baalakrushn bhatt

baalakrushn bhatt
Balkrishnabhatt.jpg
baalakrushn bhatt portret
janm: 3 June, 1844
Allahabad, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 30 July, 1914
kaaryakshetr: nibandhakaar, naatakakaar, patrakaar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: bhaarateindu yug
vidha: gadya
vishay: nibandh naatak
pramukh kruti(yaaain): bhatt nibandhaavali samagr sangrah


pandit baal Krishna bhatt (3 June 1844- 20 July 1914) hindi ke safal patrakaar, naatakakaar aur nibandhakaar the. unhein aaj ki gadya pradhaan kavita ka janak maana ja sakta hai. hindi gadya saahitya ke nirmaataaon mein bhi unka pramukh sthaan hai.

anukram

jeevan parichay

pandit baal Krishna bhatt ke pita ka naam pan॰ veni prasaad tha. school mein dasveen kaksha tak shiksha praapt karne ke baad bhatt ji ne ghar par hi sanskrut ka adhyayan kiya. sanskrut ke atirikt unhein hindi, angreji, urdoo, faarasi bhaashaaon ka bhi achha gyaan ho gaya. bhatt ji svatantr prakruti ke vyakti the. unhonne vyaapaar ka kaarya kiya tatha ve kuchh samay tak kaayasth paathashaala prayaag mein sanskrut ke adhyaapak bhi rahe kintu unka man kisi mein naheen rama. bhaarateindu ji se prabhaavit hokar unhonne hindi-saahitya seva ka vrat le liya. bhatt ji ne hindi pradeep naamak maasik patra nikaala. is patra ke ve swayam sampaadak the. unhonne is ras patra ke dvaara nirantar 32 varsh tak hindi ki seva ki. kaashi naagari prachaarini sabha dvaara aayojit hindi shabdasaagar ke sanpaadan mein bhi unhonne babu shyaam sundar das tatha shukl ji ke saath kaarya kiya.

unka janm prayaag ke ek pratishthit parivaar mein hua tha. bhatt ji ki maata apne pati ki apeksha adhik padhi-likhi aur vidushi theen. unka prabhaav baalakrushn bhatt ji par adhik pada. bhatt ji mission school mein padhte the. vahaaain ke pradhaanaachaarya ek isaai paadari the. unase vaad-vivaad ho jaane ke kaaran inhonne mission school jaana band kar diya. is prakaar vah ghar par rah kar hi sanskrut ka adhyayan karne lage. ve apne siddhaanton evam jeevan-moolyon ke itne drudh pratipaadak the ki kaalaantar mein inhein apni dhaarmik maanyataaon ke kaaran mission school tatha kaayasth paathashaala ke sanskrut adhyaapak ke pad se tyaag-patra dena pada tha. jeevikopaarjan ke liye unhonne kuchh samay tak vyaapaar bhi kiya parantu usamein inki adhik ruchi na hone ke kaaran safalta naheen mil saki. aapki abhiruchi aarambh se hi saahitya seva mein thi. at: seva-vrutti ko tilaanjali dekar ve yaavajjeevan hindi saahitya ki seva hi karte rahe.

kaaryakshetr

bhatt ji ek achhe aur safal patrakaar bhi the. hindi prachaar ke liye unhonne sanvat‌ 1933 mein prayaag mein hindi varddhini naamak sabha ki sthaapana ki. usaki or se ek hindi maasik patra ka prakaashan bhi kiya, jiska naam tha "hindi pradeep". vah battees varsh tak iske sampaadak rahe aur ise niyamit roop se bhali - bhaaainti chalaate rahe. hindi pradeep ke atirikt baalakrushn bhatt ji ne do-teen anya patrikaaon ka sanpaadan bhi kiya. bhatt ji bhaaratendu yug ke pratishthit nibandhakaar the. apne nibandhon dvaara hindi ki seva karne ke liye unka naam sadaiv agraganya rahega. unke nibandh adhiktar hindi pradeep mein prakaashit hote the. unke nibandh sada maulik aur bhaavana poorn hote the. vah itne vyast rahate the ki unhein pustakein likhne ke liye avakaash hi naheen milta tha. atyant vyast samay hote hue bhi unhonne "sau ajaan ek sujaan", "rel ka vikt khel", "nootan brahmachaari", "baal vivaah" tatha "bhaagya ki parakh" aadi chhoti-moti das-baarah pustakein likheen. vaise aapne nibandhon ke atirikt kuchh naatak, kahaaniyaaain aur upanyaas bhi likhe hain.

pramukh krutiyaaain

bhatt ji ne hindi saahitya ke vibhinn kshetron mein likha. unhein moolaroop se nibandh lekhak ke roop mein jaana jaata hai lekin unhonne do upanyaas

  • nibandh sangrah saahitya suman aur bhatt nibandhaavali.
  • upanyaas nootan brahmachaari tatha sau ajaan ek sujaan.
  • maulik naatak damayanti, svayanvar, baal-vivaah, chandrasen, rel ka vikt khel, aadi.
  • anuvaad bhatt ji ne bangala tatha sanskrut ke naatakon ke anuvaad bhi kiye jinmein veneesanhaar, mruchhakatik, padmaavati aadi pramukh hain.

bhaasha

bhaasha ki drushti se apne samay ke lekhakon mein bhatt ji ka sthaan bahut ooaincha hai. unhonne apni rachanaaon mein yathaashakti shuddh hindi ka prayog kiya. bhaavon ke anukool shabdon ka chunaav karne mein bhatt ji bade kushal the. kahaavaton aur muhaavaron ka prayog bhi unhonne sundar dhang se kiya hai. bhatt ji ki bhaasha mein jahaaain tahaaain poorveepan ki jhalak milti hai. jaise- samjha-bujha ke sthaan par samajhaaya-bujhaaya likha gaya hai. baalakrushn bhatt ki bhaasha ko do kotiyon mein rakha ja sakta hai. pratham koti ki bhaasha tatsam shabdon se yukt hai. dviteeya koti mein aane waali bhaasha mein sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ke saath-saath tatkaaleen urdoo, arabi, faarasi tatha ongl bhaasheeya shabdon ka bhi prayog kiya gaya hai. vah hindi ki paridhi ka vistaar karna chaahate the, isliye unhonne bhaasha ko vishay evam prasang ke anusaar prachalit hindeetar shabdon se bhi samanvit kiya hai. aapki bhaasha jeevant tatha chittaakarshak hai. ismein yatr-tatr poorvi boli ke prayogon ke saath-saath muhaavaron ka prayog bhi kiya gaya hai, jisse bhaasha atyant rochak aur pravaahamayi ban gayi hai.

varnya vishay

bhatt ji ne jahaaain aaainkh, kaan, naak, baatcheet jaise saadhaaran vishyon par lekh likhe hain, vahaaain aatmanirbharata, chaaru charitra jaise gambhir vishyon par bhi lekhani chalaai hai. saahityik aur saamaajik vishay bhi bhatt ji se achhoote naheen bache. 'chandrodaya' unke saahityik nibandhon mein se hai. samaaj ki kureetiyon ko door karne ke liye unhonne saamaajik nibandhon ki rachana ki. bhatt ji ke nibandhon mein suruchi-sampannta, kalpana, bahuvarnan sheelata ke saath-saath haasya vyangya ke bhi darshan hote hain.

shaili

bhatt ji ki lekhan - shaili ko bhi do kotiyon mein rakha ja sakta hai. pratham koti ki shaili ko parichyaatmak shaili kaha ja sakta hai. is shaili mein unhonne kahaaniyaaain aur upanyaas likhe hain. dviteeya koti mein aane waali shaili goodh aur gambhir hai. is shaili mein bhatt ji ko adhik naipunya praapt hai. aapne "aatm-nirbharata" tatha "kalpana" jaise gambheer vishyon ke atirikt, "aaainkh", "naak", tatha "kaan", aadi ati saamaanya vishyon par bhi sundar nibandh likhe hain. aapke nibandhon mein vichaaron ki gahanata, vishay ki vistrut vivechana, gambheer chintan ke saath ek anoothaapan bhi hai. yatr-tatr vyangya evam vinod unki shaili ko manoranjak bana deta hai. unhonne haasya aadhaarit lekh bhi likhe hain, jo atyant shikshaadaayak hain. bhatt ji ka gadya gadya na hokar gadyakaavya sa prateet hota hai. vastut: aadhunik kavita mein padyaatmak shaili mein gadya likhne ki parampara ka sootrapaat shri baalakrushn bhatt ji ne hi kiya tha. unhein

  • 1. varnanaatmak shaili- varnanaatmak shaili mein bhatt ji ne vyaavahaarik tatha saamaajik vishyon par nibandh likhe hain. jan saadhaaran ke liye bhatt ji ne isi shaili ko apnaaya. unke upanyaas ki shaili bhi yahi hai, kintu ise unki pratinidhi shaili naheen kaha ja sakta.

is shaili ki bhaasha saral aur muhaavaredaar hai. vaakya kaheen chhote aur kaheen bade hain.

  • 2. vichaaraatmak shaili- bhatt ji dvaara gambhir vishyon par likhe gaye nibandh isi shaili ke antargat aate hain. tark aur vishvaas, gyaan aur bhakti, sanbhaashan aadi nibandh vichaaraatmak shaili ke udaaharan hain.

is shaili ki bhaasha mein sanskrut ke shabdon ki adhikta hai.

  • 3. bhaavaatmak shaili- is shaili ka prayog bhatt ji ne saahityik nibandhon mein kiya hai. ise bhatt ji ki pratinidhi shaili kaha ja sakta hai.

is shaili mein shuddh hindi ka prayog hua hai. bhaasha pravaahamayi, sanyat aur bhaavaanukool hai. is shaili mein upama, roopak, utpreksha aadi alankaaron ka prayog bhi hua hai. alankaaron ke prayog se bhaasha mein vishesh saundarya aa gaya hai. bhaavon aur vichaar ke saath kalpana ka bhi sundar samanvaya hua. ismein gadya kaavya jaisa aanand hota hai. chandrodaya nibandh ka ek ansh dekhiye- yeh gol-gol prakaash ka pind dekh bhaaainti-bhaaainti ki kalpanaaeain man mein udaya hoti hai ki kya yeh nisha abhisaarika ke mukh dekhne ki aarasi hai ya uske kaan ka kundal athva fool hai yeh Rajni ramani ke lalaat par dukke ka safed tilk hai.

  • 4. vyangyaatmak shaili- is shaili mein haasya aur vyangya ki pradhaanata hai. vishay ke anusaar kaheen vyangya atyant maarmik aur teekha ho gaya hai.

is shaili ki bhaasha mein urdoo shabdon ki adhikta hai aur vaakya chhote-chhote hain.

saahitya seva aur sthaan- bhaarateindu kaal ke nibandh-lekhakon mein bhatt ji ka sarvochch sthaan hai. unhonne patra, naatak, kaavya, nibandh, lekhak, upanyaasakaar anuvaadak vibhinn roopon mein hindi ki seva ki aur use dhani banaaya.

saahitya ki drushti se bhatt ji ke nibandh atyant uchchakoti ke hain. is disha mein unki tulana angreji ke prasiddh nibandhakaar Charles lainb se ki ja sakti hai. gadya kaavya ki rachana bhi sarvapratham bhatt ji ne hi praarambh ki. inse poorvak hindi mein gadya kaavya ka nitaant abhaav tha.

baahari kadiyaaain