avasaadi shail

avasaadi shail jiske star spasht drushtigochar hain

apakshaya evam aparadan ke vibhinn saadhanon dvaara maulik chattanon ke vightan, viyojan aur tootane se parivhan tatha kisi sthaan par jamaav ke parinaamasvarup unke avasaadon se nirmit shail ko avasaadi shail (sedimentary rock) kaha jaata hain.

vaayu, jal aur him ke chirantan aaghaaton se poorvasthit shailon ka nirantar apakshaya evam vidaaran hota rahata hai. is prakaar ke apaksharan se upalabdh padaarth kankad, patthar, ret, mitti ityaadi, jaladhaaraaon, vaayu ya himnadon dvaara parivaahit hokar praaya: nichle pradeshon, saagar, jheel athva nadi ki ghaatiyon mein ekatr ho jaate hain. kaalaantar mein sanghanit hokar ve stareebhoot ho jaate hain. in stareebhoot shailon ko avasaad shail (sedimeintari rauks) kehte hain.

anukram

avasaad shailon ke prakaar

avasaad shailon ka nirmaan teen prakaar se hota hai. pehle prakaar ke shailon ka nirmaan vibhinn khanijon aur shilaakhandon ke bhautik kaaranon se tootakar ikattha hone se hota hai. vibhinn praakrutik aaghaaton se videern ret evam mitti nadiyon ya vaayu ke jhokon dvaara parivaahit hokar upayukt sthalon mein ekatr ho jaati hai aur pehli prakaar ki shilaaon ko janm deti hai. aisi shilaaon ko vyapagharshan (detraaital) ya epiklaastik shail kehte hain. baluaa patthar ya shail isi prakaar ki shilaaeain hain. doosare prakaar ke shail jal mein ghule padaarthon ke raasaayanik nissaadan (prasipiteshan) se nirmit hote hain. nissaadan do prakaar ka hota hai, ya to jal mein ghule padaarthon ki paarasparik pratikriyaaon se ya jal ke vaashpeekaran se. aisi shilaaon ko raasaayanik shail kehte hain. vibhinn kaarbonet, jaise choone ka patthar, dolomaait aadi faasfet evam vividh lavan isi varg mein aate hain. teesare prakaar ke shailon ke vikaas mein jeevon ka haath hai. mrutyu ke uparaant pravaal (mooainga), shaivaal (ailji), kholadhaari jalachar, yuktaapya (daaiaitom) aadi ke kathor avashesh ekatrit hokar shailon ka nirmaan karte hain. mrut vanaspatiyon ke sanchayan se koyala isi prakaar bana hai. raasaayanik shilaaon ke nirmaan mein jeevaanuon ka sahayog ullekhaneeya hai. sookshm jeevaanuon ki utpreranaaon se jal mein ghule padaarthon ka nissaadan teevr ho jaata hai.

itihaas

avasaad shailon ke itihaas mein avayavon ke udgamasthaan, unka parivhan, sanchayan aur stareebhajan mahatvapoorn prashn hain. kisi avasaad shail ki khanijsanrachana us poorvasthit shail ki sanrachana par nirbhar rahati hai jiske apakshaya se vah nirmit hua hai. udaaharan ke liye, Bihar ke koyala utpaadak kshetr mein gaharaai par paae jaanevaale baluaa pattharon ke janak shail hain puraatan "grenaait' evam "naais' jinki saranchana ke abhinn aur aavashyak sanghatak hain. "kvort‌aaj' evam "felsapaar'. uparyukt baluaa patthar mein bhi in do khanijon ki prachurata hai. yahaaain yeh naheen samajhna chaahiye ki janak shail aur avasaad shail ki khanijsanrachana mein poorn saadrushya hota hai. vastut: rituksharan evam parivhan ki avadhi mein ve hi khanij bach paate hain jinki aantarik rachana sudrudh hoti hai aur kalevar kathor hota hai. adhik garmi aur varshaavaale pradeshon mein raasaayanik kriyaaon ki ugrata ke kaaran bahut kam khanij aparivrtit rah paate hain; at: mool janak shail evam avasaad shail mein keval doorasth saadrushya hi hoga.

parivhan ki avadhi mein kanon ka yaantrik (mikainikl) gharshan paryaapt prakhar hota hai. falat: kanon ka parimaan chhota aur aakaar gol ho jaata hai. kanon ki golaai ke avasaadon ki yaatra ki lanbaai ka achha pata lagta hai. avasaadon ke nirmaan mein pruthakkaran (saartig) ek mahatvapoorn kaarya hai. is pruthakkaran ka aadhaar kanon ka parimaan evam unka ghanatv rahata hai. falasvaroop chhote-chhote kan ek saath ekatr hote hain aur bade-bade kan unase alag. yeh pruthakkaran parivhan ki avadhi mein hi kaaryaanvit hota rahata hai aur is kriya mein parivhan ke saadhan jal ya vaayu ya him ka mahatva svaabhaavikroop mein sarvaadhik hota hai. pruthakkaran evam gharshan ki saamarthya mein vaayu ka sthaan pratham, jal ka dviteeya aur him ka truteeya hai.

avasaadon ke sanchayan ka sarvaadhik vistrut evam sthaayi kshetr hai saagar. saagar ke atirikt jheel, daladal, nadiyon ki ghaatiyon or unke baadhgrast maidaan aadi bhi sanchayan ke kshetr hain, kintu ye asthaayi hote hain. poornat: raasaayanik evam jaivik avasaadan keval aise vaataavaran mein hote hain jahaaain jal ganda na ho. ushn evam uthale saagaron mein raasaayanik nissaadan apekshaakrut teevr hota hai. aisi band khaadiyon mein jahaaain jal ka vaashpeekaran ugr roop mein hota hai, lavanon ke nikshep nirmit hote hain.

avasaad shail aur jeevaashm

avasaad shailon mein praaya: jeevon ke avashesh samaadhisth rahate hain. unase na keval tatkaaleen vaataavaran ka gyaan hota hai, apitu ve shailon ki aayu ke bhi parichaayak hote hain. trikhandi (traailobaait), kekade ke puraatan poorvaj, sheershapaada (sefaalopoda) aur kuchh seep (pelesipoda) aadi sarvada saamudrik vaataavaran ke dyotak hain. kuchh prakaar ke ghonghe (gaistropaud), kuchh paadachhidrin (foraaminifera) meethe paani vaale asaamudrik vaataavaran ke parichaayak hain.

kuchh vishisht khanijon ki upasthiti bhi badi mahatvapoorn hoti hai. udaaharanasvaroop hare rang ke khanij aaharitij (glaukonaait) se gahre paani mein shail ke udbhav ka sanket milta hai. shailon ka laal rang lohe ke aaksaaid ke kaaran hota hai. yeh rang shushk marusthaleeya vaataavaran ka soochak hai.

avasaad shail evam ayask nikshep

koyala, ailyoominiym ka ayask - baaksaait, lohe ka ayask - laiteraait, namak, jipsam, faasfet, maiganesaait, cement ka ayask, choone ka patthar, ityaadi kai mahatvapoorn khanij padaarth avasaad shailon mein upalabdh hote hai.

  • baaloo ka patthar
  • choone ka patthar
  • koyala
  • jipsam
  • loyas
  • moren

inhein bhi dekhein

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