avadhi saahitya

Bhaarat ke avadh kshetr ki bhaasha avadhi kahalaati hai, jo raashtrabhaasha hindi ki ek upabhaasha hai.[1] avadhi ka praacheen saahitya bada sampann hai. ismein bhakti kaavya aur premaakhyaan kaavya donon ka vikaas hua.

anukram

itihaas

bhaktikaavya aur premaakhyaan kaavya, praacheen avadhi saahitya ki do shaakhaaeain hain.

bhaktikaavya

avadhi mein rachit raamacharitmaanas granth ke rachayita mahaakavi Goswami tulaseedaas

bhaktikaavya ka shiromani granth Goswami tulaseedaas krut 'raamacharitmaanas' hai. bhaktikaavya mein Goswami tulaseedaas ka raamacharitmaanas (samvat 1631) avadhi saahitya ki pramukh kruti hai. iski bhaasha sanskrut shabdaavali se bhari hai. raamacharitmaanas ke atirikt tulaseedaas ne anya kai granth avadhi mein likhe hain. isi bhakti saahitya ke antargat laaladaas ka "avadhabilaas" aata hai. iski rachana sanvat 1700 mein hui. inke atirikt kai aur bhakt kaviyon ne raamabhakti vishyak granth likhe.[2]

sant kaviyon mein Baba malookadaas bhi avadhi kshetr ke the. inki baani ka adhikaansh avadhi me hai. inke shishya Baba mathuraadaas ki baani bhi adhiktar avadhi mein hai. Baba dharaneedaas yadyapi chhapra jile ke the tathaapi unki baani avadhi mein prakaashit hui. kai anya sant kaviyon ne bhi apne upadesh ke liye avadhi ko apnaaya hai.

yahaan par yeh dhyaan dene yogya hai ki soorajadaas[3] ki 'raamajanm' (Goswami tulaseedaas ke poorv hue the soorajadaas), ishvaradaas ki satyavati, kutubat ka mirgaavat, laalachadaas ka harichrit, samvat 1558 mein purushottam das rachit jaimini puraan, manjhan ki madhumaalati, ameer khusaro va abdularaheem khaanakhaana ki rachanaaon se avadhi ko poorv me jo pratishtha praapt hui thi, use aaj rachanaasheelata ke jariye sanrakshit karne ki jaroorat hai.

narottamadaas ki samvat 1605 mein rachit sudaama charit kaavya-granth avadhi mein hain.

premaakhyaan kaavya

"Who is more beautiful, I or Padmavati?, Queen Nagamati asks to her new parrot, and it gives a displeasing reply..."; an illustrated manuscript of Padmavat, c. 1750[4][5][6]

premaakhyaan kaavya mein sarvaprasiddh granth malik muhammad jaayasi rachit "padmaavat" hai,[7] jiski rachana "raamacharitmaanas" se 34 varsh poorv hui. dohe chaupaai ka jo kram "padmaavat" mein hai praaya: vahi "maanas" mein milta hai. premaakhyaan kaavya mein musalmaan lekhakon ne soofi mat ka rahasya prakat kiya hai. is kaavya ki parampara kai sau varshon tak chalti rahi. manjhan ki "madhumaalati", usamaan ki "chitraavali", aalam ki "maadhavaanal kaamakandala", nooramuhammad ki "indraavati" aur shekh nisaar ki "Yusuf julekha" isi parampara ki rachanaaeain hain. shabdaavali ki drushti se ye rachanaaeain hindu kaviyon ke granthon se is baat mein bhinn hain ki ismein sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ki utani prachurata naheen hai. premaakhyaan ka pratinidhi granth malik muhammad jaayasi rachit 'padmaavat' hai, jiski rachana 'raamacharitmaanas' se chauntees varsh pehle hui. avadhi ki yeh sampann parampara aaj bhi chali aa rahi hai.[7]

praacheen avadhi saahitya mein adhiktar rachanaaeain desh prem, samaajasudhaar aadi vishyon par aur mukhya roop se vyangyaatmak hain. kaviyon mein prataapanaaraayan mishr, balabhadr Dixit "padhees", vansheedhar shukl, mrugesh, ramai kaaka aur shaaradaaprasaad "bhushundi" vishesh ullekhaneeya hain.

prabandh ki parampara mein "raamacharitmaanas" ke dhang ka ek mahatvapoorn aadhunik granth dvaarikaaprasaad mishr ka "krushnaayan" hai. iski bhaasha aur shaili "maanas" ke hi samaan hai aur granthakaar ne krushnacharit praaya: usi tanmayata aur vistaar se likha hai jis tanmayata aur vistaar se tulaseedaas ne raamacharit ankit kiya hai. dvaarikaaprasaad mishr ne is granth ki rachana dvaara yeh siddh kar diya hai ki prabandh ke liye avadhi ki prakruti aaj bhi vaisi hi upaadeya hai jaisi tulaseedaas ke samay mein thi.

vartamaan mein avadhi saahitya

padhees, mrugesh, vansheedhar shukl, ramai kaaka, pan.dvaarika prasaad mishr, vishvanaath paathak, trilochan shaastri, dau॰ shyaamasundar madhup, bekal utsaahi, paaras bhramar, vikl gondavi, jumai Khan aajaad, aadya prasaad unmat, nirjhar prataapagadhi, asavind Dwivedi, jagadeesh peeyoosh, vikram mani tripaathi jaise kai anek rachanaakaar hai, jinka avadhi saahitya mein amoolya yogadaan raha hain.

sandarbh

  1. 2001 Census
  2. Evolution of Awadhi (a branch of Hindi) By Baburam Saksena
  3. "tulaseedaas se saikada saal pehle bhi avadhi mein hui thi raamakatha ki rachana" (hindi mein). http://bidesia.co.in/anam-gumnam-badnam.php?subaction=showfull&id=1338969841&archive=&start_from=&ucat=11&.
  4. Padmavat from The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 430.
  5. Love's Subtle Magic: An Indian Islamic Literary Tradition by Aditya Behl, Oxford university Press (2012)
  6. Hayate Syed Ashraf Jahangir Semnani by Syed Waheed Ashraf published 1975
  7. a aa History of Hindi language, Compiled by Sanjeev Nayyar, March 2002

baahari kadiyaaain