baabar

jaahir-ud-deen
mugal shaah, al-sultaanu i aazam va i hakaam, paadashaah-A-gaaji
बाबर
raajakaal 1526–1530
janm 1483
fragana ghaati
mrutyu 26 December, 1530
dafn prathamat: Agra, fir Kabul
poorvaadhikaari koi naheen
uttaraadhikaari humaayuain

jhir ud-din muhammad baabar (14 fravari 1483 - 26 December 1530) jo baabar ke naam se prasiddh hua, ek mugal shaasak tha jiska mool madhya Asia tha. vah Bhaarat mein mugal vansh ka sansthaapak tha. vo taimoor lang ka parapota tha aur vishvaas rakhata tha ki changej Khan uske vansh ka poorvaj tha. mubaiyaan naamak padya shaili ka janmadaata baabar ko maana jaata hai!

anukram

aaranbhik jeevan

Umar Shaykh Mirza, 1875-1900

baabar ka janm fragana ghaati ke andeejhaan naamak shahar mein hua tha jo ab ujbekistaan mein hai. vo apne pita umar shekh mirja, jo faragana ghaati ke shaasak the tatha jisko usane ek thigne kad ke tagade jism, maansal chehare tatha gol daadhi vaale vyakti ke roop mein varnit kiya hai, tatha maata kutalug nigaar khaanam ka jyeshth putr tha. haalaaainki baabar ka mool mangoliya ke barlaas kabeele se sambandhit tha par us kabeele ke logon par faarasi tatha turk janajeevan ka bahut asar raha tha, ve islaam mein parivrtit hue tatha unhone turkestaan ko apna vaasasthaan banaaya. baabar ki maatrubhaasha chagtaai bhaasha thi par faarasi, jo us samay us sthaan ki aam bolachaal ki bhaasha thi, mein bhi vo praveen tha. usane chaagataai mein baabaranaama ke naam se apni jeevani likhi.

mangol jaati (jise faarasi mein mugal kehte the) ka hone ke baavajood usaki janta aur anuchar turk tatha faarasi log the. usaki sena mein turk, faarasi, pashto ke alaava barlaas tatha madhya Asiaee kabeele ke log bhi the.

kaha jaata hai ki baabar bahut hi tagada aur shaktishaali tha. aisa bhi kaha jaata hai ki sirf vyaayaam ke liye vo do logon ko apne dono kandhon par laadakar unnayan dhaal par daud leta tha. lokakathaaon ke anusaar baabar apne raah mein aane waali sabhi nadiyon ko tair kar paar karta tha. usane ganga ko do baar tair kar paar kiya.[1]

naam

baabar ke chachere bhaai mirja muhammad haidar ne likha hai ki us samay, jab chaagataai log asabhya tatha asanskrut the tab unhe jhir ud-din muhammad ka uchchaaran kathin laga. is kaaran unhonne iska naam baabar rakh diya.

sainya jeevan

san 1494 mein 12varsh ki aayu mein hi use fragana ghaati ke shaasak ka pad saunpa gaya. uske chaachaaon ne is sthiti ka faayda uthaaya aur baabar ko gaddi se hata diya. kai saalon tak usane nirvaasan mein jeevan bitaaya jab uske saath kuchh kisaan aur uske sambandhi hi the. 1497 mein usane ujbek shahar samarakand par aakraman kiya aur 7 maheenon ke baad use jeet bhi liya. isi beech, jab vah samarakand par aakraman kar raha tha tab, uske ek sainik saragana ne fragana par apna adhiptya jama liya. jab baabar ispar vaapas adhikaar karne fragana aa raha tha to usaki sena ne samarakand mein usaka saath chhod diya jiske falasvaroop samarakand aur fragana donon uske haathon se chale gaye. san 1501 mein usane samarakand par pun: adhikaar kar liya par jald hi use ujbek Khan muhammad shaayabaani ne hara diya aur is tarah samarakand, jo uske jeevan ki ek badi khvaahish thi, uske haathon se fir vaapas nikal gaya.

faragana se apne chand vafaadaar sainikon ke saath bhaagane ke baad agale teen saalon tak usane apni sena banaane par dhyaan kendrit kiya. is kram mein usane badi maatra mein badakhshaan praant ke taajikon ko apni sena mein bharti kiya. san 1504 mein hindookush ki barfeeli chotiyon ko paar karke usane Kabul par apna niyantran sthaapit kiya. nae saamraajya ke milne se usane apni kismat ke sitaare khulne ke sapane dekhe. kuchh dinon ke baad usane heraat ke ek taimooravanshi husain baikarah, jo ki usaka door ka rishtedaar bhi tha, ke saath muhammad shaayabaani ke viruddh sahayog ki sandhi ki. par 1506 mein husain ki mrutyu ke kaaran aisa naheen ho paaya aur usane heraat par apna niyantran sthaapit kar liya. par do maheenon ke bheetar hi, saadhanon ke abhaav mein use heraat chhodna pada. apni jeevani mein usane heraat ko "buddhijeeviyon se bhare shahar" ke roop mein varnit kiya hai. vahaaain par use yuigoor kavi meer Ali shaah navaai ki rachanaaon ke baare mein pata chala jo chaagataai bhaasha ko saahitya ki bhaasha banaane ke paksh mein the. shaayad baabar ko apni jeevani chaagataai bhaasha mein likhne ki prerana unheen se mili hogi.

Kabul lautane ke do saal ke bheetar hi ek aur saragana ne uske khilaaf vidroh kiya aur use Kabul se bhaagna pada. jald hi usane Kabul par pun: apna niyantran sthaapit kar liya. idhar san 1510 mein faaras ke shaah ismaail pratham, jo safeevi vansh ka shaasak tha, ne muhammad shaayabaani ko haraakar usaki hatya kar daali. is sthiti ko dekhkar baabar ne heraat par pun: niyantran sthaapit kiya. iske baad usane shaah ismaail pratham ke saath madhya Asia par milkar adhiptya jamaane ke liye ek samjhauta kiya. shaah ismaail ki madad ke badle mein umane saafviyon ki shreshthata sveekaar ki tatha khud evam apne anuyaayiyon ko saafviyon ki prabhuta ke adheen samjha. iske uttar mein shaah ismaail ne baabar ko usaki bahan khaanajda se milaaya jise shaayabaani, jise shaah ismaail ne haal hi mein hara kar maar daala tha, ne kaid mein rakha hua tha aur usase vivaah karne ki balaat koshish kar raha tha. shaah ne baabar ko aish-O-aaraam tatha sainya hiton ke liye poori sahaayata di jiska jbaab baabar ne apne ko shiya parampara mein dhaal kar diya. usane shiya musalmaanon ke anuroop vastr pahanana aarambh kiya. shaah ismaail ke shaasan kaal mein faaras shiya musalmaanon ka gadh ban gaya aur vo apne aap ko saatavein shiya imaam moosa al kaajim ka vanshaj maanata tha. vahaaain sikke shaah ke naam mein dhalte the tatha masjid mein khutabe shaah ke naam se padhe jaate the haalaaainki kaabul mein sikke aur khutabe baabar ke naam se hi the. baabar samarakand ka shaasan shaah ismaail ke sahayogi ki haisiyat se chalaata tha.

shaah ki madad se baabar ne bukhaara par chadhaai ki. vahaaain par baabar, ek taimooravanshi hone ke kaaran, logon ki nazar mein ujbekon se muktidaata ke roop mein dekha gaya aur gaaainv ke gaaainv usako badhaai dene ke liye khaali ho gaye. iske baad faaras ke shaah ki madad ko anaavashyak samajhakar usane shaah ki sahaayata leni band kar di. October 1511 mein usane samarakand par chadhaai ki aur ek baar fir use apne adheen kar liya. vahaaain bhi usaka svaagat hua aur ek baar fir gaaainv ke gaaainv usako badhaai dene ke liye khaali ho gaye. vahaaain sunni mulasamaanon ke beech vah shiya vastron mein ekdam alag lag raha tha. haalaaainki usaka shiya huliya sirf shaah ismaail ke prati saamyata ko darshaane ke liye thi, usane apna shiya svaroop banaae rakha. yadyapi usane faaras ke shaah ko khush karne hetu sunniyon ka narasanhaar naheen kiya par usane shiya ke prati aastha bhi naheen chhodi jiske kaaran janta mein uske prati bhaari anaastha ki bhaavana fail gayi. iske falasvaroop, 8 maheenon ke baad, ujbekon ne samarakand par fir se adhikaar kar liya.

uttar Bhaarat par chadhaai

Delhi saltanat par khilji raajavansh ke patan ke baad araajakata ki sthiti bani hui thi. taimooralang ke aakraman ke baad saiyyadon ne sthiti ka faayda uthaakar Delhi ki satta par adhiptya kaayam kar liya. taimur lang ke dvaara Punjab ka shaasak banaae jaane ke baad khijr Khan ne is vansh ki sthaapana ki thi. baad mein lodi raajavansh ke afgaanon ne saiyyadon ko hara kar satta hathiya li thi.

Ibrahim lodi

baabar ko lagta tha ki Delhi saltanat par fir se taimooravanshiyon ka shaasan hona chaahiye. ek taimooravanshi hone ke kaaran vo Delhi saltanat par kabja karna chaahata tha. usane sultaan Ibrahim lodi ko apni ichha se avagat karaaya (spashteekaran chaahiye). Ibrahim lodi ke jabaab naheen aane par usane chhote-chhote aakraman karne aarambh kar diye. sabse pehle usane kandhaar par kabja kiya. idhar shaah ismaail ko turkon ke haathon bhaari haar ka saamana karna pada. is yuddh ke baad shaah ismaail tatha baabar, donon ne baaroodi hathiyaaron ki sainya mahatta samajhte hue iska upayog apni sena mein aarambh kiya. iske baad usane Ibrahim lodi par aakraman kiya. Panipat mein ladi gayi is ladaai ko Panipat ka pratham yuddh ke naam se jaante hain. ismein baabar ki sena Ibrahim lodi ki sena ke saamane bahut chhoti thi. par sena mein sangathan ke abhaav mein Ibrahim lodi yeh yuddh baabar se haar gaya. iske baad Delhi ki satta par baabar ka adhikaar ho gaya aur usane san 1526 mein mugalavansh ki neenv daali.

rajput

raana saanga ke netrutv mein rajput kaafi sangathit tatha shaktishaali ho chuke the. raajapooton ne ek bada-sa kshetr svatantr kar liya tha aur ve Delhi ki satta par kaabij hona chaahate the. baabar ki sena raajapooton ki aadhi bhi naheen thi. March 1529 mein khaanava ki ladaai raajapooton tatha baabar ki sena ke beech ladi gayi. raajapooton ka jeetna nishchit lag raha tha. par yuddh ke dauraan tomaron ne raana saanga ka saath chhod diya aur baabar se ja mile. iske baad raana saanga ko bhaagna pada aur ek aasaan-si lag rahi jeet uske haathon se nikal gayi. iske ek saal ke baad kisi mantri dvaara jhar khilaane kaaran raana saanga ki maut ho gayi aur baabar ka sabse bada dar uske maathe se tal gaya. iske baad baabar Delhi ki gaddi ka avivaadit adhikaari ban gaya. aane vaale dinon mein mugal vansh ne Bhaarat ki satta par 300 saalon tak raaj kiya.

baabar ke dvaara mugalavansh ki neenv rakhane ke baad mugalon ne Bhaarat ki sanskruti par apna amit chhaap chhodi.

khaanava ka yuddh 1527 mein mevaad ke shaasak raana saanga aur baabar ke madhya hua tha. is mein Ibrahim lodi ke bhaai mehamood lodi ne raana ka saath diya diya tha ismein raana saanga ki haar hui thi aur baabar ki vijay hui thi. yahi se baabar ne Bhaarat mein rahane ka nishchaya kiya is yuddh mein heen pratham baar baabar ne dharm yuddh jehaad ka naara diya isi yuddh ke baad baabar ne gaaji arthaat daani ki upaadhi li thi

antim din

kaha jaata hai ki apne putr humaayun ke beemaar padne par usane Allah se humaayuain ko svasthya karne tatha usaki beemaari khud ko diye jaane ki praarthana ki thi. iske baad baabar ka svaasthya bigad gaya aur antat: vo 1530 mein 48 varsh ki umr mein mar gaya. usaki ichha thi ki use Kabul mein dafnaaya jaae par pehle use Agra mein dafnaaya gaya. lagbhag nau varshon ke baad sherashaah soori ne usaki ichha poori ki aur use Kabul mein dafna diya.[2][3]

mugl samraaton ka kaalakram

बहादुर शाह द्वितीय अकबर शाह द्वितीय अली गौहर मुही-उल-मिल्लत अज़ीज़ुद्दीन अहमद शाह बहादुर रोशन अख्तर बहादुर रफी उद-दौलत रफी उल-दर्जत फर्रुख्शियार जहांदार शाह बहादुर शाह प्रथम औरंगज़ेब शाहजहाँ जहांगीर अकबर हुमायूँ इस्लाम शाह सूरी शेर शाह सूरी हुमायूँ

inhein bhi dekhein

baabar
taimoor vansh
janm: 14 fravari 1483 mrutyu: 26 December 1530
raajasi upaadhiyaaain
poorvaadhikaari
koi naheen
mugal samraat
1526-1530
uttaraadhikaari
humaayun

sandarbh

  1. A comprehensive history of medieval IndiaVolume 2 of A comprehensive history of India, Pran Nath Chopra, B.N. Puri, M.N. Das, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2003, ISBN 978-81-207-2508-9, ... Bold, courageous, energetic and adventurous, he was physically so strong that with one man under each arm, he could run along the rampart of a fort without any difficulty ...
  2. Babar: life and times, Muni Lal, Vikas Publishing House, 1977, ISBN 978-0-7069-0484-0, ... After Humayun had been driven away from Hindustan by Sher Shah Suri, one of Babar's wives, Bibi Mubarika, came to Agra to claim her husband's body and carry it through the passes to Kabul ...
  3. Two studies in early Mughal history, Yusuf Husain Khan, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1976, ... wish in his lifetime that his body should be buried in his favourite garden at Kabul, known as Bagh-i-Babur ... Most probably his remains were removed to Kabul in the reign of Sher Shah Suri ...