate hain, jaise usaki adviteeyata, svatantrata, poornata aadi. vichaar tatha vistaar ko gun na kehkar upaadhi kehna adhik uparyukt hai, kyonki spinoja ke anusaar ve dravya ke svaroop ko samajhne ke liye buddhi dvaara aaropit hain. is prakaar ki anant upaadhiyaaain spinoja ko maanya hain. ishvar ki ye upaadhiyaaain bhi aseem hain parantu ishvar ki nisseemata nirpeksh hai vahaaain in upaadhiyon ki aseemata saapeksh hai.

ishvar jagat ka srashta hai, parantu is roop mein naheen ki vah apni ichhaashakti se sampoorn vishv ki rachana karta hai. vaastav mein ishvar mein ichhaashakti aaropit karna usako seemit karna hai. parantu iska yeh arth naheen hai ki ishvar svatantr naheen hai; usaki svatantrata usaki sarvanirpekshata hai na ki svantatr ichha isi se spinoja srushti ko saprayojan naheen maanata. ishvar jagat ka kaaran usi arth mein hai jismein svarnapind aabhooshan ka ya aakaash tribhuj ka. parantu iska yeh arth naheen ki ishvar parivrtanasheel hai. jagat kalpit hai kintu usaka aadhaar ishvar satya hai. ishvar aur jagat vibhinn hain, parantu vibhkt naheen.

jis prakaar ishvar mein ichhaashakti naheen hai vaise hi manushya mein bhi svatantr ichhaashakti naam ki koi vastu naheen hai. vaastavikta yeh hai ki pratyek vichaar ka kaaran ek anya vichaar hua karta hai at: koi bhi vichaar svatantr naheen hai. saath hi spinoja ki vichaarajagat par bhautik jagat ka prabhaav naheen padta. kaarya-kaaran-shrunkhala alag hain parantu donon ek hi dravya, hai at: ve sambandhit maaloom padte hain.

vyavahaarajagat mein spinoja niytivaadi jaan padte hain. unka kehna hai ki ichhaashakti ke asveekaar karne se hamaare vyavahaar tatha aachaar par prabhaav naheen padta at: usase sarshak hona anaavashyak hai. vaastavikta to yeh hai ki yadi hamako yeh drudh nishchaya ho jaae ki sansaar ki kaarya-kaaran-shrunkhala ichhaanirpeksh hai to hamako badi shaanti mile. manushya tabhi tak ashaant rahata hai jab tak usakosh kaarya kaaran-shrunkhala mein parivartan ki aasha rahati hai. ichhaasvaatantraya mein vishvaas hi hamaara bandhan hai. ichhaasvaatantraya ka upayog ichhaasvaatantraya ke niraakaran ke liye karna chaahiye. ichhaasvaatantraya ke shaman se raajasik vrutti tatha maanasik vikaaron ka shaman hota hai aur man ishvarachintan ke yogya hota hai.

jeevan ka param lakshya ishvar ki praapti hai kyoki tabhi nityashubh ki praapti ho sakti hai. ishvar ki praapti ishvar se prem karne se hoti hai parantu prem ka arth bhaavukata naheen balki tanmayata hai. isi se spinoja ne is prem ko bauddhik prem kaha hai. ishvaratanmayata ka ek arth yeh bhi hai ki ham sadaachaar sadaachaar ke liye karein, kyonki sadaachaar ke upalakshya mein pratifl ki ichha rakhana ek bandhan ki srushti karna hai. jab hamaara man ishvaramaya tatha hamaara drushtikon nitya ka drushtikon ho jaata hai tab ham ishvar ke saath taadaatmya ka anubhav karte hain tatha param shaanti praapt karte hain. spinoja ke vichaar mein ishvar ke sagun saakaar roop ka bhi mahatva hai. jinka bauddhik star neecha hai tatha jinke man mein sagun, saakaar ishvar ki kalpana se dharmabhaavana jaagrat hoti hai unke liye yeh kalpana atyant upayogi hai. ishvar ko na maanane ki apeksha sagun saakaar ishvar ko maanana shreyaskar hai. spinoja ka vichaar sarvadharmanirpeksh tha, isi se aaj ke yug mein logon ki drushti spinoja ki or baar baar ja rahi hai.


sandarbh

  1. Scruton 1986 (2002 ed.), ch. 2: "Through the works of Moses Maimonides and the commentaries of the Arab Averroëas, Spinoza would have become acquainted with Aristotle."
  2. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; tws908 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.

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