avadhi

avadh kshetr ka bhaugolik vistaar

avadhi hindi kshetr ki ek upabhaasha hai. yeh uttar pradesh me "avadh kshetr" (Lucknow, baaraabanki, sultaanapur, haradoi, seetaapur, Lakhimpur, faijaabaad, prataapagadh) tatha fatehapur, mirjaapur, jaunapur aadi kuchh anya jilon mein bhi boli jaati hai. iske atirikt iski ek shaakha baghelakhand mein bagheli naam se prachalit hai. 'avadh' shabd ki vyutpatti "ayodhya" se hai. is naam ka ek sooba mugalon ke raajyakaal mein tha. tulaseedaas ne apne "maanas" mein ayodhya ko 'avadhapuri' kaha hai. isi kshetr ka puraana naam 'kosal' bhi tha jiski mahatta praacheen kaal se chali aa rahi hai.[1][2][3][4]

bhaasha shaastri dau॰ sar "George Abraham griyrsan" ke bhaasha sarvekshan ke anusaar avadhi bolne vaalon ki kul aabaadi 1615458 thi jo san 1971 ki janaganana mein 28399552 ho gayi. maujooda samay mein shodhakartaaon ka anumaan hai ki 6 karod se jyaada log avadhi bolte hain. uttar pradesh ke 19 jilon- baaraabanki, sultaanapur, amethi, prataapagadh, Allahabad, kaushaanbi, fatehapur, raayabareli, unnaav, Lucknow, haradoi, seetaapur, kheeri, baharaaich, shraavasti, balaraamapur, gonda, faijaabaad va anbedakar nagar mein poori tarah se yeh boli jaati hai. jabki 6 jilon- jaunapur, mirjaapur, Kanpur, shaahajahaanbaad, basti aur baanda ke kuchh kshetron mein iska prayog hota hai. Bihar ke 2 jilon ke saath padosi desh Nepal ke 8 jilon mein yeh prachalit hai. isi prakaar duniya ke anya deshon- Mauritius, Trinidad evam tubaigo, fiji, gayaana, sooreenaam sahit Australia, New Zealand va haulaind mein bhi laakhon ki sankhya mein avadhi bolne vaale log hain.

anukram

parichay

gathan ki drushti se hindi kshetr ki upabhaashaaon ko do vargon-pashchimi aur poorvi mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. avadhi poorvi ke antargat hai. poorvi ki doosari upabhaasha chhatteesagadhi hai. avadhi ko kabhi-kabhi baisavaadi bhi kehte hain. parantu baisavaadi avadhi ki ek boli maatr hai jo unnaav, Lucknow, raayabareli aur fatehapur jile ke kuchh bhaagon mein boli jaati hai.

tulaseedaas krut raamacharitmaanas evam malik muhammad jaayasi krut padmaavat sahit kai pramukh granth isi boli ki den hai.[5][6] iska kendra ayodhya (faijaabaad, u.pr.) hai. ayodhya Lucknow se 120 kimi ki doori par poorv mein hai. sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala', pan mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi, aachaarya raamachandr shukl, raamamanohar lohiya, kunvar Narayan ki yeh janmabhoomi hai. umaraav jaan, aachaarya Narendra Dave aur Ram prakaash Dwivedi ki karmabhoomi bhi yahi hai. ramai kaaka ki lokavaani bhi isi bhaasha mein gunjarit hui. hindi ke reetikaaleen kavi dvijdev ke vanshaj ayodh‍aaya ka raajaparivaar hai. isi parivaar ki ek kan‍aaya ka vivaah dakshin Korea ke raajagharaane mein arasa pehle hua tha. hindi ke varish‍aath aalochak vish‍aavanaath‍aa tripaathi ne avadhi bhaasha aur v‍aayaakaran par mahat‍aat‍aavapoorn pus‍aatak likhi hai. faahyaan ne bhi apne vivran mein ayodh‍aaya ka jikr kiya hai. aaj ki avadhi pravaas aur sans‍aakrutikran ke chalte khadi boli aur angreji ke prabhaav mein aa rahi hai.[7]

avadhi ke pashchim mein pashchimi varg ki bundeli aur braj ka, dakshin mein chhatteesagadhi ka aur poorv mein Bhojpuri boli ka kshetr hai. iske uttar mein Nepal ki taraai hai jismein tha degree aadi aadivaasiyon ki bastiyaaain hain jinki bhaasha avadhi se bilkul alag hai.

vyaakaran

hindi khadeeboli se avadhi ki vibhinnata mukhya roop se vyaakaranaatmak hai. ismein karta kaarak ke parasarg (vibhkti) "ne" ka nitaant abhaav hai. anya parasargon ke praaya: do roop milte hain- hrasv aur deergh. (karm-sanpradaan-sambandh : k, ka; karan-apaadaan : s-t, se-te; adhikran : m, ma).

sanjnyaaaon ki khadeeboli ki tarah do vibhktiyaaain hoti hain- vikaari aur avikaari. avikaari vibhkti mein sanjnyaa ka mool roop (Ram, larika, bitiya, meharaaroo) rahata hai aur vikaari mein bahuvachan ke liye "na" pratyaya jod diya jaata hai (yatha Raman, larikn, bitiyn, meharaarun). karta aur karm ke avikaari roop mein vyanjanaant sanjnyaaaon ke ant mein kuchh boliyon mein ek hrasv "u" ki shruti hoti hai (yatha raamu, pootu, choru). kintu nishchaya hi yeh poorn svar naheen hai aur bhaashaavijnyaaani ise fusafusaahat ke svar-hrasv "i" aur hrasv "A" (yatha saanjhi, khaani, theluaa, pehanta) milte hain.

sanjnyaaaon ke bahudha do roop, hrasv aur deergh (yatha naddi nadiya, ghoda ghodva, naaoo nauaa, kutta kutava) milte hain. inke atirikt avadhi kshetr ke poorvi bhaag mein ek aur roop-deerghatar milta hai (yatha kutauna). avadhi mein kaheen-kaheen khadeeboli ka hrasv roop bilkul lupt ho gaya hai; yatha billi, dibbi aadi roop naheen milte belaiya, debiya aadi hi prachalit hain.

sarvanaam mein khadeeboli aur braj ke "mera tera" aur "mero tero" roop ke liye avadhi mein "mor tor" roop hain. inke atirikt poorvi avadhi mein pashchimi avadhi ke "so" "jo" "ko" ke samaanaantar "se" "J" "ke" roop praapt hain.

kriya mein bhavishtkaal ke roopon ki prakriya khadeeboli se bilkul bhinn hai. khadeeboli mein praaya: praacheen vartamaan (lat) ke tadbhav roopon mein- ga-gi-gay jodkar (yatha hoga, hogi, honge aadi) roop banaae jaate hain. braj mein bhavishyat ke roop praacheen bhavishyatkaal (lat) ke roopon par aadhaarit hain. (yatha hoihainu bhavishyati, hoihonu bhavishyaami). avadhi mein praaya: bhavishyat ke roop tavyat pratyayaant praacheen roopon par aashrit hain (hoibaau bhavitvyam). avadhi ki pashchimi boliyon mein keval uttamapurush bahuvachan ke roop tavyataant roopon par nirbhar hain. shesh braj ki tarah praacheen bhavishyat par. kintu madhyavarti aur poorvi boliyon mein kramash: tavyataant roopon ki prachurata badhti gayi hai. kriyaarthak sanjnyaa ke liye khadeeboli mein "na" pratyaya hai (yatha hona, karna, chalana) aur braj mein "no" (yatha hono, karano, chalano). parantu avadhi mein iske liye "b" pratyaya hai (yatha hob, karab, chalab). avadhi mein nishtha ekavachan ke roop ka "va" mein ant hota hai (yatha bhava, gava, khaava). Bhojpuri mein iske sthaan par "l" mein ant honevaale roop milte hain (yatha bhail, gail). avadhi ka ek mukhya bhedak lakshan hai anyapurush ekavachan ki sakarmak kriya ke bhootakaal ka roop (yatha karisi, khaaisi, maarisi). ya-"si" mein ant honevaale roop avadhi ko chhodkar anyatr naheen milte. avadhi ki sahaayak kriya mein roop "h" (yatha hai, hain), "ah" (ahai, aii) aur "baatai" (yatha baatai, baatain) par aadhaarit hain.

oopar likhe lakshanon ke anusaar avadhi ki boliyon ke teen varg maane gaye hain : pashchimi, madhyavarti aur poorvi. pashchimi boli par niktata ke kaaran braj ka aur poorvi par Bhojpuri ka prabhaav hai. inke atirikt bagheli boli ka apna alag astitv hai.

vikaas ki drushti se avadhi ka sthaan braj, kannauji aur Bhojpuri ke beech mein padta hai. braj ki vyutpatti nishchaya hi shauraseni se tatha Bhojpuri ki maagadhi praakrut se hui hai. avadhi ki sthiti in donon ke beech mein hone ke kaaran iska ardhamaagadhi se niklana maanana uchit hoga. khed hai ki ardhamaagadhi ka hamein J praacheenatam roop milta hai vah paaainchaveen shataabdi isavi ka hai aur usase avadhi ke roop nikaalne mein kathinaai hoti hai. paali bhaasha mein bahudha aise roop milte hain jinse avadhi ke roopon ka vikaas siddh kiya ja sakta hai. sambhavat: ye roop praacheen ardhamaagadhi ke rahe honge.

avadhi saahitya

praacheen avadhi saahitya ki do shaakhaaeain hain : ek bhaktikaavya aur doosari premaakhyaan kaavya. bhaktikaavya mein Goswami tulaseedaas ka "raamacharitmaanas" (san. 1631) avadhi saahitya ki pramukh kruti hai. iski bhaasha sanskrut shabdaavali se bhari hai. "raamacharitmaanas" ke atirikt tulaseedaas ne anya kai granth avadhi mein likhe hain. isi bhakti saahitya ke antargat laaladaas ka "avadhabilaas" aata hai. iski rachana sanvat 1700 mein hui. inke atirikt kai aur bhakt kaviyon ne raamabhakti vishyak granth likhe.

sant kaviyon mein Baba malookadaas bhi avadhi kshetr ke the. inki baani ka adhikaansh avadhi me hai. inke shishya Baba mathuraadaas ki baani bhi adhiktar avadhi mein hai. Baba dharaneedaas yadyapi chhapra jile ke the tathaapi unki baani avadhi mein prakaashit hui. kai anya sant kaviyon ne bhi apne upadesh ke liye avadhi ko apnaaya hai.

premaakhyaan kaavya mein sarvaprasiddh granth malik muhammad jaaesi rachit "padmaavat" hai jiski rachana "raamacharitmaanas" se 34 varsh poorv hui. dohe chaupaai ka jo kram "padmaavat" mein hai praaya: vahi "maanas" mein milta hai. premaakhyaan kaavya mein musalmaan lekhakon ne soofi mat ka rahasya prakat kiya hai. is kaavya ki parampara kai sau varshon tak chalti rahi. manjhan ki "madhumaalati", usamaan ki "chitraavali", aalam ki "maadhavaanal kaamakandala", nooramuhammad ki "indraavati" aur shekh nisaar ki "Yusuf julekha" isi parampara ki rachanaaeain hain. shabdaavali ki drushti se ye rachanaaeain hindu kaviyon ke granthon se is baat mein bhinn hain ki ismein sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ki utani prachurata naheen hai.

praacheen avadhi saahitya mein adhiktar rachanaaeain deshaprem, samaajasudhaar aadi vishyon par aur mukhya roop se vyangyaatmak hain. kaviyon mein prataapanaaraayan mishr, balabhadr Dixit "padhees", vansheedhar shukl, chandrabhooshan Dwivedi "ramai kaaka", guru prasaad Singh "mrugesh" aur shaaradaaprasaad "bhushundi" vishesh ullekhaneeya hain.

prabandh ki parampara mein "raamacharitmaanas" ke dhang ka ek mahatvapoorn aadhunik granth dvaarikaaprasaad mishr ka "krushnaayan" hai. iski bhaasha aur shaili "maanas" ke hi samaan hai aur granthakaar ne krushnacharit praaya: usi tanmayata aur vistaar se likha hai jis tanmayata aur vistaar se tulaseedaas ne raamacharit ankit kiya hai. mishr ji ne is granth ki rachana dvaara yeh siddh kar diya hai ki prabandh ke liye avadhi ki prakruti aaj bhi vaisi hi upaadeya hai jaisi tulaseedaas ke samay mein thi.

avadhi lok saahitya

avadhi lok saahitya ki ek samruddh parampara hai. avadhi lok saahitya par kai shodh hue hain. inmein kuchh pramukh hain- avadhi lok saahitya -daa॰ sarojani rohatagi (1971)

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain