baabaranaama

mugl samraat baabar ki baabaranaama naamak jeevani mein ek geinde ke shikaar ka chitran
baabaranaama se ek drushya

baabaranaama (chagtaai/faarasi: بaaاaaبaaر نaaاaaمaaہ) ya tujk-A-baabari mugl saamraajya ke pehle samraat baabar ki aatmalikhit jeevani hai. yeh unhonne apni maatrubhaasha chagtaai Turkey mein likhi thi. ismein unhonne apna ujbekistaan ki fragna vaadi mein gujaara hua bachapan aur yauvan, baad mein afgaanistaan aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveep par aakraman aur kbja aur anya ghatnaaon ka vivran diya hai. unhonne har kshetr ki bhoomi, raajaneeti, arthavyavastha, praakrutik vaataavaran, shaharon-imaaraton, falon, jaanvaron, ityaadi ka bakhaan kiya hai. ismein kuchh faarasi bhaasha ke chhote-mote chhand bhi aate hain, haalaanki faarasi bolne vaale ise samajhne mein aksham hain. haalaanki chagtaai bhaasha vilupt ho chuki hai aadhunik ujbek bhaasha usi ki vanshaj hai aur use bolne vaale ujbek log baabaranaama padh sakte hain. is kitaab ko chagtaai aur ujbek bhaashaaon ke saahitya ka ek mahatvapoorn ang maana jaata hai.[1]

anukram

kuchh ansh

baabaranaama in saral shabdon ke saath aarambh hota hai:

"fragna ke soobe mein, san 1494 mein, baarah saal ki umr mein main raaja bana."

unhonne apni fragna ki maatrubhoomi ke baare mein kaha:

"fragna ki riyaasat mein saat shahar hain, paaainch dakshin mein aur do sir dariya ke uttar mein. dakshin vaalon mein se ek andeejhaan hai. yeh beech mein sthit hai aur fragna ki riyaasat ki rajdhani hai."

unhonne ek muthabhed ka varnan yeh diya:

"ek aadmi ne Ibrahim beg par nishaana taana. lekin tabhi Ibrahim beg 'haaya! haaya!' chillaaya aur aadmi ne use to nikalne diya lekin glati se mere baajoo ke neeche kaankh mein itni paas se goli maar di jitni paas dwaar ka ek santari doosare santari ke khada hota hai. mere kavach ki do takhtiyon mein daraarein pad gayi. mainne ek aadmi par goli chalaai jo kile ki deevaar ke saath apni topi theek karta hua bhaag raha tha. usane apni topi chhod di aur dhaaeain se deevaar ke saath laga aur marate-marate apni pagadi ka kona apne haathon mein bator liya."

kuchh prushthabhoomi dene ke baad ve apne madhya Asia ke ek chhote se shaasak ke bante-bigdte bhaagya ka bakhaan karte hain, jismein unhonne samarakand do dafa jeeta aur haara aur fir 1504 mein Kabul kooch kar gaye. fir 1508 se 1519 ke kaal ke baare mein kitaab mein kuchh naheen hai. tab tak ve Kabul mein apni satta majboot kar chuke the aur vahaaain se unhonne pashchimottari Bhaarat par dhaava bola. baabaranaama ka antim bhaag 1525 se 1529 ke kaal mein Bhaarat mein mugl saamraajya ke neev rakhane ki gatividhiyon ka varnan karta hai, jispar aage chalakar baabar ke vanshajon ne teen sau saal raaj kiya.

vivran

  • aatmakatha: baabaranaama ko mukhyat: teen hisson mein baanta ja sakta hai. pehla daur 1494 mein faragaana ke raaja banane se lekar 1503 tak ka hai. is dauraan use apna paitrik raajya ganvaana pada. doosra daur 1504 mein Kabul ka shaasak banane se lekar 1525 tak ka daur hai. April, 1526 mein Delhi ka baadshah banane ke baad se lekar September,1529 tak Bhaarat ke poorvi hisson mein satta ka vistaar aatmakatha ka antim daur hai. baabaranaama ki paandulipi mein 1508 E se lekar 1519 tak ka vivran upalabdh naheen hai. baabaranaama mein darshaae gaye pratyek chitr ki khaasiyat yeh hai ki harek chitr ke beech mein, kabhi upar, kabhi neeche ya kahein kainavas ke khaali pade hisson mein jahaan jagah khaali bach rahi ho, vahaan faarasi mein tasveer ke baare mein jaankaari likhi hai. baabar ne apni kitaab mein kaha hai ki san 1504 E mein barfeele toofaan ke beech apne teen sau saathiyon ke saath maatrubhoomi faragaana se chalakar hindookush parvat ko paar karte hue usane Kabul mein pravesh kiya aur khud ko vahaan ka shaasak ghoshit kar diya. san 1511 E tak uske rai ki seemaaen taashakand se Kabul aur gajani tak fail gayi theen jiske tahat samarakand, gokhaara, hisaar, kunduj aur faragana shaamil the. chaaron taraf pahaadon se ghire Kabul ke falon ki usane badi taareef ki hai jismein angoor, anaar, khumaani, seb, naashapaati, ber, aaloobukhaara, anjeer aur akharot jaise falon ka vivran hai. baabar ne apni kitaab mein Afghanistan ki garm ghaati mein paida hone vaale ganne, santare aur galagal ke baare mein bhi likha hai. sansmaran mein Hindustan ki or se laae jaane vaale pashuon, gulaamon aur vastron ke alaava tarah tarah ke masaalon aur shakkar ka bhi jikr kiya gaya hai.[2]
  • anuvaad: baabar ne apni jeevani maatrubhaasha chaagataai (Turkey bhaasha ka puraana svarup) mein likhi thi. baad mein baabar ke pote Akbar ne tujuk-A-baabari ka faarasi bhaasha mein abdurraheem Khan-A-khaanaan dvaara hijri 998 (1589-90 E) mein anuvaad karaakar kitaab ko chitron se sajaaya|[3] Akbar ne Iran ke do mashahoor kalaakaaron meer sachcheed Ali aur abd-as-samad ko Hindustan aane ka nimantran bheja. in donon kalaakaaron ne sthaaneeya chitrakaaron ki madad se baabaranaama ke adbhut chitr banavaae. 145 chitron wala baabaranaama 1598 E mein bana. baabaranaama ke chitron se mugalakaaleen kala ki shuruaati jhalak milti hai. kaha jaata hai ki daulat, bhavaani, mansoor, sooradaas, miskeen, faarukh chola aur shankar jaise 47 kalaakaaron ki madad se paanch sachitr baabaranaama taiyaar kiye gaye. inmein se ek prati nai Delhi ke raashtreeya sangrahaalaya mein maujood hai jabki baaki chaar prati british myoojiym London, state myoojiym of istarn kalchar, Moscow aur London ke hi viktoriyl aur albart myoojiym mein rakhe hue hain. nai Delhi mein raashtreeya sangrahaalaya mein rakhi gayi baabaranaama ki sachitr pothi mein kul 378 panne hai aur inmein se 122 pannon par 144 chitr hain.[4]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Uzbekistan: the golden road to Samarkand, Calum MacLeod, Bradley Mayhew, Odyssey, 2008, ISBN 978-962-217-795-6, ... The colourful literature of the Baburnama reveals his deep interest in people and art. He wrote fondly of the natural and architectural beauties of Ferghana, Samarkand and Kabul. In verses of Chagatai Turkish he ranks high after Alisher ...
  2. itihaas mein kho gaya baabar ka khoobsoorat Afghanistan
  3. "raheem ki jeevani". http://www.poemhunter.com/abdur-rahim-khankhana/biography/poet-33381/. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-28.
  4. itihaas ke jharokhe se baabar