baanabhatt

baanabhatt saataveen shataabdi ke sanskrut gadya lekhak aur kavi the. vah raaja harshavardhan ke aasthaan kavi the. unke do pramukh granth hain: harshacharitm tatha kaadambari. harshacharitm[1] , raaja harshavardhan ka jeevan-charitra tha aur kaadanbari duniya ka pehla upanyaas tha. kaadanbari poorn hone se pehle hi baanabhatt ji ka dehaant ho gaya to upanyaas poora karne ka kaam unke putr bhooshanabhatt ne apne haath mein liya. donon granth sanskrut saahitya ke mahattvapoorn granth maane jaate hai[2].

anukram

parichay

mahaakavi baanabhatt ne gadyarachana ke kshetr mein vahi sthaan praapt kiya hai jo ki kaalidaas ne sanskrut kaavya kshetr mein. paashchaadvarti lekhakon ne ek svar mein baan par prashastiyon ki abhivrushti ki hai.

aaryaasaptati ke lekhak govardhanaachaarya ka kathan hai-

''jaata shikhandini praagyatha shikhandi tathaavagachhaami.
praagalbhyamadhikmaaptun vaani baani babhooveti.''

tilkamanjari ke lekhak dhanapaal ki prashasti is prakaar hai-

kevaloऽpi spafuran baan: karoti vimdaan kaveen.
kin pun: klruptasandhaanapulindakrutasannidhi:..

trilochan ne nimnalikhit padya mein baan ki prashansa ki hai-

hrudi lagnen baanen yanmandoऽpi padakram:.
bhavet kavivrangaanaan chaapalan tatrakaaranam..

raaghavapaandaveeya ke lekhak kaviraaj ke anusaar-

subandhurvaanabhattashch kaviraaj iti tray:.
vakroktimaarg nipunashchaturtho vidyate na va..

pashchaadvarti lekhakon ki anant prashastiyon mein ye kuchh hi hain.

baan sanskrut ke kuchh gine-chune lekhakon mein se ek hain jinke jeevan evam kaal ke vishay mein nishchit roop se gyaat hai. kaadambari ki bhoomika mein tatha harshacharitm ke pratham do uchhvaason mein baan ne apne vansh ke sambandh mein vistaarapoorvak soochana di hai.

son nadi (praacheen hirnyabaahu) ke tat par sthit preetikoot naam ke gram mein vaatsyaayanagotreeya vidvadbraahman kul mein baanane janm liya. baan apne vansh ka udbhav sarasvati tatha dadheechi ke putr saarasvat ke bhaai vats se batalaate hain. vats ka vanshaj kuber tha jiska chaturth putr paashupat baan ka prapitaamah tha. baan ke pitaamah ka naam arthapati tha jinko gyaarah putr hue. baan ke pita ka naam chitrabhaanu tha. baan ke shaishavakaal mein hi unki maata raajyadevi ki mrutyu ho gayi. unka paalan-poshan unke pita ke dvaara hi hua. baan abhi chaudah varsh ke hi the ki unke pita unke liye kaapafi sampatti chhodkar chal base.

yauvan ka praarambh evam sampatti hone ke kaaran, baan sansaar ko swayam dekhne ke liye ghar se chal pade. unhonne vibhinn prakaar ke logon se sambandh sthaapit kiya. apne samavayask mitron tatha saathiyon mein baan ne praakrut ke kavi ishaan, do bhaat, ek chikitsak ka putr, ek paathak, ek suvarnakaar, ek ratnaakar, ek lekhak, ek pustakaavarak, ek maardagik, do gaayak, ek pratihaari, do vansheevaadak, ek gaan ke adhyaapak, ek nartak, ek aakshik, ek nat, ek nartaki, ek taantrik, ek dhaatuvidya mein nishnaat aur ek aindrajaalik aadi ki ganana ki hai. kai deshon ka bhraman karke vah apne sthaan preetikoot lauta. vahaan rahate hue unhein harshavardhan ke chachere bhaai Krishna ka ek sandesh mila ki kuchh chugalakhoron ne raaja se baan ki ninda ki hai isliye ve turant hi raaja se milne gaye aur do din ki yaatra ke pashchaat ajiraavati ke tat par raaja ko mile. pratham saakshaatkaar mein baan ko bahut niraasha hui kyonki samraat ke saathi maalavaadheesh ne kaha 'ayamasaubhujang:' (yeh vahi sarp (dusht) hai) astu, baan ne apni sthiti ka spashteekaran kiya aur samraat usase prasann hue samraat ke saath kuchh maas rahakar baan vaapis lauta aur unhonne prastut harshacharit ke roop mein harsh ki jeevani likhni praarambh ki.

baan ki aatmakatha yahaan samaapt ho jaati hai aur baan ke antim samay ke vishay mein hamein kuchh bhi gyaat naheen hai. parantu aisa anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai ki baan ko raajasanrakshan mila aur unhonne bhi harsh charit likhkar usaka moolya chuka diya. baan ka bhooshanabhatt athva bhattapulind naam ka ek putr tha jisne baan ki mrutyu ke pashchaat kaadambari ko sampoorn kiya.at: kaadambari ko do lekhakon ne poorn kiya.

baan ka kaal

baan ke kaal nirnaya mein koi kathinaai naheen hai. harshacharit ke praarambh mein ve harsh ko raajya karta hua raaja batalaate hain-

jayati jvalatprataapajvalanapraakaarakrutajagadrash.
sakalapranayimnorathasiddhi shreeparvati harsh:..

harsh ke vansh ka varnan udaaharanat: prabhaakaravardhan evam raajyavardhan ke naam yeh ni:sandeh siddh karte hain ki baan kannauj ke samraat harshavardhan (606-646) ke raajakavi the. baan ka yeh kaal baahya saakshyon se bhi saamya rakhata hai. baan ka ullekh 9veen shataabdi mein alankaar shaastr ke jnyaaata aanandavardhan ne kiya. sambhavat: baan aanandavardhan se bahut pehle ho chuke the. vaaman (750 isvi) ne bhi baan ka ullekh kiya. gaudvaaho ke lekhak vaakpati raaj (734 isvi) bhi baan ki prashansa karte hain.

mahaakavi baan bhatt ki krutiyaan

kaadambari aur harshacharitm ke atirikt kai doosari rachanaaeain bhi baan ki maani jaati hain. unamein se maarkandeya puraan ke devi mahaatmya par aadhaarit durga ka stotr chandeeshatak hai. praay: ek naatak 'paarvati parinya' bhi baan dvaara rachit maana jaata hai. parantu vastut: iska lekhak koi pashchaadvarti vaaman bhattabaan hai.

shaili

ek vidvaan aalochak ke anusaar visheshanabahul vaakya rachana mein, shleshamaya arthon mein tatha shabdon ke aprayukt arthon ke prayog mein hi baan ka vaishishtya hai. unke gadya mein laalitya hai aur lambe samaason mein bal pradaan karne ki shakti hai. ve shlesh, upama, roopak, utpreksha, sahokti, parisankhya aur visheshat: virodhaabhaas ka bahulata se prayog karte hai. jaisa ki achhodasarovar ke ullekh se spasht hai unka prakruti varnan tatha anya prakaar ke varnan karne par adhikaar hai. kaadambari mein shukanaas tatha harshacharitm ke prabhaakaravardhan ki shikshaaon se baan ka maanav prakruti ka gahan adhyayan suspasht hai.

baan ki shabdaavali vistrut hai aur praay: vah ek shabd ke sabhi paryaayon ka prayog karte hain. unhonne 'dhvani' ke liye 19 shabdon ka prayog kiya hai. isi prakaar visheshanon ke prayog mein baan nishnaat hain aur aisa prateet hota hai ki visheshanon ka ant naheen hoga. unke varnan jaise ujjayini tatha divaakar mitr ke aashram ka varnan vistrut hone par bhi nirdosh, vaividhyapoorn evam prabhaavashaali hain.

baanabhatt ka maanav prakruti ka gyaan aashcharyajanak hai. usaka koi bhi tattv anudghaatit naheen raha. yeh theek hi kaha gaya hai-

"'baanochhishtan jagat sarvam.'"

baan ne kisi bhi kathaneeya baat ko chhoda naheen jiske kaaran koi bhi pashchaadvati lekhak baan ko atikraant na kar saka. kavi ki sarvatomukhi pratibha, vyaapak gyaan, adbhut varnan shaili aur pratyek varnya-vishay ke sookshmaatisookshm varnan ke aadhaar par yeh subhaashit prachalit hai ki baan ne kisi varnan ko achhoota naheen chhoda hai aur unhonne jo kuchh kah diya, usase aage kehne ko bahut kuchh shesh naheen rah jaata. baan ne jitni sundarata, sahrudayata aur sookshmadrushti se baahya prakruti ka varnan kiya hai, utani hi gaharaai se ant: prakruti aur manobhaavon ka vishleshan kiya hai. unke varnan itne vyaapak aur sateek hote hain, ki paathak ko yeh anubhav hota hai ki un paristhitiyon mein vah bhi aisa hi sochata ya karta. praat: kaal varnan, sandhyaavarnan, shoodrakavarnan, shukavarnan, chaandaalakanya varnan aadi mein baan ne varnan hi naheen kiya hai, apitu pratyek vastu ka sajeev chitr upasthit kar diya hai. chandraapeed ko diye gaye shukanaasopadesh mein to kavi ki pratibha ka charamotkarsh parilkshit hota hai. kavi ki lekhani bhaavodrek mein bahti hui si prateet hoti hai. shukanaasopadesh mein aisa prateet hota hai maano sarasvati saakshaat moortimti hokar bol rahi hain.

baan ke varnanon mein bhaav aur bhaasha ka saamanjasya, bhaavaanukool bhaasha ka prayog, alankaaron ka susanyat prayog, bhaasha mein aaroh aur avaroh tatha lambi samaasayukt padaavali ke pashchaat laghu padaavali aadi gun vishesh roop se praapt hote hain. pratyek varnan mein pehle vishay ka saangopaang varnan milta hai, bahut samastapad milte hain, tatpashchaat shleshamoolak upamaayein aur utprekshaaeain, tadanantar virodhaabhaas ya parisankhya se samaapti. shleshamoolak upama prayog, virodhaabhaas aur parisankhya ke prayogon mein klishtata, durbodhata aur bauddhik parishram adhik hai. kaheen-kaheen varnan itne lambe ho gaye hain ki dhooaindhne par bhi kriyaapad milne kathin ho jaate hain. mahaashveta-darshan mein ek vaakya 67 panktiyon ka hai aur kaadambari darshan mein to ek vaakya 72 panktiyon ka ho gaya hai. visheshan ke visheshanon ki parampara itni lambi hai ki mool kriya lupt si ho jaati hai. aise varnanon mein varnan ka svaastya rah jaata hai, par kathaapravaah pad-pad par pratiht ho jaata hai.

baan ka bhaav evam kalpana par adviteeya adhikaar tha. uske vaakyon ki lambaai asaadhaaran hote hue bhi manoranjak tatha utkrusht hai. baan ki krutiyon mein bhaavon ki samruddhata evam abhivyakti ki prachurata hone se ve sahrudayon ke hrudayon par prabhaav daalati hai vastut: theek hi kaha gaya hai:

vaani vaani babhoov.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh