baarood

ek sikke ke saath baarood ka kaala paaudar
cheen ke yuaan raajavansh kaal mein san 1288 (anumaanit) kaal ki ek hastachalit top

baarood ek visfotak raasaayanik mishran hai. ise gan paaudar (gunpowder) ya apne kaale rang ke kaaran kaala paaudar (black powder) bhi kehte hain. baarood gandhak, koyala evam shora (potaisiam naaitret ya saaltapeetar) ka mishran hota hai aur yeh maanav itihaas ka sarvapratham nirmit visfotak tha. baarood ka prayog pataakhon evam nodak (propelant) ke roop mein agnishstron (firearms) mein kiya jaata hai. baarood chingaari paakar teji se jalata hai jisse bhaari maatra mein gas evam garam thos paida hota hai.[1]

aadhunik kaal mein baarood ek "kamjor visfotak" (low explosive) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai kyonki visfot hone par yeh apashravya tarangein (subsonic) paida karta hai na ki paraashravya tarangein (supersonic). isaliye baarood ke jalne se utpann gaise itna hi daab paida kar paati hain jo goli ko aage feinkane mein sahaayak hoti hai kintu bandook ki nali ko kshati naheen pahuncha paati. kisi chattaan ke vidhvans ya kisi kile ko todane ke liye baarood ka prayog upayukt naheen hota balki inke liye "ti N ti" aadi achhe rahate hain.

vartamaan samay mein baarood ke maanak mishran mein 75% shora, 15% komal lakadi ka koyala tatha 10% gandhak hota hai.

anukram

itihaas

iska aavishkaar kab hua, iska theek theek pata naheen lagta, par aisa maaloom hota hai ki isa ke poorv kaal mein cheeniyon ko baarood ki jaankaari thi. raujar bekan (1214-1294) ke lekhon mein baarood ka ullekh milta hai, par prateet hota hai ki baarood ke pranodak gunon ka unako pata naheen thaa1 bekan ke samay tak baarood ka ek aavashyak avayav shora shuddh roop mein praapya naheen tha. 13veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh ke shastron mein prakshepya feinkane mein iske prayog ka pata lagta hai. bekan ne jis baarood ka ullekh kiya hai usamein shora 41.2 aur koyala tatha gandhak pratyek 29.4 pratishat maatra mein rahate the. aise baarood ki prabalata nikrusht koti ki hoti thi. baad mein baarood ke avayavon mein shora, koyala aur gandhak ka anupaat kramash: 74.64, 13.51 aur 11.85 pratishat kar diya gaya.

baarood mein in teenon avayavon ka choorn rahata hai. yeh choorn praarambh mein haath mein peesakar banaaya jaata tha, par baad mein dalanevaali machine ka prayog shuroo hua. ye masheenein ghodon ya paani se chalti theen. inke sthaan par baad mein stainpig machine ka upayog shuroo hua, par yeh niraapad naheen tha. pehle jo choorn bante the ve teenon avayavon ke choornon ko milaakar bante the. aise choore ko topon mein bhali bhaaainti na to bahut kasa ja sakta tha or na dheela hi chhoda ja sakta tha. is kathinta ko door karne ke liye 15veen shataabdi mein choore ko daanedaar roop mein praapt karne ka prayatn hua. choore mein ailakohal, ya mootr, milaakar use daanedaar banaaya jaata tha. madyasevi ka mootr iske liye sarvashreshth samjha jaata tha. isse bane daane adhik shaktishaali hote the. daane vibhinn aakaar ke hote the aur chaalakar unhein alag alag kiya jaata tha. bade daane topon mein aur chhote daane bandookon mein istemaal hote the.

peechhe avayavon ko shuddh roop mein praapt kar unase baarood banaane mein aur unhein daanedaar banaane mein vishesh sudhaar hua. achha koyala bhi ab banane laga tha. use bhoora ya koko koyala kehte the aur yeh raai (rye) naamak anaaj ke puaal se banaaya jaata tha. par etadarth puaal ko poora poora tapaate naheen the. saamaanya baarood mein avayavon ka anupaat nimnalikhit rakhate the. shora 75 pratishat, koyala 15 pratishat aur gandhak 10 pratishat. nae mishran mein inki aapekshik maatra kramash: 80, 16, 3 rahati thi tatha ek bhaag jal ka bhi rahata tha. aisa baarood bahut safal siddh hua.

stainping machine ke upayog mein, jaisa oopar kaha gaya hai, khatre ka bhaya tha. iske sthaan mein chakr ya hveel mil (Wheel Mill) ka prayog sharoo hua. aajkal bhi chakr ya hveel mil ka unnat roop hi prayukt hota hai. ismein ek kshaitij isha (shaft) rahati hai, jo oordhvaadhar spindal (spindle) ke ghoomane se ghoomti hai. spindal mein lohe ke do bhaari chakr jude rahate hain, jinka bhaar 10 se 12 tan tak aur vyaas chhah foot hota hai. ek baar mein lagbhag 300 pound dravya peesa jaata hai. paani daalkar use geela rakhate hain. pisaai chaar se lekar paaainch ghante mein sampann hoti hai. fir vah dabaaya jaata hai. prati varg inch par 3,000 se 4,000 pound dabaav rahata hai. aise utpaad ka ghanatv 1.74 se 1.80 tak hota hai. ise fir todkar vibhinn vistaar ke daane praapt karte hain. is vidhi mein samay kuchh adhik lagta tha. at: ab ismein kuchh aur sudhaar kiya gaya hai. do lohe ke kaksh, drum ke aakaar ke rahate hain. ek mein shora gandhak aur doosare mein koyala gandhak kaaainse ki geindon ke dvaara peesa jaata hai. chaar ghante mein vibhinn avayav poorn roop se choorn ho jaate hain. donon kakshon se choorn ko nikaalkar, teesare taaainbe ke drum mein rakhakar, kaashth ki geindon se do ghante tak peesate hain, jismein ekasam choorn ban jaata hai. is vidhi ko belananaal (rolling barrel) vidhi kehte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. Jai Prakash Agrawal (2010). High Energy Materials: Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics. Wiley-VCH. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-527-32610-5.