baabari masjid

baabari masjid
nirdeshaank: 26°a47′a44″aN 82°a11′a40″aE / 26.7956°aN 82.1945°aE / 26.7956; 82.1945Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 26°a47′a44″aN 82°a11′a40″aE / 26.7956°aN 82.1945°aE / 26.7956; 82.1945
sthaan ayodhya, Bhaarat
sthaapit nirmaan - 1527
vidhvans - 1992
vaastu sambandhit soochanaayein
vaastu shaili tuglaki

baabari masjid (baabar ki masjid), uttar pradesh ke faijaabaad jile ke ayodhya shahar mein raamakot pahaadi ("Ram ka kila") par ek masjid thi. rally ke aayojakon dvaara masjid ko koi nuksaan naheen pahunchaane dene ki Bhaarat ke sarvochch nyaayaalaya se vachanabaddhata ke baavajood, 1992 mein 150,000 logon ki ek raajaneetik rally[1] ke danga mein badal jaane se yeh vidhvast ho gayi.[2][3] Mumbai aur Delhi sahit kai pramukh bhaarateeya shaharon mein iske falasvaroop hue dangon mein 2,000 se adhik log maare gaye.[4]

Bhaarat ke pratham mugal samraat baabar ke aadesh par 1527 mein is masjid ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha.[5][6] pujaariyon se hindu dhaanche ya nirmaan ko chheenane ke baad meer baaki ne iska naam baabari masjid rakha. 1940 ke dashak se pehle, masjid ko masjid-i-janmasthaan (hindi: masjid A janmasthaan,urdoo: مaaسaaجaaدaaِ جaaنaaمaaسaaتaaھaaاaaن, anuvaad: "janmasthaan ki masjid") kaha jaata tha, is tarah is sthaan ko hindu ishvar, Bhagwan Ram ki janmabhoomi ke roop mein sveekaar kiya jaata raha hai.[7] pujaariyon se hindu dhaanche ko chheenane ke baad meer baaki ne iska naam baabari masjid rakha.

baabari masjid uttar pradesh, Bhaarat ke is raajya mein 3 karod 10 lakh muslim raha karte hain, ki sabse badi masjidon mein se ek thi.[8] haalaanki aaspaas ke jilon mein aur bhi anek puraani masjidein hain, jinme shareeki raajaaon dvaara banaayi gayi hajrat bal masjid bhi shaamil hai, lekin vivaadit sthal ke mahatva ke kaaran baabari masjid sabse badi ban gayi. iske aakaar aur prasiddhi ke baavajood, jile ke muslim samudaaya dvaara masjid ka upayog kam hi hua karta tha aur adaalaton mein hinduon dvaara anek yaachikaaon ke parinaamasvaroop is sthal par Ram ke hindu bhakton ka pravesh hone laga. baabari masjid ke itihaas aur iske sthaan par tatha kisi pehle ke mandir ko todkar ya usamein badlaav laakar ise banaaya gaya hai ya naheen, is par chal rahi raajaneetik, aitihaasik aur saamaajik-dhaarmik bahas ko ayodhya bahas ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

anukram

masjid ki vaastukala

is masjid ki vaastukala mandiron ya ghareloo shailiyaan se viksit huin, jo ki vahaan ki jalavaayu, bhoobhaag, saamagriyon dvaara anukoolit the; iseeliye Bengal, Kashmir aur Gujarat ki masjidon mein bhaari antar hai. baabari masjid ne jaunapur ki sthaapatya paddhati ka anukaran kiya.

ek vishisht shaili ki ek mahatvapoorn masjid baabari mukhyataya vaastukala mein sanrakshit rahi, jise Delhi saltanat ki sthaapana (1192) ke baad viksit kiya gaya tha. Hyderabad ke Charminar (1591) chauk ke bade meharaab, toran path aur meenaar bahut hi khaas hain. is kala mein patthar ka vyaapak upayog kiya gaya hai aur 17veen sadi mein mugal kala ke sthaanaantarit hone tak jaisa ki Tajmahal jaisi sanrachanaaon dvaara dikhaai padta hai; musalmaanon ke shaasan mein bhaarateeya anukoolan pratibinbit hota hai.

ek sanlagn aangan ke saath paramparaagat haaipostaail yojana pashchimi Asia se aayaat ki gayi, jo aam taur par nae kshetron mein islaam ke pravesh ke saath judi hui hai, lekin baad mein sthaaneeya aabohava aur jarurat ke hisaab se adhik upayukt yojanaaon ke kaaran ise tyaag diya gaya. baabari masjid sthaaneeya prabhaav aur pashchim Asiaee shaili ka mishran thi aur Bhaarat mein is prakaar ki masjidon ke udaaharan aam hain.

teen gunbadon ke saath baabari masjid ki bhavya sanrachana thi, teen gunbadon mein se ek pramukh tha aur do gaun. yeh do oonchi deevaaron se ghira hua tha, jo ek doosare ke samaanaantar theen aur ek kuen ke saath ek bada-sa aangan sanlagn tha, us kuen ko uske thande va meethe jal ke liye jaana jaata hai. gunbadadaar sanrachana ke oonche pravesh dwaar par do shilaalekh lage hue hain jinme faarasi bhaasha mein do abhilekh darj hain, jo ghoshit karte hain ki baabar ke aadesh par kisi meer baaki ne is sanrachana ka nirmaan kiya. baabari masjid ki deevaarein bhaunde safed reteele patthar ke khandon se bane hain, jinke aakaar aayataakaar hain, jabki gunbad patale aur chhote pake hue inton ke bane hain. in donon sanrachanaatmak upaadaanon ko daanedaar baaloo ke saath mote choon ke lasadaar mishran se palastar kiya gaya hai.

madhya aangan badi maatra mein vakr stambhon se ghira hua tha, chhat ki oonchaai badhaane ke liye aisa kiya gaya tha. yojana aur vaastukala jahaanpanaah ki begamapur ki shukravaar masjid se prabhaavit thi, na ki mugal shaili se, jahaan hindu raajamistri apni seedhi sanrachanaatmak aur sajaavati paranparaaon ka istemaal kiya karte the. unki dastakaari ki utkrushtata unke vaanaspatik imaarati sajaavat aur kamal aakruti mein saaf dikhti hai. ye belaboote firojaabaad ke firoj shaah masjid (E.san. 1354), jo ab ek ujadi hui sthiti mein hai, kila kuhana masjid (E.san. 1540), deevaar gaud shahar ke dakshini upanagar ki darasabari masjid aur sherashaah soori dvaara nirmit jamaali kaamili masjid mein bhi maujood hain. yeh Akbar dvaara apnaai gayi Bhaarat-islaami shaili ka agravarti tha.

baabari masjid dhvanik aur sheetalan pranaali

Lord William baintik (1828–1833) ke vaastukaar Graham pikford ke anusaar "baabari masjid ke meharaab se ek kaanaafoosi bhi doosare chhor se, 200 feet [60 mi] door aur madhya aangan ki lanbaai aur chaudaai se, suni ja sakti hai." unki pustak "historik strakchars of avadh" (avadh arthaat ayodhya) mein unhonne masjid ki dhvaniki ka ullekh kiya hai, jahaan ve kehte hain "kisi 16veen sadi ki imaarat mein manch se aavaaj ka failaav aur prakshepan atyadhik unnat hai, is sanrachana mein dhvani ka adviteeya failaav aagantuk ko chakit kar dega."

aadhunik vaastukaaron ne is dhvanik visheshata ke liye meharaab ki deevaar mein badi khaali jagah aur chaaron or ki deevaaron mein anek khaali jagahon ko shreya diya hai, jo anunaadak paripth ke roop mein kaam karti hain; is design ne meharaab ke vakta ko sunane mein sabki madad ki. baabari masjid ke nirmaan mein istemaal kiye gaye reteele patthar bhi anunaadak kism ke the, jinka adviteeya dhvaniki mein mahattvapoorn yogadaan raha.

baabari masjid ki tugalaki shaili anya svadeshi design ghatakon aur takaneek ke saath ekeekrut hui, jaise ki meharaab, meharaabi chhat aur gumbaj jaise islaami vaastushilp tatvon ke aavaran mein vaataanukoolit pranaali. baabari masjid ki ek shaantipoorn paryaavaran niyantran pranaali mein oonchi chhatein, gumbaj aur chh: badi jaaleedaar jharokhe shaamil rahe the. yeh pranaali praakrutik roop se andaruni bhaag ko thanda rakhane aur saath hi soorya ke prakaash ko aane mein madad karti thi.

itihaas

hindu vyaakhya

1527 mein faragana se jab muslim samraat baabar aaya to usane sikri mein chittaudgadh ke hindu raaja raana sangraam Singh ko topakhaane aur gola-baarood ka istemaal karke haraaya. is jeet ke baad, baabar ne us kshetr par kabja kar liya, usane apne senaapati meer baaki ko vahaan ka soobedaar bana diya.

meer baaki ne ayodhya mein baabari masjid ka nirmaan kar iska naamakaran samraat baabar ke naam par kiya.[9] baabar ke rojanaamacha baabaranaama mein vahaan kisi nai masjid ka jikr naheen hai, haalaanki rojamaanache mein us avadhi se sanbanddh panne gaayab hain. samakaaleen taareekh-A-baabari kehta hai ki baabar ki sena ne "chanderi mein bahut saare hindu mandiron ko dhvast kar diya tha."[10]

1992 mein dhvast dhaanche ke malabe se nikle ek mote patthar ke khand ke abhilekh se us sthal par ek puraane hindu mandir ke pailiyograafik (lekhan ke praacheenakaaleen roop ke adhyayan) pramaan praapt hue. vidhvans ke din 260 se adhik anya kalaakrutiyaan aur praacheen hindu mandir ka hissa hone ke aur bhi bahut saare tathya bhi nikaale gaye. shilaalekh mein 20 panktiyaan, 30 shlok (chhand) hain aur ise sanskrut mein naagari lipi mein likha gaya hai. gyaarahaveen aur baarahaveen shataabdi mein 'naagari lipi' prachalit thi. pro॰ A. M. shaastri, dau॰ ke. vi. ramesh, dau॰ ti. pi. varma, pro॰ bi.aar. Grover, dau॰ A.ke. sinha, dau॰ sudha malaiya, dau॰ di. pi. dube aur dau॰ ji. si. tripaathi samet puraalekhavettaaon, sanskrut vidvaanon, itihaasakaaron aur puraatatvavidon ke dal dvaara goodh lekhon ke roop mein sandesh ke mahatvapoorn bhaag ko samjha gaya.

shuroo ke bees chhand raaja govind chandra gadhvaal (1114-1154 E.) aur unke vansh ki prashansa karte hain. ikkeesavaan chhand is prakaar kehta hai: "vaaman avataar (baune braahman ke roop mein vishnu ke avataar) ke charanon mein sheesh navaane ke baad apni aatma ki mukti ke liye raaja ne vishnu hari (shri Ram) ke adbhut mandir ke liye sangamaramar ke khanbe aur aakaash tak pahunchanevaale patthar ki sanrachana ka nirmaan karne aur sheersh chooda ko bahut saare sone se madh diya aur vaan ka munh aakaash ki or karke ise poora kiya - yeh ek aisa bhavya mandir hai jaisa isse pehle desh ke itihaas mein kisi raaja ne naheen banaaya."

ismein aage bhi kaha gaya hai ki yeh mandir, mandiron ke shahar ayodhya mein banaaya gaya tha.

ek anya sandarbh mein, ek mahant raghubar das dvaara daayar shikaayat par faijaabaad ke jila nyaayaadheesh ne 18 March 1886 ko faisala sunaaya tha. haalaanki shikaayat ko khaarij kar diya gaya tha, fir bhi faisale mein do praasangik tathya nikal kar aae:

"mainne paaya ki samraat baabar dvaara nirmit masjid ayodhya nagar ki seema par sthit hai. sabse durbhaagyapoorn baat yeh hai ki masjid aisi vishesh jameen par banaayi gayi hai ki jo hinduon dvaara poojya hai, lekin choonki yeh ghatna 358 saal pehle ki hai, iseeliye is shikaayat ke pratikaar ke liye ab bahut der ho chuki hai. jo kiya ja sakta hai vah yeh ki sabhi pakshon dvaara yathaasthiti ko banaae rakha jaae. aise kisi maamale mein jaisa ki vartamaan maamala hai, kisi bhi tarah ka navapravartan laabh ke bajaae aur bhi adhik nuksaan aur shaanti mein khalal paida karega."

jain vyaakhya

jainiyon ke saamaajik sangathan jain samata vaahini ke anusaar, "utkhanan ke dauraan agar koi sanrachana yahaan milti hai to vah keval chhathi sadi ka jain mandir hi ho sakta hai."

jain samata vaahini ke mahaasachiv sohan Mehta ka daava hai ki baabari masjid-Ram janmabhoomi vivaad sulajhaane ke liye Allahabad uchch nyaayaalaya ke aadesh par eesaaai dvaara kiya gaya utkhanan is baat ko pramaanit kar deta hai ki vivaadit dhvast dhaancha vaastav mein, ek praacheen jain mandir ke avashesh par banaaya gaya tha.

Mehta 18veen shataabdi ke jain bhikshuon ki rachaanaaon ka ullekh karte hue kehte hain ki ayodhya vah jagah hain jahaan paanch jain teerthankar, rishabhadev, ajitnaath, abhinandananaath, sumatinaath aur anantanaath raha karte the. 1527 se pehle yeh praacheen shahar jain dharm aur bauddh dharm ke paanch bade keindron mein se ek raha hai.[11]

muslim vyaakhya

aisa koi aitihaasik record is tathya ki or sanket naheen karta hai ki 1528 mein jab meer baaki ne masjid sthaapit ki, us samay yahaan astitv mein rahe kisi hindu mandir ka vidhvans kiya gaya tha. 23 December 1949 ko jab avaidh roop se masjid mein Ram ki moortiyon ko rakha gaya, tab pradhaan mantri javaaharalaal Nehru ne UP ke mukhyamantri jebi pant ko patra likhkar us gadabadi ko sudhaarane ki maang ki; kyonki "isse vahaan ek khatarnaak misaal sthaapit hoti hai." sthaaneeya prashaasak, faijaabaad upaayukt ke. ke. Nair ne Nehru ki chintaaon ko khaarij kar diya. haalaanki unhonne sveekaar kiya ki moortiyon ki sthaapana "ek avaidh kaarya thi", Nair ne masjid se unhein hataane se mana karte hue yeh daava kiya ki "is gatividhi ke peechhe jo gahari bhaavana hai... use kam karke naheen aanka jaana chaahiye." 2010 mein, hindu dharmagranthon ka havaala dete hue hajaaron prushthon ke faisale mein uchch nyaayaalaya ne jameen ka do-tihaai hindu mandir ko de diya, lekin 1949 ke adhiniyam ki avaidhata ki jaanch mein bahut kam prayaas kiye gaye. manoj mitta ke anusaar, "ek tarah se masjid ko mandir mein tabdeel karne ke liye moortiyon ke saath chhedchhaad kiya jaana, svatvaadhikaar mukadama ke adhinirnaya ka kendra tha."[12]

musalmaanon aur anya aalochakon ka daava hai ki puraatatv report jo ki raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh (RSS), vishv hindu parishad (vihip) aur hindu munnaani jaise ativaadi hindu sangathanon dvaara baabari masjid sthal par kiye gaye daave par bharosa karke taiyaar kiye gaye hain, ve raajaneeti se prerit hai. aalochakon ka kehna hai ki eesaaai (ASI) dvaara "har jagah pashu ki haddiyon ke saath-saath 'surkhi' aur choona-gaara paaya gaya", ye sabhi musalmaanon ki maujoodagi ke lakshan hai jo ki "baabari masjid ke neeche hindu mandir ki sambhaavana ko khaarij karte hain," lekin report mein 'khanbhon ki buniyaad' ke aadhaar par daava kiya jaana iske saath "saaf taur par dhokhaadhadi" hai kyonki koi khanbha naheen paaya gaya aur kathit taur par khanbhe ki buniyaad ke astitv par puraatatvavidon dvaara tark-vitrk kiya gaya hai[13].

british vyaakhya

"1526 mein Panipat mein vijay praapt karne ke baad baabar ke kadam Hindustan par pade aur afagaani vansh ke lodhi ko paraast kar vartamaan sanyukt praant ke poorvi jilon aur madhya doaab, avadh par kabja karte hue vah Agra ki or badha. 1527 mein, baabar ke madhya Bhaarat se lautane par, kannauj ke paas dakshini avadh mein usane apne virodhiyon ko hara diya aur praant ko paar karte hue bahut door tak jaate hue ayodhya tak pahunch gaya, jahaan usane 1528 mein ek masjid ka nirmaan kiya. 1530 mein baabar ki mrutyu ke baad Afghan baadshah vipakshi bane rahe, lekin agale varsh Lucknow ke paas unhein hara diya." impeeriyl gazette of India 1908 bhaag XIX prushth 279-280

sthal ko lekar sangharsh

aadhunik samay mein is masale par hinduon aur musalmaanon ke beech hinsa ki pehli ghatna 1853 mein avadh ke navaab vaajid Ali shaah ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan darj ki gayi. nirmohi naamak ek hindu sanpradaaya ne dhaanche par daava karte hue kaha ki jis sthal par masjid khada hai vahaan ek mandir hua karta tha, jise baabar ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan nasht kar diya gaya tha. agale do varshon mein is mudde par samay-samay par hinsa bhadki aur naagrik prashaasan ko hastakshep karte hue is sthal par mandir ka nirmaan karne ya pooja karne ki anumati dene se inkaar karna pada.

faijaabaad jila gazette 1905 ke anusaar, "is samay (1855) tak, hindu aur musalmaan donon ek hi imaarat mein ibaadat ya pooja karte rahe the. lekin vidroh (1857) ke baad, masjid ke saamane ek baahari deevaar daal di gayi aur hinduon ko adanruni praangan mein jaane, vedika (chabootara), jise un logon ne baahari deevaar par khada kiya tha, par chadhaava dene se mana kar diya gaya."

1883 mein is chabootare par mandir ka nirmaan karne ki koshish ko upaayukt dvaara rok diya gaya, unhonne 19 January 1885 ko ise nishiddh kar diya. mahant raghuveer das ne up-nyaayaadheesh faijaabaad ki adaalat mein ek maamala daayar kiya. 17 feet x 21 feet maap ke chabootare par pandit harikishn ek mandir ke nirmaan ki anumati maang rahe the, lekin mukadame ko barkhaast kar diya gaya. ek appeal faijaabaad jila nyaayaadheesh, Colonel J.E.A. chamabiar ki adaalat mein daayar kiya gaya, sthal ka nireekshan karne ke baad unhonne 17 March 1886 ko is appeal ko khaarij kar diya. ek doosari appeal 25 May 1886 ko avadh ke nyaayik aayukt dablyoo. yang ki adaalat mein daayar ki gayi thi, inhonne bhi is appeal khaarij kar diya. isi ke saath, hinduon dvaara ladi gayi pehle daur ki kaanooni ladaai ka ant ho gaya.

1934 ke "saampradaayik dangon" ke dauraan, masjid ke chaaron or ki deevaar aur masjid ke gunbadon mein ek gunbad kshatigrast ho gaya tha. british sarkaar dvaara inka punarnirmaan kiya gaya.

masjid aur ganj-A-shaheedan kabristaan naamak kabragaah se sambandhit bhoomi ko vakf kr. 26 faijaabaad ke roop mein UP sunni keindreeya vakf (muslim pavitra sthal) board ke saath 1936 ke adhiniyam ke tahat panjeekrut kiya gaya tha. is avadhi ke dauraan musalmaanon ke utpeedn ki prushthabhoomi ki kramash: 10 aur 23 December 1949 ki do report darj karke vakf nireekshak mohammad Ibrahim dvaara vakf board ke sachiv ko diya gaya tha.

pehli report kehti hai "masjid ki taraf jaanevaale kisi bhi muslim toka gaya aur naam vagairah ... liya gaya. vahaan ke logon ne mujhe bataaya ki hinduon se masjid ko khatra hai... jab namaaji (namaaj ada karne vaale) laut kar jaane lagte hai to unki taraf aaspaas ke gharon ke joote aur patthar feinke jaate hain. musalmaan bhaya ke kaaran ek shabd bhi naheen kehte. raghudaas ke baad lohiya ne ayodhya ka daura kiya aur vahaan bhaashan diya ... kabr ko nuksaan mat pahunchaaie... bairaagiyon ne kaha masjid janmabhoomi hai aur isliye ise hamein de dein... mainne ayodhya mein ek raat bitaai aur bairaagi jabaran masjid par kabja karne lage... .."

22 December 1949 ki aadhi raat ko jab police guard so rahe the, tab Ram aur seeta ki moortiyon ko chupachaap masjid mein le jaaya gaya aur vahaan sthaapit kar diya gaya. agali subah iski khabar constable maata prasaad dvaara di gayi aur ayodhya police thaane mein iski soochana darj ki gayi. 23 December 1949 ko ayodhya police thaane mein sab inspector Ram dube dvaara praathamiki darj karaate hue kaha gaya: "50-60 vyaktiyon ke ek dal ne masjid parisar ke gate ka taala todne ke baad ya deevaaron ko faand kar baabari masjid mein pravesh kiya. . aur vahaan shri Bhagwan ki moorti ki sthaapana ki tatha baahari aur andaruni deevaar par geroo (laal doomat) se seeta-Ram ka chitr banaaya gaya ... uske baad, 5-6 hajaar logon ki bheed aaspaas ikatthi hui tatha bhajan gaate aur dhaarmik naare lagaate hue masjid mein pravesh karne ki koshish karne lagi, lekin rok diye gaye." agali subah, hinduon ki badi bheed ne bhagavaanon ko prasaad chadhaane ke liye masjid mein pravesh karne ka prayaas kiya. jila magistrate ke.ke. Nair ne darj kiya hai ki "yeh bheed jabaran pravesh karne ki koshish karne ke liye poori tarah se drudh sankalp thi. taala tod daala gaya aur policewaalon ko dhakka dekar gira diya gaya. hamamein se sab adhikaariyon aur doosare logon ne kisi tarah bheed ko peechhe ki or khadeda aur faatak ko band kiya. police aur hathiyaaron ki paravaah na karte hue saadhu ekdam se un par toot pade aur tab bahut hi mushkil se hamalogon ne kisi tarah se faatak ko band kiya. faatak surakshit tha aur baahar se laaye gaye ek bahut hi majaboot taale se use band kar diya gaya tatha police bal ko sudrudh kiya gaya (shaam 5:00 baje)."

is khabar ko sunakar pradhaan mantri Jawahar laal Nehru ne UP ke mukhyamantri govind ballabh pant ko yeh nirdesh diya ki ve yeh dekhein ki devataaon ko hata liya jaae. pant ke aadesh ke tahat mukhya sachiv Bhagwan sahaaya aur faijaabaad ke police mahaanireekshak vi.N. laahidi ne devataaon ko hata lene ke liye faijaabaad ko tatkaal nirdesh bheja. haalaanki, ke.ke. Nair ko dar tha ki hindu javaabi kaarravaai kareinge aur aadesh ke paalan ko aksham karne ki pairavi kareinge.

1984 mein, vishv hindu parishad (vihip) ne masjid ke taale ko khulavaane ke liye bade paimaane par aandolan shuroo kiya aur 1985 mein Rajiv Gandhi ki sarkaar ne ayodhya mein Ram janmabhoomi-baabari masjid ka taala khol dene ka aadesh diya. us taareekh se pehle keval hindu aayojan ki anumati thi, jismein hindu purohit moortiyon ki saalaana pooja karte the. is faisale ke baad, sabhi hinduon ko, jo ise Ram ka janmasthaan maanate the, vahaan tak jaane ki anumati mil gayi aur masjid ko ek hindu mandir ke roop mein kuchh adhikaar mil gaya.[14]

kshetr mein saampradaayik tanaav tab bahut adhik badh gaya jab November 1989 mein raashtreeya chunaav se pehle vihip ko vivaadit sthal par shilaanyaas (neenv sthaapana samaaroh) karne ki anumati praapt ho gayi. varishth bhaajapa neta Lal Krishna Advani ne ek rath par savaar hokar dakshin se ayodhya tak ki 10,000 kimi ki yaatra ki shurooaat ki.

bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ki report

1970, 1992 aur 2003 mein bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan (eesaaai) dvaara vivaadit sthal ke aaspaas ki gayi khudaai se us sthal par hindu parisar maujood hone ka sanket mila hai.

2003 mein, bhaarateeya adaalat dvaara diye gaye aadesh par bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ko iska aur adhik gahan adhyayan karne tatha malabe ke neeche vishesh tarah ki sancharana ki khudaai karne ko kaha gaya.[15] eesaaai ka report saaraansh[16] masjid ke neeche mandir ke saboot hone ke nishchit sanket deta hai. eesaaai shodhakartaaon ke shabdon mein, unalogon ne "uttar Bhaarat ke mandiron se judi... vishishtataaon ki" khoj ki. khudaai ka nateeja:

stone and decorated bricks as well as mutilated sculpture of a divine couple and carved architectural features, including foliage patterns, amalaka, kapotapali, doorjamb with semi-circular shrine pilaster, broke octagonal shaft of black schist pillar, lotus motif, circular shrine having pranjala (watershute) in the north and 50 pillar bases in association with a huge structure"[17]


aalochna

safadar Hashmi memoriyl trast (sahamat) ne report ki aalochna yeh kehte hue ki ki "har taraf pashu haddiyon ke saath hi saath surkhi aur choona-gaara ki maujoodagi" jo bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ko mila, ye sab musalmaanon ki upasthiti ke lakshan hain "jo ki masjid ke neeche hindu mandir ke hone ki baat ko khaarij kar deti hai" lekin 'khanbon ki buniyaad' ke aadhaar par report kuchh aur daava karti hai jo ki apne nishchayan mein "spashtat: dhokhaadhadi" hai kyonki koi khanba naheen mila hai aur puraatatvavidon ke beech us tathaakathit 'khanbe ki buniyaad' ke astitv par bahas jaari hai[13]. all India muslim parsanal law board (eaaiemapeeelabi) ke adhyaksh Sayyed rabe hasan nadavi ne bataaya ki eesaaai apni antarim report mein kisi mandir ke koi saboot ka ullekh karne mein vifal raha hai aur raashtreeya tanaav ke samay ke dauraan keval antim report mein iska ullekh kiya gaya, jisse report bahut hi sadigdh ban jaati hai.[18].

haalaanki, nyaayaadheesh Agrawal, ek nyaayaadheesh jinhonne kshetr ka vibhaajan kiya, kehte hain ki bahut saare "svatantr itihaasakaaron" ne tath‍aayon ke maamale mein "shuturamurg jaise ravaie" ka pradarshan kiya aur vaastav mein jab unako "jaancha gaya to pata chala" ki is vishay par kisi tarah ki visheshajnyaata ka unamein abhaav tha. iske alaava, jyaadaatar "visheshagya" paraspar aapas mein jude paae gaye: ya to unalogon ne khabaron ko padhkar apni visheshajnyaata ko taiyaar kiya ya fir vakf board ke liye "visheshagya gavaah" ki tarah unka kisi anya vyaavasaayik sangathano ke saath judaav hai.[19]

dhaanche ke neeche mandir (hindu mandir) par bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ke nishkarsh ki jaanch karte hue vihip aur RSS, musalmaanon se yeh maang karte hue aage aae ki uttar bhaarateeyon ki teen pavitratam mandir hinduon ko saunp di jaae.[17]

vidhvans

16 December 1992 Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara baabari masjid vidhvans ke liye bani paristhitiyon ki jaanch karne ke liye librahaan aayog ka gathan kiya gaya. vibhinn sarkaaron dvaara 48 baar atirikt samay ki manjoori paane wala, bhaarateeya itihaas mein sabse lambe samay tak kaam karanevaala yeh aayog hai. is ghatna ke l6 saalon se bhi adhik samay ke baad 30 June 2009 ko aayog ne pradhaan mantri Manmohan Singh ko apni report saunpi.[20]

report ki saamagri November 2009 ko samaachaar media mein leek ho gayi. masjid ke vidhvans ke liye report ne Bhaarat sarkaar ke uchch padasth adhikaariyon aur hindu raashtravaadiyon ko doshi thaharaaya. iski saamagri bhaarateeya sansad mein hangaame ka kaaran bani.

6 December 1992 ko car sevakon dvaara baabari masjid vidhvans ke din jo kuchh bhi hua tha, librahaan report ne un silsilevaar ghatnaaon ke tukadon kon ek saath goontha tha.

ravivaar ki subah Lal Krishna Advani aur anya logon ne vinaya katiyaar ke ghar par mulaakaat ki. report kehti hai ki iske baad ve vivaadit dhaanche ke liye ravaana hue. Advani, murali manohar Joshi aur katiyaar pooja ki vedi par pahunche, jahaan prateekaatmak roop se car seva honi thi, fir Advani aur Joshi ne agale 20 minute tak taiyaariyon ka nireekshan kiya. iske baad dono varishth neta 200 meter ki doori par Ram katha kunj ke liye ravaana ho gaye. yeh vah imaarat hai jo vivaadit dhaanche ke saamane thi, jahaan varishth netaaon ke liye ek manch ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha.

dopahar mein, ek kishor car sevak kood kar gunbad ke oopar pahunch gaya aur usane baahari ghere ko tod dene ka sanket diya. report kehti hai ki is samay Advani, Joshi aur vijay raaje sindhiya ne "... ya to gambheerta se ya media ka laabh uthaane ke liye car sevakon se utar aane ka aupachaarik anurodh kiya. pavitra sthaan ke garbhagruh mein naheen jaane ya dhaanche ko na todne ki car sevakon se koi appeal naheen ki gayi thi. report kehti hai: "netaaon ke aise chuninda kaarya vivaadit dhaanche ke vidh‍aavans ko poora karne ke un sabke bheetar chhipe ke iraadon ka khulaasa karte hain

report ka maanana hai ki "Ram katha kunj mein maujood aandolan ke prateek ... tak bahut hi aasaani se pahunch kar ... vidhvans ko rok sakte the."[21]

vidhvans mein agrim yojana banaai gayi

poorv khufiya bureau (aaibi) ke sanyukt nideshak malaya Krishna dhar ne 2005 ki ek pustak mein daava kiya ki baabari masjid vidhvans ki yojana 10 maheene pehle RSS, bhaajapa aur vihip ke sheersh netaaon dvaara banaai gayi thi aur in logon ne is masale par tatkaaleen pradhaanamantri pi.vi. narasinh Rao dvaara uthaaye gaye kadam par savaal uthaaya tha. dhar ne daava kiya hai ki bhaajapa/sangh parivaar ki ek mahatvapoorn baithak ki report taiyaar karne ka prabandh karne ka unhein nirdesh diya gaya tha aur us baithak ne "is shak ki gunjaaish ko pare kar diya ki unalogon (RSS, bhaajapa, vihip) ne aanevaale maheene mein hindutv hamle ka khaaka taiyaar kiya aur December 1992 mein ayodhya mein 'pralaya nrutya' (vinaash ka nrutya) ka nirdeshan kiya... baithak mein maujood RSS, bhaajapa, vihip aur bajarang dal ke neta kaam ko yojanaabaddh roop se anjaam dene ki baat par aapasi sahamati se taiyaar ho gaye." unka daava hai ki baithak ke tape ko unhonne vyaktigat roop se apne boss ke supurd kiya, unhonne drudhtaapoorvak kaha ki unhein ismein koi shak naheen hai ki unke boss ne us tape ki saamagri ko pradhaanamantri (Rao) aur gruh mantri (esabi chavhaan) ko dikhaaya. lekhak ne daava kiya hai ki yahaan ek mook samjhauta hua tha jismein ayodhya ne unhein "raajaneetik laabh uthaane ke liye hindutv ki lahar ko shikhar par pahunchaane ka ek adbhut avsar" pradaan kiya.[3]

librahaan aayog ke nishkarsh

nyaayamoorti Manmohan Singh libraahan dvaara likhi gayi report mein masjid ke vidhvans ke liye 68 logon ko doshi thaharaaya gaya hai - inmein jyaadaatar bhaajapa ke neta aur kuchh naukarashaah hain. report mein poorv bhaajapa pradhaanamantri atal bihaari Vajpayee aur sansad mein party ke tatkaaleen (2009) neta Lal Krishna Advani ka naam liya gaya hain. kalyaan Singh, jo masjid vidhvans ke samay uttar pradesh ke mukhyamantri the, ki bhi report mein kadi aalochna ki gayi. un par ayodhya mein aise naukarashaahon aur police ko tainaat karne ka aarop hai, jo vidhvans ke dauraan mook ban kar khade rahe.[22] librahaan aayog ki report mein raajag sarkaar mein bhootapoorv shiksha mantri murali manohar Joshi ko bhi vidhvans mein doshi thaharaaya gaya hai. ek bhaarateeya police adhikaari anjoo gupta abhiyojan gavaah ke roop mein pesh ki gayeen. vidhvans ke din ve Advani ki suraksha prabhaari theen aur unhonne khulaasa kiya ki Advani aur murali manohar Joshi ne bhadaakaaoo bhaashan diye.[23]

lokapriya sanskruti mein

baanglaadeshi lekhika tasaleema nasareen dvaara 1993 mein likhe gaye vivaadaaspad baangla upanyaas lajja mein kahaani vidhvans ke baad ke dinon par aadhaarit hai. iske vimochan ke baad lekhika ko unke gruh desh mein jaan se maarane ki dhamaki mili hai aur tab se ve nirvaasan mein rah rahi hain.

vidhvans se uthe dhuen ke parinaamasvaroop ghatanevaali ghatnaaen aur dange bombe (1995), daivanaamaathil (2005) jaisi film ki kahaani ka mahatvapoorn hissa rahi hain, donon filmon ko raashtreeya ekta ke liye sarvashreshth film ka sambandhit raashtreeya film award ke dauraan naragis datt award mila; naseem (1995), striker (2010) aur slamadaug miliyneyar (2008) mein bhi iska jikr tha.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. aaj baabari masjid vidhvans maamale ki sunavaai. Yahoo (Yahoo) samaachaar - 18 September 2007
  2. baabari masjid tiyring daaun - I witness BBC mark tuli BBC (BBC) - guruvaar, 5 December 2002, 19:05 GMT
  3. a aa 10 maheene pehle hi baabari masjid vidhvans ki yojana banaai gayi thi - PTI (PTI)
  4. ayodhya vivaad. BBC (BBC) samaachaar. 15 November 2004.
  5. flint, Colin (2005). the jiografi of vaar & pees [yuddh aur shaanti ka bhoogol]. Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780195162080. http://books.google.com/books?id=7Ms5N7NhGXIC&pg=PA165.
  6. Vitelli, Karen (2006). Archaeological ethics (2 san॰). Rowman Altamira. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780759109636. http://books.google.com/books?id=LTW1Rf-NfJsC&pg=PA104.
  7. Sayyed shahaabuddeen abdur Rahman, baabari masjid, teesara mudran, aajamagadh: daarool musannifin shibli academy, 1987, peepi 29-30.
  8. bhaarateeya janaganana
  9. "baabari masjid -- britaanika online insaaiklopeediya". insaaiklopeediya. insaaiklopeediya britaanika. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/47510/Babri-Mosjid. abhigman tithi: 2008-07-02.
  10. sharma, mugal samraaton ke dhaarmik neeti, prushth 9
  11. http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=19686
  12. ayodhya faisala times of India, 3 October 2010
  13. a aa dharmanirpekshava ko ayodhya ke faisale se ek aur jhatka: sahamat hindu, 3 October 2010 sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "blow-secularism" defined multiple times with different content
  14. http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?224878
  15. ratanaagar, shereen (2004) "CA (CA) forum on ainthrapaalauji in pablik: aarkeeaalauji eight the heart of a paulitikl kaanfranteshan: the case of ayodhya" kareint ainthrapaalauji 45(2): peepi 239-259, prushth 239
  16. prasannan, aar. (7 September 2003) "ayodhya: leyars of truth" the week (India), fraum web aarchiv
  17. a aa Suryamurthy, R. (August 2003) "ASI findings may not resolve title dispute" The Tribune - August 26, 2003
  18. Muralidharan, Sukumar (September 2003). "Ayodhya: Not the last word yet". http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2019/stories/20030926005412900.htm.
  19. Abhinav Garg (October 9, 2010). "How Allahabad HC exposed 'experts' espousing Masjid cause". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/How-Allahabad-HC-exposed-experts-espousing-Masjid-cause/articleshow/6716643.cms.
  20. press trast of India (30 June 2009). baabari masjid maamala: librahaan aayog ne pradhaanamantri ko report saunpi. business standard .
  21. http://www.ndtv.com/news/india/report_sequence_of_events_on_december_6.php
  22. aparor over India mausk report: inkvairi inatoo baabari mausk dimoleeshan in 1992 indikts aapojishn BJP (BJP) leedars al-jajeera english - 24 November 2009
  23. in the dauk agen, frantalaain

aage padhein

  • Ram sharan sharma. kamyunal history end Ram ayodhya, people's pablishing hauus (peepeeech (PPH)), doosra sanshodhit sanskaran, September, 1999, Delhi. bangaali, hindi, kannad, tamil, telugu aur urdoo mein anuvaadit. bangaali mein do sanskaran.
  • puniyaani, Ram. kamyunal paulitiks: miths versus faikts. sej prakaashan ink, 2003
  • bacheta, paaola. "sekred space in kanflikt in India: the baabari masjid afeyrar." growth end change. springa2000, khand. 31, ank 2.
  • 'baabaranaama': baabar, Rajkumar aur samraat ka sansmaran. 1996. sanpaadit, vheelar M. thaiksan dvaara enotet aur anuvaad. New York aur London: Oxford university press.
  • 'ayodhya aur Bhaarat ka bhavishya'. 1993. Jitendra Bajaj dvaara sanpaadit. neeti adhyayan ke liye kendra Madras. ISBN 81-86041-02-8 hb ISBN 81-86041-03-6 pb
  • elst, koenraad. 1991. Ayodhya and After: Issues Before Hindu Society. 1991. nai Delhi: Bhaarat ki aavaaj. [1]
  • immaanuel, dominik. 'the Mumbai baumb blaasts end the ayodhya taingal', naishanal kaithalik reporter (kainasas city, 27 August 2003).
  • seeta Ram goel: hindu mandir - unhein kya hua ?, Bhaarat ki aavaaj, Delhi 1991. [2] [3]
  • harsh Narayan. 1993. ayodhya mandir masjid vivaad: muslim sootron par prakaash. Delhi: penamain prakaashak.
  • haisnar, raun E., pavitra maidaan par yuddh. 2009. ithaaka: kaurnel university press. [4]
  • romi, kristin M., "flaishpauint ayodhya." aarkeeaalauji July/agasta2004, khand. 57, ank 4.
  • romila thaapar. thaapar (2000) mein 'Ram ki kahaani par ek aitihaasik pariprekshya'.
  • ayodhya ka itihaas evam puraatatv - rigved kal se ab tak ('itihaas aur ayodhya ke puraatatv - rigved ke samay se lekar vartamaan tak') thaakur prasaad varma aur svaraajya prakaash gupta dvaara bhaarateeya itihaas evam sanskrut parishad aur DK printavarld. nai Delhi.
  • pi. vi. narasinh Rao dvaara 'ayodhya : 6 December 1992' (ISBN 0-670-05858-0)


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