avastaai bhaasha

avastaai bhaasha mein anuhaavaiti gaatha ka yasn 28.1

avastaai ek poorvi Irani bhaasha hai jiska gyaan aadhunik yug mein keval paarasi dharm ke granthon, yaani avasta, ke dvaara pahuainch paaya hai. itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ke madhya Asia ke baiktriya aur maargu kshetron mein sthit yaaj sanskruti mein yeh bhaasha ya iski upabhaashaaeain 1500-1100 isaapoorv ke kaal mein boli jaati theen. kyonki yeh ek dhaarmik bhaasha ban gayi, isliye is bhaasha ke saadhaaran jeevan se lupt hone ke pashchaat bhi iska prayog nae granthon ko likhne ke liye hota raha.[1]

anukram

jade

san 1500 isaapoorv ke yug ki keval do Irani bhaashaaoain ki likhit rachanaaeain mili hain. ek "praacheen avastaai" hai jo uttarapoorv mein boli jaati thi aur ek "praacheen faarasi" hai jo dakshin-pashchim mein boli jaati thi. Irani bhaashaaoain mein yeh poorvi Irani bhaashaaoain aur pashchimi Irani bhaashaaoain ka ek bahut bada vibhaajan hai.

aarambh mein keval ek "aadim hind-Irani bhaasha" thi - isi se hind-Irani bhaasha parivaar ki sabhi bhaashaaeain janmi hain, jinmein sanskrut, hindi, Kashmiri, faarasi, pashto sabhi shaamil hain. praacheen avastaai us yug ki bhaasha hai jab poorvi Irani bhaashaaeain aur vaidik sanskrut bahut milti-julati theen. pashchimi Irani bhaashaaon mein kuchh badlaav aa rahe the jis se vah vaidik sanskrut se thodi bhinn ho chuki thi. kaha ja sakta hai ke praacheen avastaai in donon ke beech thi - yeh vaidik sanskrut se bahut milti-julati hai aur yeh praacheen (pashchimi) faarasi se bhi milti julati hai. avastaai bhaasha mein rachanaaeain kam hain isliye avastaai shabd-vyaakaran samajhne ke liye bhaashaavaijnyaaanik vaidik sanskrut ka pehle adhyayan kar usaki sahaayata lete hain kyonki avastaai aur vaidik sanskrut mein is kshetr mein nikat ka sambandh hai.[2]

tulanaatmak udahaaran

19vi shataabdi mein avastaai aur vaidik sanskrut donon par pashchimi vidvaanon ki nazar nai-nai padi thi aur in donon ke gahre sambandh ka tathya unke saamane jaldi hi aa gaya. unhone dekha ke avastaai faarasi aur vaidik sanskrut ke shabdon mein kuchh saral niyamon ke saath ek se dusare ko anuvaadit kiya ja sakta tha aur vyaakaran ki drushti se yeh donon bahut najdeek the. apni 1892 mein prakaashit kitaab "avastaai vyaakaran ki sanskrut se tulana aur avastaai varnamaala aur usaka lipyantaran" mein bhaashaavaijnyaaanik aur vidvaan ebraaham Jackson ne udahaaran ke liye ek avasataai ke dhaarmik shlok ka vaidik sanskrut mein seedha anuvaad kiya[3] -

mool avastaai
vaidik sanskrut anuvaad
tam amavantam yajtam
sooram daamohu savishtam
mithram yajaai jothraabyo
tam aamavantam yajataam
shooram dhaamasoo shaavishtham
mitraam yajaai hotraabhy:

lipi

avastaai ki apni "pahalavi" lipi thi aur usaka istemaal ab paarasi dhaarmik prayogon ko chhodkar lupt ho chuka hai. ise faarasi aur praacheen bhaarateeya lipi kharoshthi ki tarah daaeain se baaeain likha jaata hai. ismein 13 mool akshar the jinke avastaai mein 53 bhinn roop prayog hote the. yeh akshar aaraamaai lipi par aadhaarit the, jis se Bhaarat ki bhi saari aadhunik lipiyaaain utpann hui hain. Bhaarat mein sthit paarasi samudaaya ke log praacheenakaal mein avastaai ko braahmi par aadhaarit lipiyon mein bhi likhte the.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Mallory, J P (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. page 653. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. entry "Yazd culture".
  2. Hoffmann, K. Encyclopaedia Iranica. AVESTAN LANGUAGE. III. The grammar of Avestan.: "The morphology of Avestan nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs is, like that of the closely related Old Persian, inherited from Proto-Indo-European via Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Aryan), and agrees largely with that of Vedic, the oldest known form of Indo-Aryan. The interpretation of the transmitted Avestan texts presents in many cases considerable difficulty for various reasons, both with respect to their contexts and their grammar. Accordingly, systematic comparison with Vedic is of much assistance in determining and explaining Avestan grammatical forms."
  3. Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson. "An Avesta grammar in comparison with Sanskrit and The Avestan alphabet and its transcription". AMS Press, 1892. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780404090104. http://books.google.com/books?id=B1CCAAAAIAAJ.