avesta

jis bhaasha ke maadhyam ka aashray lekar jarathustr dharm (paaras (iraan) ka mool dharm) ka vishaal saahitya nirmit hua hai use avesta kehte hain. avesta ya "jeind avesta" naam se bhi dhaarmik bhaasha aur dharm granthon ka bodh hota hai. upalabdh saahitya mein iska pramaan naheen milta ki painganbar athva unke samakaaleen anuyaayiyon ke lekhan athva bolachaal ki bhaasha ka naam kya tha. parantu parampara se yeh siddh hai ki us bhaasha aur saahitya ka bhi naam "avistak" tha. anumaan hai ki is shabd ke mool mein "vid" (jaanana) dhaatu hai jiska abhipraaya gyaan athva buddhi hai.

itihaas

bahut praacheen kaal mein aarya jaati apne praacheen aavaas "aarya vajeh" (aaryon ki aadibhoomi) mein raha karti thi jo sudoor uttari pradesh mein avasthit tha "jahaaain ka varsh ek din ke baraabar" hota tha. us sthaan ko nishchayaatmak roop se batala paana kathin hai. baal gangaadhar tilk ne apne granth "di aarkatik hom" mein is bhoomi ko uttari dhruv pradesh mein batalaaya hai jahaaain se aaryon ne paameer ki shrrukhanla mein pravaas kiya. bahut samay paryant ek sugathit jan ke roop mein ve ek sthaan mein rahe, ek hi bhaasha bolte, vishvaason, reetiyon aur paranparaaon ka samaan roop se paalan karte rahe. janasankhya mein vruddhi tatha uttari pradesh ke sheet tatha anya kaaranon ne unki shrrunkhala chhinn-bhinn kar di. aaryajan ke vividh kulon mein do kulon ke log, jo aage chalakar bhaarateeya (Indian) aur Irani shaakhaaon ke naam se vikhyaat hue, poorvi Iran mein deergh kaal tak aur niktatam sampark mein rahe. aage chalakar ek jatthe ne hindookush ki parvamaala paar kar Punjab ke lagbhag 2000 E.poo. pravesh kiya. shesh jan aaryon ki aadibhoomi ki parampara ka nirvaah karte hue Iran mein hi rah gaye. avestaas, visheshat:avesta ke gaathaasaahitya aur vaidik sanskrut mein niktatam samaanata vartamaan hai. bhed keval dhvanyaatmak (fonetik) aur niruktagat (leksikograafikl) hain. do bahan bhaashaaon ke vyaakaran aur rachanaakram (sintaiks) mein bhi nikat saamya hai.

Iran aur Bhaarat donon hi deshon mein lekhan ke aavishkaar ke poorv maukhik parampara vidyamaan thi. avesta granthon mein maukhik shabdon, chhandon, svaron, bhaashyon evam prashnon aur uttaron ka ullekh hua hai. ek granth (yasn, 29.8) mein ahuramajd apne sandeshavaahak jrathustr ko vaani ki sampatti pradaan karte hain kyonki "maanav jaati mein keval unhonne hi daivi sandesh praapt kiya tha jinhein maanavon ke beech le jaana tha." gyaan ke devata ne unhein sachcha "athravan" (purohit) kaha hai jo saari raat dhyaanaavasthit rahakar aur adhyayan mein samay bitaakar seekhe gaye paath ko janta ke beech le jaate hain. praacheen Bhaarat ke braahmanon ki tarah athravan hi praacheen Iran mein shiksha tatha dharmopadesh ke ekaamatr adhikaari samajhe jaate the. in puraahiton mein vanshaanugat roop mein dharmagranthon ki maukhik parampara chali aaya karti thi.

paiganbar ke stavan gaathaaeain gaatha mein, jo bolachaal ki bhaasha thi, paae jaate hain aur janashruti tatha shaastreeya saahitya ke anusaar jrathustr ko anek granthon ka rachayita batalaaya jaata hai. arab itihaasakaaron ka kathan hai ki ye grath 12,000 gaaya ke charmon par ankit the. praacheen Irani tatha aadhunik paarasi lekhakon ke anusaar painganbar ne 21 "nask" athva granth likhe the. aisa kaha jaata hai ki samraat vishtaasp ne do yathaatathya anulekh in granthon ka karaakar do pustakaalayon mein sangruheet kiya tha. ek anulekhavaali saamagri agni mein bhasm ho gayi jab parsaapaalis ka raajapraasaad sikandar ne jala diya aur doosari anulekh ki samagri saahityik vivranon ke aadhaar par vijeta sainik apne desh ko lete gaye jahaaain usaka anuvaad yoonaani bhaasha mein hua. praarambhik sasaani kaal mein sangraheet ye bikhre hue granth fir saataveen shati mein Irani saamraajya ke hraas ke kaaran vilupt hokar kul saahitya vartamaan samay mein lagbhag 83,000 padyon mein upalabdh rah gaya hai jab ki maulik padyon ki sankhya 20,00,000 theen, jiske baare mein plini ka kathan hai ki mahaan daarshanik harmippas ne isa ki shataabdi ke praarambh se teen shati poorv adhyayan kar daala tha.

avesta bhaasha ka dheere-dheere akhaamani saamraajya ke hraas ke kaaran utpann hue Iran mein uthal-puthal ke kaaran hraas praarambh ho gaya. jab usaka prachaar bilkul lupt ho gaya, avesta granthon ke anuvaad aur bhaashya "pahalavi" bhaasha mein prastut kiye jaane lage. is bhaasha ki utpatti isi kaal mein hui jo sasaaniyon ki raajabhaasha ban gayi. un bhaashyon ko pahalavi mein jeind kaha jaata hai aur vyaakhyaaeain ab "avestak-u-jeind athva avesta tatha uske bhaashya ke naam se vikhyaat hain. vipryaya se isi ko "jeind-avesta" kaha gaya. anumaan kiya gaya hai ki dhaarmik vishyon par rachit pahalavi granth, jo vinaash se bache rahe unki shabdasankhya 4,46,000 ke lagbhag hogi.

pahalavi ka prachaar aadhunik paarasi varnamaala ke praarambh se bilkul kam ho gaya. usaka likhit svaroop aarya evam saami banaavat ka mishran tha. saami shabdon ko hataakar unke sthaanon mein unka Irani paryaayavaachi shabd rakhakar usaka saadharaneekan kiya gaya tha. kaalaantar mein pahalavi granthon ko jab samajhaane ki aavashyakta ka anubhav kiya gaya, hujvar shabdon ko hataakar unke sthaan par Irani paryaayavaachi rakhakar durooh pahalavi bhaasha bhi seedhi banaai gayi. apekshaakrut saral ki gayi bhaasha aur aage rachit bhaashya evam vyaakhyaaeain "pajnd" (avesta ki painti-jainti) ke naam se vikhyaat hui. pajnd ke granth avesta varnamaalaaon mein ankit hue jis prakaar Iran mein arabi varnamaala ke saath pahalavi lipi ka hraas hua.

pajnd bhaasha hi aage chalakar pahalavi tatha aadhunik faarasi ke beech ki kadi bani. antim jrathustr saamraajya ke hraas ke anantar vijetaaon ki arabi lipi ne avesta ki pahalavi lipi ko utkshipt kar diya. arabi akshar aadhunik faarasi varnamaala ke akshar maan liye gaye jiska prachaar hua. grantharachana jab avesta mein hoti thi to use "pajnd" kehte the aur jab pustak arabi aksharon mein lipibddh hone lagi, use "paarasi" kehne lag gaye.

avesta ke jo granth paiganbar ke anuyaayiyon ke paas avashisht hain apne saami roop mein paae jaate hain. ve aise aksharon mein milte hain jo sasaani pahalavi se liye gaye hain, jinka mool aadhaar sambhavat: praacheen aramek varnamaala ka koi na koi prakaar hai. yeh lipi daahini or se baai or ko likhi jaati hai aur ismein praaya: 50 bhinn chihnon (saains) ka samaavesh paaya jaata hai.

jrathustr mataavalanbi Iran lagbhag paaainch shati paryant silyoosid aur paarthiyn shaasanon ke antargat raha. dhaarmik granthon ki maukhik vanshakramaanugat parampara ne luptapraaya granthon ke puraruddhaar ke kaarya ko saral kar diya. sasaani saamraajya ke sansthaapak ardashir ne vidvaan purohit tanasar ke bikhre hue sootron ko, jo maukhik roop se prachalit the, ek praamaanik sangrah mein nibddh karne ka aadesh kiya tha. granthon ki khoj shaapur dviteeya (309-379 E.) ke raajatvakaal paryant hoti rahi jismein prasiddh dastoor adarabaad maharaspand ki sahaayata saraahaneeya hai.

avesta saahitya

avesta yug ki rachanaaon mein praarambh se lekar 200 E. tak tithikram se aanevaali sarvapratham rachanaaeain "gaathaaeain" hain jinki sankhya paaainch hai. avesta saahitya ke ve hi mool granth hain jo paiganbar ke bhaktisootr hain aur jinmein unka maanav ka tatha aitihaasik roop pratibinbit hai, na ki kaalpanik vyakti ka, jaisa ki baad mein kuchh lekhakon ne apne ajnyaaan ke kaaran unhein abhivyakt karne ki cheshta ki hai. unki bhaasha baad ke saahitya ki apeksha adhik aarsh hai aur vaakyavinyaas (sintaiks), shaili evam chhand mein bhi bhinn hai kyonki unki rachana ka kaal vidvaanon ne praacheenatam vaidik mantron ki rachana ka samay nirdhaarit kiya hai. nape tule svaron mein rache hone ke kaaran ve sasvar paath ke liye hi hain. unamein na keval goodh aadhyaatmik rahasyaanubhootiyaaain vartamaan hain, ve vishyapradhaan hi na hokar vyaktipradhaan bhi hain jinmein paiganbar ke vyaktitv ki vishesh roop se charcha ki gayi hai, unke ishvar ke saath taadaatmya sthaapit karne aur us vishesh avastha ke parijnyaaan ke liye vaanchhaneeya aasha, niraasha, harsh, vishaad, bhaya, utsaah tatha apne mataanuyaayiyon ke prati sneh aur shatruon se sangharsh aadi bhaavon ka bhi samaavesh paaya jaata hai. yadyapi pruthvi par k manushya ka jeevan vaasana se ghira hua hai, paiganbar ne is prakaar shiksha di hai ki yadi manushya vaasana ka nirodh kar saatvik jeevan vyateet kare to usaka kalyaan avashyabhaavi hai.

gaathaaon ke baad "yasn" aate hain jinmein 72 adhyaaya hain jo "kushti" ke 72 sootron ke prateek hain. kushti kamaraband ke roop mein buni jaati hai jise pratyek jrathustr mataavalanbi "soodr" athva pavitra kurta ke saath dhaarana karta hai jo dharm ka baahya prateek hai. yasn utsav ke avsar par pooja sambandhi "vispaarad" naamak 23 adhyaaya ka granth padha jaata hai. iske baad sankhya mein 23 "yashton" ka sangaayan kiya jaata hai jo stuti ke gaan hain aur jinke vishay ahumarajd tatha amesh-speint, jo daivi gyaan evam ishvar ke visheshan hain aur "yajta", poojya vyakti jinka sthaan amesh speint ke baad hain.

avesta kaal ke dhaarmik granthon ki soochi ke ant mein "veindeedaad", "videvo daat" (raakshason ke viruddh kaanoon) ka ullekh hua hai. yeh kaanoon vishyak ek dharmapustak hai jismein 22 "faragarad" ya adhyaaya hain. iske pradhaan vanrya vishay is prakaar hain--ahuramajd ki rachana tatha angr mainyu ki prati rachanaaeain, krushi, samay, shapath, yuddh, vaasana, apavitrata, shuddhi evam daahasanskaar.

praacheen paarasi rachanaakaal (800 E.poo. se lagbhag 200 E.) ke beech likhit saahitya ka sarvatha abhaav tha. us samay keval keelaakshar (kyooneefaurm) abhilekh bhar the jinmein hakhaamani samraaton ne apne aadesh ankit kar rakhe the. unki bhaasha avesta se milti hai, parantu lipi se baabuli aur aseeriyn utpatti ka anumaan haata hai.

pahalavi yug (isa ki pratham sheeti se lekar naveen shati tak) mein kai prasiddh pustakein likhi gain jaise "bundahishn" jismein srushti ki utpatti di hui hai, "dinkard" jismein bahut se naitik aur saamaajik prashnon ki meemaansa ki gayi hai, "shaayast-l-shaayast" jo saamaajik aur dhaarmik reetiyon evam sanskaaron ka varnan karta hai, "shkand" gumaani vijr" (sandehanivaanaarthak manjoosha) jismein vaasana ki utpatti ki samasya ka vivechan kiya gaya hai tatha "sad dar" jismein vividh dhaarmik aur saamaajik prashnon ki vyaakhya ki gayi hai.

aadhunik paarasi varnamaala ke aavishkaar se pahalavi ka prachaar lupt ho ga. jrathustr mat ke granth bhi ab praaya: aadhunik faarasi mein likhe jaane lag gaye.

baahari kadiyaaain