baaainsuri

duniya bhar se baansuriyon ka ek sankalan

baansuri kaashth vaadya parivaar ka ek sangeet upakaran hai. narakat vaale kaashth vaadya upakaranon ke vipreet, baansuri ek erofon ya bina narakat wala vaayu upakaran hai jo ek chhidr ke paar hava ke pravaah se dhvani utpann karta hai. hornabostal-saishs ke upakaran vargeekaran ke anusaar, baansuri ko teevr-aaghaat erofon ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai.

baansureevaadak ko ek floot player, ek flaautist, ek flootist, ya kabhi kabhi ek flootar ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

baansuri poorvakaaleen gyaat sangeet upakaranon mein se ek hai. kareeb 40,000 se 35,000 saal pehle ki tithi ki kai baansuriyaan Germany ke svaabiyn alb kshetr mein pai gayi hain. yeh baansuriyaan darshaati hain ki Europe mein ek viksit sangeet parampara aadhunik maanav ki upasthiti ke praarambhik kaal se hi astitv mein hai.[1]

anukram

itihaas

khoji gayi sabse puraani baansuri gufa mein rahane vaale ek tarun bhaaloo ki jaaaingh ki haddi ka ek tukada ho sakti hai, jismein do se chaar chhed ho sakte hain, yeh sloveniya ke divje beb mein pai gayi hai aur kareeb 43,000 saal puraani hai. haalaanki, is tathya ki praamaanikta aksar vivaadit rahati hai.[2][3] 2008 mein Germany ke ulm ke paas hohal fels guha mein ek aur kam se kam 35,000 saal puraani baansuri pai gayi.[4] is paaainch chhed waali baansuri mein ek vi-aakaar ka mukhapatr hai aur yeh ek giddh ke pankh ki haddi se bani hai. khoj mein shaamil shodhakartaaon ne apne nishkarshon ko August 2009 mein ''nechar'' naamak journal mein aadhikaarik taur par prakaashit kiya.[5] yeh khoj itihaas mein kisi bhi vaadya yantr ki sabse puraani maanya khoj bhi hai.[6] baansuri, paae gaye kai yantron mein se ek hai, yeh hohal fels ke shukr ke saamane aur praacheenatam gyaat maanav nakkaashi se thodi si doori par hohal fels ki gufa mein pai gayi thi.[7] khoj ki ghoshana par, vaigyaaniko ne sujhaav diya ki "jab aadhunik maanav ne Europe ko upinveshit shat kiya tha, khoj us samay ki ek sutasthaapit sangeet parampara ki upasthiti ko pradarshit karti hai".[8] vaigyaaniko ne yeh sujhaav bhi diya hai ki, baansuri ki khoj niyendarathels aur praarambhik aadhunik maanav "ke beech sanbhavat: vyavahaarik aur srujanaatmak khaadi" ko samajhaane mein sahaayata bhi kar sakti hai.[6]

memath ke daant se nirmit, 18.7 semi lambi, teen chhidron waali baansuri (dakshini jarman svaabiyn alb mein ulm ke nikat sthiti Geißaenklöasterle gufa se praapt hui hai aur iski tithi 30000 se 37,000 varsh poorv nishchit ki gayi hai)[9] 2004 mein khoji gayi thi aur do anya hans haddiyon se nirmit baansuriyaan jo ek dashak pehle khudaai mein praapt hui thi (Germany ki isi gufa se, jinki tithi lagbhag 36,000 saal poorv praapt hoti hai) praacheenatam gyaat vaadyayantron mein se hain.

paanch se aath chhidron waali nau hajaar varsh puraani gudi (shaabidak arth "haddi" baansuri), jinki nirmaan laal kalagi vaale kren ke pankh ki haddiyon se kiya gaya hai, ko madhya cheen ke ek praant hennan main sthit jiahu[10] ke ek makabare se khanit kiya gaya hai.[11]

12veen sadi ki song daayanesti se, baansuri bajaati hui cheeni mahilaaen, yeh hain ksijaai ki naait revalj ki remake thi jo mool roop se gu hongajhong dvaara thi (dasveen sadi).

praacheenatam prachalit aadi baansuri cheen ke hubei praant ke suijhau sthal par jeing ke maarakis yi ki kabr mein pai gayi ek chi () baansuri hai. yeh 433 E.poo. uttar jhaaoo vansh se sambandhit hai. yeh rogan kiye hue baans se bani hui band chhoron waali hoti hai tatha iske paanch chhidr sheersh ki or na hokar doosare chhor par hote hain. parampara ke anusaar, kanfyushiys ke dvaara sankalit evam sanpaadit shi jing mein chi baansuri ka varnan hai.

baaibil ki jenesis 4:21 mein jubal ko, "un sabhi ka pita jo ugab aur kinnaur bajaate hain", bataaya gaya hai. poorvavarti hibroo shabd kuchh vaayu vaadya yantron ya saamaanyat: vaayu yantron ko sandarbhit karta hai, uttaravarti ek taaradaar vaadya yantr ya saamaanyat: taaradaar vaadyayantr ko sandarbhit karta hai. ataev, joodiyo isaai parampara mein jubal ko baansuri (is baaibil pairaagraaf ke kuchh anuvaadon mein prayukt shabd) ka aavishkaarak maana jaata hai. pehle ke kuchh baansuri tibiyaas(ghutne ke neeche ki haddi) se bane hue the. bhaarateeya sanskruti evam puraanon mein bhi baansuri hamesha se aavashyak ang raha hai,[12] evam kuchh vrutaaton dvaara kraus baansuri ka udbhav Bhaarat[13][14] mein hi maana jaata hai kyonki 1500 E.poo. ke bhaarateeya saahitya mein kraus baansuri ka vistaar se vivran hai.[15]

baansuri dhvani vigyaan

jab yantr ke chhidr ke aar-paar vaayu dhaara pravaahit ki jaati hai, jisse chhidr par vaayu kanpan hone ke kaaran baansuri dhvani utpann karta hai.[16][17]

chhidr ke paar vaayu ek baranauli ya sifaun srujit karti hai jiska prabhaav vaun kaaraman vorataiks street tak hota hai. yeh baansuri mein saamaanyat: maujood belanaakaar anunaadi guhika mein vaayu ko uttejit karti hai. vaadak yantr ke chhidron ko khol evam band kar ke dhvani ke svar mein parivartan karta hai, is prakaar yeh anunaadi ki prabhaavi lanbaai evam iske sadrush anunaad aavrutti mein parivartan hota hai. vaayu daab mein parivartan ke dvaara evam kisi bhi chhidr ko khole aur band kiye bagair aadhaarbhoot aavrutti ke alaava bhi baansuri ko gunit svar par anuvaad ke dvaara vaadak svar mein bhi parivartan kar sakta hai.

adhik dhvani ke liye baansuri ko apekshaakrut bade anunaadak, badi vaayu dhaara ya bade vaayu dhaara veg ka prayog karna hoga. saamaanyat: baansuri ki aavaaj iske anunaadak aur dhvani chhidron ko badha karke badhaayi ja sakti hai. isliye police ki seeti, jo baansuri ka ek roop hai, apne svar mein bahut vistrut hoti hai evam iseeliye pipe aargan ek kansart baansuri ki tulana mein adhik tej aavaaj ka ho sakta hai: ek bade organ pipe mein kuchh kyoobik feet vaayu ho sakti hai evam iske dhvani chhidr kuchh chaude ho sakte hain, jabki kansart baansuri ki vaayu dhaara ki maap ek inch se thodi hi badi hoti hai.

vaayu dhaara ko ek uchit kon evam veg se pravaahit karna chaahiye anyatha baansuri mein vaayu mein kanpan naheen hoga. filipd ya nalika waali baansuriyon mein, sankshipt roop se gathit evam sthaapit vaayu maarg sikudega evam khuli khidki ke paar lebiym raimp kinaare tak vaayu pravaahit hogi. pipe organ mein, yeh vaayu ek niyantrit dhaukani (bloar) dvaara pravaahit hoti hai.

gair fipil baansuri mein vaayu dhaara nishchit roop mein vaadak ke hothon se pravaahit hoti hai jise inboshar kaha jaata hai. isse vaadak ko visheshakar fipil/ nalika baansuriyon ki tulana mein svar, dhvani va aavaaj ki abhivyakti ki vistrut shrankhala ki suvidha praapt hoti hai. haalaanki, isse nausikhiye vaadak ko rikaurdar jaise nalika baansuriyon ki tulana mein antim sire se bajne vaale ya anuprasth baansuriyon dvaara poori dhvani utpann karne mein paryaapt kathinaai hoti hai. anuprasth evam antim sire se bajne vaale baansuri ko bajaane ke liye adhik vaayu ki aavashyakta hoti hai jismein gahre shvasan ki aavashyakta hoti hai evam yeh chakreeya shvasan ko paryaapt jatil banaata hai.

saamaanyat: gunavatta ya "dhvani rang", jise svar kehte hain, mein parivartan hota hai kyonki baansuri kai bhaagon evam gahanataaon mein sur utpann kar sakte hain. dhvani-rang mein chhidr ki aantarik aakruti jaise ki shankvaakaar nok mein parivartan ke dvaara parivartan ya sudhaar kiya ja sakta hai. sur ek aavruti hai jo ek nimn rajistar poornaank gunak hai ya baansuri ka "aadhaarbhoot" not hai. saamaanyat: uchch sur uchch anshon ki utpatti mein vaayu dhaara patali (adhik roopon mein kanpan), teevr (vaayu ke anunaad ko uttejit karne ke liye adhik oorja upalabdh karaana) evam chhidr ke paar kam gahre (vaayu dhaara ka adhik chhichhle paraavartan hetu) pravaahit ki jaati hai.

dhvani vigyaan nishpaadan evam svar ke prati sheersh jod jyaamiti vishesh roop se jatil prateet hoti hai,[18] lekin utpaadakon ke madhya kisi vishesh aakaar ko lekar koi sarvasammati naheen hai. imaboshar chhidr ki dhvani vigyaan baadha sabse jatil maanadand prateet hoti hai.[19] dhvani vigyaan baadha ko prabhaavit karne vaale jatil kaarakon mein shaamil hain: chimni ki lanbaai (oth-plate aur sheersh nali ke madhya chhidr), chimni ka vyaas evam radi ya chimni ke ant sire ka ghumaav tatha vaadya yantr ke "gale " mein koi design pratibandh jaisa ki Japani nohakan baansuri mein.

ek adhyayan mein, jismein vyaavasaayik vaadakon ki aaainkh mein patti baandhi gayi, yeh paaya gaya ki ve vibhinn dhaatuon se bane vaadya yantron mein koi antar naheen khoj paaye.[20] aaainkh band karke sunane par pehli baar mein koi bhi vaadya yantr ki sahi pehchaan naheen kar paaya evam doosari baar mein keval chaaaindi yantr hi pahachaana ja saka. adhyayan ka yeh nishkarsh hai ki "deevaar ki saamagri ka yantr dvaara utpann dhvani svar ya gatij vistaar par koi gaur karne yogya prabhaav hone ka pramaan naheen mila". durbhaagyavash, yeh adhyayan sheershajod design par niyantran naheen karta jo ki saamaanyat: svar ko prabhaavit karne wala maana jaata hai (oopar dekhein). niyantrit svar pareekshan yeh darshaate hai ki nali ka dravyamaan parivartan utpann karta hai evam at: nali ghanatv evam deevaar ki motaai parivartan paida karegi.[21] hamein dhvani ki pehchaan hetu ilaiktraunik sanvedakon ki tulana mein maanav kaanon ki seemaaon ka bhi dhyaan rakhana chaahiye.

baansuri ki shreniyaaain

jempona, ek poorv inka upakaran aur pain baansuri ka prakaar bajaate hue.

apne aadhaaratam roop mein baansuri ek khuli nalika ho sakti hai jise botal ki tarah bajaaya jaata hai. baansuri ki kuchh vistrut shreniyaan hain. jyaadaatar baansuriyon ko sangeetakaar ya vaadak oth ke kinaaron se bajaata hai. haalaanki, kuchh baansuriyon, jaise vissal, jaimashorn, flaijiolait, rikaardar, tin vissal, tonet, fujaara evam okaarina mein ek nali hoti hai jo vaayu ko kinaare tak bhejati hai ("fipil" naamak ek vyavastha). inhein fipil floot kaha jaata hai. fipil, yantr ko ek vishisht dhvani deta hai jo gair-fipil flooton se alag hoti hai evam yeh yantr vaadan ko aasaan banaata hai, lekin is par sangeetakaar ya vaadak ka niyantran kuchh kam hota hai.

bagal se (athva aadi) bajaayi jaane waali baansuriyon jaise ki pashchimi sangeet baansuri, pikolo, faaif, diji evam baansuri evam sire se bajaaye jaane waali baansuriyon, jaise ki ne, jiaao, kaval, daanso, shaakuhaachi, anaasaaji floot evam kveena ke madhya ek aur vibhaajan hai. bagal se bajaai jaane vaale baansuriyon mein nalika ke antim sire se bajaaye jaane ki ke sthaan par dhvani utpann karne ke liye nalika ke bagal mein chhed hota hai. antim sire se bajaaye jaane waali baansuriyon ko fipil baansuri naheen samajh lena chaahiye jaise ki rikaurdar, jo oordhvavat bajaaye jaate hain lekin inmein ek aantarik nali hoti hai joki dhvani chhed ke sire tak vaayu bhejati hai.

baansuri ek ya donon siron par khule ho sakte hain. okaarina, jun, pain paaips, police seeti evam bosun ki seeti ek sire par band (kloj ended) hoti hai. sire par khuli baansuri jaise ki kansart-baansuri evam rikaurdar jyaada sureele hote hain ataev vaadak ke liye bajaane mein adhik lochasheel tatha adhik chatakh dhvani vaale hote hain. ek organ pipe vaanchhit dhvani ke aadhaar par khula ya band ho sakta hai.

baansuriyon ko kuchh vibhinn vaayu stroton se bajaaya ja sakta hai. paramparaagat baansuri muainh se bajaayi jaati hain, yadyapi kuchh sanskrutiyon mein naak se bajaayi jaane waali baansuri prayog hoti hai. organ ke flu paaipon ko, joki nalika baansuri se dhvanik roop mein samaan hote hain, dhaukani ya pankhon ke dvaara bajaaya jaata hai.

vaistarn kansart baansuri

pashchimi sangeet sammalen baansuri ka ek chitr.

vaistarn kansart baansuri, 19veen sadi ke jarman baansuri ka vanshaj hai. yeh ek aadhi ya anuprasth baansuri hai joki sheersh par band hoti hai. iske sheersh ke najadeek ek daraaranuma chhed hota hai jisse vaadak bajaata hai. baansuri mein golaakaar dhvani chhidr hote hain joki iske baarok poorvajon ke anguli chhidr se bade hote hain. dhvani chhidr ka aakaar evam sthiti, pramukh kaaryapranaali, evam baansuri ke vistaar mein nots ko utpann karne ke liye anguli ke prayog ka vikaas 1832 se 1847 ke madhya thiobaald boham ne kiya tha evam yantr ke gatij vistaar evam taan (dhvani ka utaar chadhaav) mein unke uttaraadhikaariyon ne mahaan sudhaar kiya.[22] kuchh parishkaaron ke saath (kingama pranaali evam anya paramparaagat roop se sveekrut anguli pranaaliyon ko virl apavaad svaroop chhodkar) vaistarn kansart baansuri moolat: boham ki design tak hi seemit rahe evam boham pranaali ke naam se jaane jaate hai.

staindard kansart baansuri ko saptak si svar mein svar baddh kiya gaya hai evam iska vistaar madhya si (ya dhed paayadaan neeche, jab bi foot ko yantr ke saath joda gaya ho) se praarambh hokar teesare saptak tak jaata hai. iska taatparya hai ki kansart baansuri sarvaadhik prachalit aarkestra yantron mein se ek hai, iska apavaad pikolo hai jo ek saptak oopar bajata hai. ji Alto evam si baans baansuri ka prayog yada-kada hi hota hai evam inhein kramash: poorn chaturth saptak evam kansart baansuri se ek saptak neeche svarabaddh kiya gaya hai. baans ki tulana mein Alto baansuri ke ansh adhik likhe jaate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] kauntraabaas, double kauntraabaas evam haaiparabaas kuchh anya virle baansuri roop hain jinhein madhya saptak se kramash: do, teen aur chaar saptak neeche svarabaddh kiya gaya hai.

samay-samay par baansuri aur pikolo ke anya aakaaron ka prayog hota hai. aadhunik svar baddh pranaali ka ek virla yantr trebal ji baansuri hai. yantr puraane svar maanakon ke anusaar banaaya gaya hai, jiska prayog saiddhaantik roop se vind-band sangeet sahit di bi pikolo, eb soparaano baansuri (vartamaan kansart si baansuri ke samakaksh praathamik yantr), ef Alto baansuri evam bi bi baas baansuri mein hota hai.

bhaarateeya baans nirmit baansuri

ek karnaatakeeya aath-chhidr waali baans ki baansuri.
aath chhidr waali vishesh roop se karnaatakeeya sangeet mein prayog ki jaane waali shaastreeya bhaarateeya baans ki baansuri.
chitr:Nityanand.jpg
ek bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet kalaakaar dvaara bajaai jaane waali baansuri.

bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet mein baans se nirmit baansuri ek mahatvapoorn yantr hai jiska vikaas pashchimi baansuri se svatantr roop se hua hai. hindu Bhagwan Krishna ko paramparaagat roop se baansuri vaadak maana jaata hai (neeche dekhein). pashchimi sanskaranon ki tulana mein bhaarateeya baansuri bahut saadhaaran hain; ve baans dvaara nirmit hote hain evam chaabi rahit hoti hain.[23]

mahaan bhaarateeya baansuri vaadak pannaalaal ghosh ne sarvapratham chhote se lok vaadyayantr ko baans baansuri (saat chhidron wala 32 inch lamba) mein parivrdhit karke ise paramparaagat bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet bajaane yogya banaaya tha tatha ise anya shaastreeya sangeet vaadya-yantron ke kad ka banaaya tha. atirikt chhidr ne madhyam bajaana sambhav banaaya, jo ki kuchh paramparaagat raagon mein meendaj (M N, pi M evam M di ki tarah) ko saral banaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet ki dhunon aur sookshmata ko bhaleebhaanti prakat karne ke liye pandit raghunaath prasanna ne baansuri vaadan ke kshetr mein vibhinn takaneekon ka vikaas kiya hai. vaastav mein unhonne apne swayam ke parivaar sadasyon ko prashikshan ke dvaara apne gharaane ko majaboot aadhaar pradaan kiya. is gharaane ke shishyon mein pandit bholaanaath prasanna, pandit hari prasaad chaurasiya, pandit Rajendra prasanna vishvabhar mein apne madhur sangeet ke liye prasiddh hain.

bhaarateeya kansart baansuri maanak svarabaddh lahariyon (pichon) par upalabdh hain. Karnataka sangeet mein in svarabaddh lahariyon ko number ke dvaara jaana jaata hai jaise ki (si ko svar maanate huye) 1 (si ke liye), 1-1/2 (si#), 2 (di), 2-1/2 (di#), 3 (E), 4 (ef), 4-1/2 (ef#), 5 (ji), 5-1/2 (ji#), 6 (A), 6-1/2 (A#) evam 7(bi). haalaanki kisi rachana ka svar apne aap mein niyat naheen hai at: kansart ke liye kisi bhi baansuri ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai (jab tak ki sangat vaadyayantr, yadi ho, bhaleebhaanti svar baddh na ho jaaye) evam yeh mukhyat: kalaakaar ki vyaktigat pasand par nirbhar karta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

bhaarateeya baansuri ke do mukhya prakaaron ka vartamaan mein prayog ho raha hai. pratham, baansuri hai, jismein anguliyon hetu chhah chhidr evam ek daraaranuma chhidr hota hai evam jiska prayog mukhyat: uttar Bhaarat mein hindustaani sangeet mein kiya jaata hai. doosari, venu ya pulanagujhaal hai, jismein aath anguli chhidr hote hain evam jiska prayog mukhya roop se dakshin Bhaarat mein Karnataka sangeet mein kiya jaata hai. vartamaan mein Karnataka sangeet baansuri vaadakon dvaara saamaanyat: aarapaar anguli takaneek se chalne vaale aath chhidron vaale baansuri ka prayog kiya jaata hai. is takaneek ka praarambh 20veen shataabdi mein ti. aar. mahaalingam ne kiya tha. tab iska vikaas bi N suresh evam dau॰ N. ramaani ne kiya[krupaya uddharan jodein]. iske pehle, dakshin bhaarateeya baansuri mein keval saat anguli chhidr hote the jiske anguli maanadandon ka vikaas 20veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein pallaadam school ke sharaaba shaastri dvaara kiya gaya tha.[24]

baansuri ki dhvani ki gunavatta kuchh had tak use banaane mein prayukt huye vishesh baans par nirbhar karti hai evam yeh saamaanyat: sveekrut hai ki sarvashreshth baans dakshin Bhaarat ke naagarakoil kshetr mein paida hote hain.[25]

cheeni baansuri

cheeni baansuri ko "di" (笛) kaha jaata hai. cheen mein di ki kai kismein hain jo bhinn aakaar, dhaanche (anunaad jhilli sahit/rahit) evam chhidr sankhya (6 se 11) tatha aalaap (vibhinn chaabiyon mein vaadan) ki hain. jyaadaatar baans ki bani hui hain. cheeni baansuri ki ek khaas visheshata ek chhidr par anunaad jhilli ka chadha hona hai jo nali ke andar vaayu column ko kanpit karti hai. is baansuri se mukhar dhvani praapt hoti hai. aadhunik cheeni orkestra mein saadhaaranat: paaye jaane vaale baansuriyon mein bangadi (梆aa笛), kyoodi (曲aa笛), jindi (新aa笛), daadi (大aa笛) aadi shaamil hain. anuprasth ya aade bajaaye jaane vaale baans ko "jiyaao" (簫) kehte hain joki cheen mein vaayu yantr ki bhinn shreni hai.

Japani baansuri

Japani baansuri ko foo kehte hain jinmein badi sankhya mein Japan ke sangeetamaya baansuri shaamil hain.

siring

siring (jise blal bhi kaha jaata hai) tulanaatmak roop se chhota evam antim sire se bajaaye jaane waali baansuri hai jismein naak dvaara utpann svar ki gunavatta hoti hai[26] evam pikolo ka svar hota hai[krupaya uddharan jodein] jo poorv Armenia ke kaukaasas kshetr mein paaya jaata hai. yeh lakdi ya beint ka bana hota hai jismein saamaanyat: saat anguli chhidr evam ek angootha chhidr hota hai[26] jo dvi svar utpann karta hai. siring ka prayog gadriyon dvaara apne kaarya se sambandhit dhvaniyon evam sanketon ko utpann karne tatha sangeetamaya prem geeton, jinhein chhaban bayaati kaha jaata hai, ke saath - saath kramabadv khandon ke liye kiya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] siring ka prayog def aur dhol ke saath nrutya hetu sangeet upalabdh karaane ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ek aarmeniyaai sangeetajnya yeh maanata hai ki siring mein raashtreeya aarmeniyaai yantron ke sabhi gun maujood hain.[27]

yeh bhi dekhein

  • dipl
  • aayarish baansuri
  • plenadeg
  • chhota piyaano
  • pipe aur taabor
  • rikaardar
  • tin ki seeti
  • vaashint
  • kaaval

sandarbh

  1. Wilford, John N. (June 24, 2009). "Flutes Offer Clues to Stone-Age Music". The New York Times 459: 248. doi:10.1038/nature07995. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/25/science/25flute.html. abhigman tithi: June 29, 2009.
  2. Tenenbaum, David (June 2000). "Neanderthal jam". The Why Files. University of Wisconsin, Board of Regents. http://whyfiles.org/114music/4.html. abhigman tithi: 14 March 2006.
  3. Flute History, you si L A (UCLA). pun: praapt June 2007.
  4. BBC: 'Oldest musical instrument' found
  5. Nicholas J. Conard, Maria Malina, and Susanne C. Müanzel (August 2009). "New Flutes Document the Earliest Musical Tradition in Southwestern Germany". Nature 460 (7256): 737–40. doi:10.1038/nature08169. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 19553935.
  6. a aa "'Oldest musical instrument' found". BBC news. 2009-06-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8117915.stm. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-26.
  7. "Music for cavemen". MSNBC. 2009-06-24. http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2009/06/24/1976108.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-26.
  8. "Flutes Offer Clues to Stone-Age Music". The New York Times. 2009-06-24. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/25/science/25flute.html?_r=1&partner=rss&emc=rss. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-26.
  9. "Archeologists discover ice age dwellers' flute". CBC Arts (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). 2004-12-30. Archived from the original on 2006-11-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20061116042750/http://www.cbc.ca/arts/story/2004/12/30/flute-prehistoric041230.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-21.
  10. The bone age flute. BBC (BBC). pun: praapt July 2007.
  11. Zhang, Juzhong; Xiao, Xinghua, Lee, Yun Kuen (December 2004). "The early development of music. Analysis of the Jiahu bone flutes". Antiquity 78 (302): 769–778. http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/078/Ant0780769.htm.
  12. Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pa॰ 125. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0852297602. http://books.google.com/books?id=AE_LIg9G5CgC.
  13. Chaturvedi, Mamta (2001). How to Play Flute & Shehnai. New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pa॰ 7. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8128814761. http://books.google.com/books?id=0rz8rvUOmSwC.
  14. Morse, Constance (1968). Music and Music-makers. New Hampshire: Ayer Publishing. pa॰ 7. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0836907248. http://books.google.com/books?id=XEXWVhtcuJ4C.
  15. Arvey, Verna (2007). Choreographic Music for the Dance. London: Read Country Books. pa॰ 36. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1406758477. http://books.google.com/books?id=GOwFSQkpfNsC.
  16. Flute acoustics, you N S dabalyoo (UNSW). pun: praapt June 2007.
  17. Wolfe, Joe. "Introduction to flute acoustics". UNSW Music Acoustics. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/flute/. abhigman tithi: 16 January 2006.
  18. Spell, Eldred (1983). "Anatomy of a Headjoint". The Flute Worker. ISSN 0737-8459. http://eldredspellflutes.com/Articles.htm.
  19. Wolfe, Joe. "Acoustic impedance of the flute". Flute acoustics: an introduction. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~jw/fluteacoustics.html#acousticimpedance.
  20. Widholm, G.; Linortner, R., Kausel, W. and Bertsch, M. (2001). "Silver, gold, platinum—aaand the sound of the flute". Proc. International Symposium on Musical Acoustics: 277–280. http://iwk.mdw.ac.at/Forschung/english/linortner/linortner_e.htm.
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  22. boham 1964, 8-12.
  23. Arnold, Alison (2000). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. London: Taylor & Francis. pa॰ 354. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0824049462. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZOlNv8MAXIEC.
  24. Caudhurī, Vimalakāanta Rôaya; Roychaudhuri, Bimalakanta (2000). The Dictionary of Hindustani Classical Music. Kolkata: Motilal Banarsidass Publication. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8120817087. http://books.google.com/books?id=gQWLa--IHjIC.
  25. Abram, David; Guides, Rough; Edwards, Nick; Ford, Mike; Sen, Devdan; Wooldridge, Beth (2004). The Rough Guide to South India 3. London: Rough Guides. pp. 670,671. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1843531038. http://books.google.com/books?id=sEhJBfbhTAAC.
  26. a aa pahalevaniyn 2001
  27. komeetaas 1994[page needed]

granth soochi

  • boham, thiobaald 1964. the flyoot end flyoot-pleing in ekaasateekal, tekanikl, end aartistik aaspekts, semuyal beraun dvaara nae praakkathan ke saath detan si. Miller dvaara anuvaadit. new yaark: daavar pabalikeshanas. I S bi N (ISBN) O-486-21259-9
  • bukaanan, dona A. 2001. "bulgaariya § dviteeya: paaramparik sangeet, 2: poorv-samaajavaadi sangeet sanskruti ke lakshan, 1800-1944, (iii): insatroomeints". the new groov dikshanari of myoojik end myoojeeshiynaj, Ed. S. sedi end J. tirel. London: maikamiln.
  • kren, fredarik. 1972. eksateint midiviyl musical instroomeints: a provijnal kaitaalog bye taaips lova shahar: lova vishvavidyaalaya press. I S bi N (ISBN) 0-87745-022-6
  • gaalve, James. 1982. flyoot yehudi menuhin sangeet maargadarshikaaeain. London: mekadonaald I S bi N (ISBN) 0356047113 (kapda); I S bi N (ISBN), 0356047121 (peebeeke.) new yaurk: skeemar pustakein. I S bi N (ISBN) 002871380X 1990 mein dubaara mudrit, London: khaan aur averil London: Khan evam averill I S bi N (ISBN) 1871082137
  • komitaas, verdaapet. 1994. Grakan nshkhark' Komitas Vardapeti beghun grch'ēan: npast mē Komitas Vardapeti srbadasman harts'in, ebal oghlukiyn dvaara sanpaadit. montrial: Ganatahayots' Aṛaajnordarani "K'ristonēaaakan Usman ew Astuatsabanut'ean Kedron".
  • pahaleveniyn, aleena. 2001. "Armenia §aI: lok sangeet, 3: mahaakaavya". the new groov dikshanari of myoojik end myoojeeshiynaj Ed. S. sedi end J. tirel. London: maikamiln.
  • felan, James, the kanpleet guide too the [floot end pikolo] (burkaart-felan, ink., 2004)
  • putanik, edavin. 1970. the Art of floot pleing . ivaansatan, ilinois: sami-birkaard ink. sanshodhit sanskaran 1973, prinsatan, new jersey aur ivaansatan, ilinois. I S bi N (ISBN) 0874870771
  • tof, nainsi. 1985. the floot book: a kanpleet guide faur students end parformaraj New York: Charles skribnarj sons. I S bi N (ISBN) 0684182416 nyootan: abot Dawood aur Charles. I S bi N (ISBN) 0715387715 doosra sanskaran 1996, New York: Oxford university press. I S bi N (ISBN) 0195105028
  • vaai, trevar. 1988. propar floot pleing: a kamperijn too the prektis books . London: novelo. I S bi N (ISBN) 0711984654

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