baalkan yuddh

baalkan ka aadhunik itihaas (san 1800 ke baad)
baalkan league ka prachaaraatmak poster

baalkan yuddh, san 1912 - 1913 me hue the. ye yuddh pratham vishvayuddh ke mahatvapoorn kaaranon me se maane jaate hai.

anukram

pratham baalkan yuddh

Germany, France, roos, aastriya-Hungary, aur Britain baalkan ke saamraajyavaadi tatha raashtravaadi tanaav roopi 'simsimaate hande' ke dhakkan ko band rakhane (saamaanya Europeeya yuddh ko rokane) ka prayaas karte hue. 1912 aur 1913 mein ve ismein safal rahe kintu 1914 mein naheen.

Germany, France, roos, ostriya-Hungary, aur Britain ke ek saamaanya Europeeya yuddh ko rokane ke liye baalkan mein saamraajyavaadi aur raashtravaadi tanaavon se sihr handa par dhakkan rakhane ke liye prayaas. ve 1912 aur 1913 mein safal rahe the lekin 1914 mein safal naheen hue.

san 1912 mein roos aur France mein yeh samjhauta ho gaya ki yadi baalkan praayadveep ke prashn par Germany athva ostriya roos se yuddh kareinge to France roos ke saath rahega. fraanseesi sahaayata ka aashvaasan mil jaane par baalkan praayadveep mein roos berok tok hastakshep karne laga. roos ke ukasaane par chaar baalkan raajyon ne milkar san 1912 mein gupt roop se ek samjhauta kiya. ye raajya the yoonaan, balgeriya, maanteeneegro tatha sarviya. is samay tarki nirbal ho gaya tha aur vahaaain aantarik ashaanti faili hui thi. baalkan raajyon ke samjhaute ka uddeshya yeh tha ki ve tarki se yuddh karke uske shaasan ko Europe se samaapt kar dein, iske baad jeete hue kshetron ka aapas mein baaaint lein. maiseedoniya par in raajyon ki lolup drushti vishesh roop se thi. isliye is samjhaute mein yeh bhi spasht kar liya gaya tha ki tarki ki paraajaya ke pashchaat maiseedoniya ke pradeshon ko kis prakaar vibhkt kiya jaaega. yeh nishchit ho gaya tha ki maiseedoniya ka pramukh bhaag balageriya ko diya jaaega tatha albaaniya, sarviya ko de diya jaaega.

yeh samjhauta ho jaane par baalkan raajyon ne ek bahaana lekar tarki ke viruddh 17 October 1912 ko yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. in raajyon ka kehna tha ki maiseedoniya mein isaaiyon ke saath bada kroor atyaachaar ho raha hai. at: ve maiseedoniya ko tarki ke ghrunit shaasan se mukt karna chaahate hain. unhonne tarki se maiseedoniya mein sudhaar karne ko kaha par tarki ke inkaar karne par yuddh praarambh ho gaya. Turkey sena buri tarah haar gayi aur baalkan raajyon ko aashaateet safalta mili. mauteeneegro tatha sarviya ki senaaon ne albaaniya par apna adhikaar kar liya. yoonaani senaaon ne edriyaanopal ke prasiddh durg ko turkon se chheen liya. balageriyn sena theras par aakraman karke pramukh turk sena par vijay praapt karti hui kaanstaitinopal ke bahut nikat pahuainch gayi. is samay tarki ke saamane ek hi raasta tha. udhar Europe ke anya raajya tarki ki dasha par chintit ho rahe the. unhonne hastakshep karke tarki tatha baalkan raajyon mein ek asthaayi sandhi karva di. tatpashchaat donon pakshon ke pratinidhi sthaayi sandhi karne ke liye London mein ekatrit hue. baalkan raajyon ki sandhi ki shartein tarki ke liye badi mainhagi theen. unako sveekaar karne par tarki ka Europe se astitv hi mit jaata. is par tarun turk dal ke netrutv mein turko ne pun: yuddh chhed diya. is baar turkon ki aur buri tarah haar hui aur ve apne teen aur bade durgon se haath dho baithe. hataash hokar tarki ke sultaan ne sandhi ka prastaav kiya.

ek baar pun: donon pakshon ke pratinidhi 1913 mein sandhi karne ke liye London mein ekatrit hue. 30 May san 1913 ko landan ki sandhi ho gayi jiske dvaara pratham baalkan yuddh samaapt ho gaya. tarki ko kreet tatha anya Europeeya kshetron se vanchit kar diya gaya aur otoman saamraajya keval kaanstaintinopal tatha uske aaspaas ke kuchh bhaag tak hi seemit rah gaya. parantu is prakaar chheene gaye pradeshon ka aapas mein baintavaara karne ke sambandh mein baalkan raajyon mein paraspar matabhed ho gaya.

dviteeya baalkan yuddh

yeh kehna jara kathin hai ki dviteeya baalkan yuddh ka uttaradaayitv kis par tha. ismein sandeh naheen ki is yuddh mein ostriya tatha Italy jaise bade deshon ka haath tha. baalkan yuddhon se poorv jo samjhauta hua tha uske anusaar Serbia ko albaaniya mil jaana chaahiye tha. par ostriya kisi moolya par Serbia ke adheen albaaniya naheen hone dena chaahata tha. iska kaaran yeh tha ki bosniya tatha harjegovina ki aabaadi mukhya: yoogoslaav tatha sarbon ki thi. Serbia ke saath milkar ye pradesh ek shaktishaali yoogoslaav raajya ka nirmaan karna chaah rahe the. yadi aisa ho jaata to Serbia ki shakti badh jaati jo ostriya ke liye ahitkar thi. fir, albaaniya par adhikaar praapt karne se Serbia ki pahuainch edriyaatik tak ho jaati. vaastav mein ostriya ki drushti swayam albaaniya ko ek pruthak raajya ghoshit karva diya.

albaaniya ke pruthak astitv ke falasvaroop maiseedoniya ka vibhaajan aur bhi dushkar prateet hone laga. ab Serbia ne yeh ichha prakat ki ki albaaniya na milne par use maiseedoniya mein adhik bhaag milna chaahiye. par is sambandh mein Serbia tatha balageriya paraspar sahamat na ho sake. jab yeh maamala shaantipoorvak na sulajh saka tab donon shaktiyon ne balaprayog karne ka nishchaya kiya. 29 June 1913 ka balageriya ne Serbia ke viruddh yuddh chhed diya. is yuddh ko dviteeya baalkan yuddh ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai. is yuddh mein yoonaan, roomaaniya tatha maanteeneegro ne balageriya ke viruddh Serbia ka saath diya. apne khoe hue pradeshon ka kuchh bhaag mil jaane ki aasha mein tarki ne bhi balageriya ke viruddh baalkan raajyon ki sahaayata ki. vivsh hokar balageriya ne sandhi ki praarthana ki.

donon pakshon ke pratinidhiyon ne roomaaniya ki rajdhani bukhaarest mein 10 August 1913 ko ek sandhi ki. is sandhi ke kaaran balagairiya ki badi maanahaani hui. sandhi ke dvaara Serbia tatha maanteeneegro ne bahut se pradesh praapt kiye. yoonaan ne bhi sailonika pradesh par adhikaar praapt kar liya. is vibhaajan ke baad maiseedoniya ka bacha hua bhaag hi balageriya ko mil saka. is prakaar dviteeya baalkan yuddh samaapt hua.

bukhaarest] ki sandhi dvaara baalkan raajyon mein kuchh samay ke liye shaanti sthaapit ho gayi. baalkan yuddhon ke falasvaroop Serbia tatha yoonaan sarvaadhik laabhaanvit hue. in yuddhon ka ek bada parinaam yeh hua ki Europe mein Turkey saamraajya lagbhag samaapt ho gaya aur baalkan praayadveep mein isaai raajyon ka parivrdhan praarambh ho gaya. yeh kehna anuchit hoga ki uparyukt yuddhon se baalkan samasya shaant ho gayi. dviteeya baalkan yuddh ke dvaara baalkan raajyon mein raashtreeya pratispardha utpann ho gayi jiska visfotak parinaam tha pratham mahaayuddh.

bukhaarest ki sandhi ki shartein

dviteeya baalkan yuddh ka ant bukhaarest ki sandhi ke dvaara hua. balgaariya ne yeh sandhi grees, Serbia, roomaaniya aur tarki ke saath ki. is sandhi mein nimn baaton ka nishchaya hua-

  • (1) roomaaniya ko denyoob nadi ke tat par sthit silistriya ka durg aur dobarooja ka dakshin pradesh praapt hua.
  • (2) Serbia ko sampoorn uttari mesidoniya aur meenaastar praapt hua.
  • (3) grees ko florina se thres tak ka mesidoniya ka sampoorn dakshini pradesh aur ijiyn saagar ka tatavarti bandaragaah kabaala tatha unka prushth pradesh praapt hua.
  • (4) balgaariya ke paas pashchimi thres ka pradesh raha.
  • (5) tarki ko edriyaanopil aur uske aaspaas ka pradesh praapt hua. aastriya aur Italy ne Serbia tatha monteeneegro ko albaaniya ka svatantr raajya khada karke edriyaatik saagar se door rakha. isi kaaran Serbia ne mesidoniya mein usaki kshati-poorti karne ke liye prayatn kiya, jiske falasvaroop balgaariya se usaka jhagada hua aur aapas mein yuddh ho gaya.

baalkan yuddhon ke parinaam

iske mukhya parinaam nimnalikhit hue-

tarki ke Europeeya raajya ka vinaash

in yuddhon ke kaaran tarki ke yooropeeyan raajyon ka vinaash hua. yadyapi Europe mein tarki ke paas kustunatuniya tatha edriyaanopil ke madhya ka pradesh hi shesh raha, kintu vah ab keval Asiaee raajya rah gaya. uske adhikaar se uske Europeeya bhaag ka 1/6 bhaag uske haathon se nikal gaya tatha 2/3 Europeeya praja par se uske adhikaar ka ant ho gaya.

baalkan raajyon ka vistaar

in yuddhon se baalkan raajyon ke vistaar mein badi vruddhi hui. in sab raajyon mein sabse adhik laabh Serbia aur grees ko praapt hue. inke raajya pehle se dugune ho gaye. montoneegro ka raajya pehle se duguna ho gaya. roomaaniya ka bhi vistaar hua. in yuddhon mein balgaariya ko sabse kam laabh praapt hua, yadyapi in yuddhon mein usane sabse adhik bhaag liya tha aur usaki dhan aur jan mein bahut adhik haani hui thi.

irshya tatha dvesh mein vruddhi

yadyapi in yuddhon ke dvaara isaai praja ko tarki ke saamraajya se mukti mil gayi thi, kintu in yuddhon ke kaaran in raajyon ki shakti mein bada vistaar hua aur unamein paarasparik irshya aur dvesh mein bahut adhik vruddhi hui. balgaariya anya raajyon ko irsha aur dvesh ko drushti se dekhne laga. Serbia, aastriya se bada asantusht ho gaya, kyonki uske kaaran hi albaaniya ke naye raajya ka nirmaan hua jisse vah edriyaatik saagar se door ho gaya. aastriya bhi Serbia se naaraaj tha, kyonki uske vistaar se uske ijiyn saagar tak pahunchane ke maarg mein rookaavat utpann ho gayi. aastriya ko grees va roomaaniya se bhi asantosh tha. Germany bhi Serbia ko apna shatru samajhta tha kyonki unke dvaara Germany ke kustunatuniya tak pahunchane ke maarg mein vah rookaavat ho gaya. ye raashtra bukhaarest ki sandhi ka ant karna chaahate the. unako keval avsar ki talaash thi. sheegra hi unako baalkan raajyon ke virooddh kaarya karne ka avsar praapt ho gaya, jab aastriya ke Rajkumar fardinend aur usaki patni ka vadh seraajeevo mein din dahaade ek sarb dvaara 28 June 1914 E. ko kiya gaya. iske kaaran hi pratham vishvayuddh ka aarambh hua.

inhein bhi dekhein