aushadhi

12-08-18-tilidin-retard.jpg

aushadhi vah padaarth hai jin ka nishchit maatra shareer mai nishchit prakaar ka asar dikhaata hai. inka prayojan chikitsa mein hota hai. kisi bhi padaarth ko aushadhi ke rup mai prayojan karke ke liye us padaarth ka gun, maatra anusaar ka vyavahaar, shareer par vibhinn maatraaaun mein hone wala prabhaav aadi ka jaankaari aparihaarya hai.

aushadhiyaaain rogon ke ilaaj mein kaam aati hain. praarambh mein aushadhiyaaain ped-paudhon, jeev jantuon se praapt ki jaati theen, lekin jaise-jaise rasaayan vigyaan ka vistaar hota gaya, nae-nae tatvon ki khoj hui tatha unase nai-nai aushadhiyaaain krutrim vidhi se taiyaar ki gain.

anukram

aushadhiyon ke prakaar

  • ant:sraavi aushadhiyaaain (Endrocine Drugs)- ye aushadhiyaaain maanav shareer me praakrutik haaramonon ke kam ya jyaada utpaadan ko santulit karti hain. udaaharan- insulin ka prayog daayabiteej ke ilaaj ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • enteeinfektiv aushadhiyaaain (Anti-Infective Drugs) - anti-infektiv aushadhiyon ko anti-baikteeriyl, anti vaayaral athva enteefangal ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai. inka vargeekaran rogajanak sookshmajeeviyon ke prakaar par nirbhar karta hai. ye aushadhiyaaain sookshmajeeviyon ki kaaryapranaali mein hastakshep karke unhein samaapt kar deti hain jabki maanav shareer inse aprabhaavit rahata hai.
  • enteebaayotiks (Antibiotics) - enteebaayotiks aushadhiyaaain atyant chhote sookshmajeeviyon, molds, fanjaai (fungi) aadi se banaai jaati hain. penisileen, tretaasaaiklin, sefolosprins, streptomaaisin, jentaamaaisin aadi pramukh enteebaayotik aushadhiyaaain hain.
  • anti-vaayaral aushadhiyaaain (Anti-Virul Drugs) - ye aushadhiyaaain mehmaan koshikaaon mein virus ke pravesh ko rokakar uske jeevan chakr ko prabhaavit karti hain. ye aushadhiyaaain adhikaanshata rogon ko dabaati hi hain. eds sankraman ke maamalon mein abhi tak kisi bhi prabhaavi aushadhi ka nirmaan sambhav naheen ho saka hai.
  • vaikseen (Vaccine) - vaikseen ka prayog kanafeda (Mumps), chhoti maata, poliyo aur inflooenja jaise rogon mein, anti-vaayaral aushadhi ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. vaikseenon ka nirmaan jeevit athva mrut vaayarason se kiya jaata hai. prayog ke poorv inka tanukaran kiya jaata hai. vaikseen ke shareer mein pravesh se maanav imyoon pranaali ka uddeepan hota hai jisse endeebaudeej ka nirmaan hota hai. ye enteebaudeej shareer ko samaan prakaar ke virus ke sankraman se bachaati hain.
  • anti-fangal aushadhiyaaain (Anti-fungal Drugs) - anti fangal aushadhiyaaain koshika bhitti mein ferabadal karke fangal koshikaaon ko chunakar nashtaï kar deti hain. koshika ke jeev padaarth ka sraav ho jaata hai aur vah mrut ho jaati hai.
  • kaardiyovaiskular aushadhiyaaain- ye aushadhiyaaain hrudaya aur rakt vaahikaaon ko prabhaavit karti hain. inka vargeekaran unki kriya ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. enteehaaiparatensiv aushadhiyaaain rakt vaahikaaon ko failaakar raktachaap paida kar deti hain. is tarah se sanvahan pranaali mein hrudaya se panp karke bheje gaye rakt ki maatra kam ho jaati hai. enteeaaridmik aushadhiyaaain (Antiaryrrythmic drugs) hrudaya spandanon ko niyamit karke hrudayaaghaat se maanav shareer ko bachaati hain.


rakt ko prabhaavit karne waali aushadhiyaaain

  • anti-eneemik aushadhiyaaain (Antianemic drugs) jinmein kuchh vitaamin athva aairan shaamil hain, laal rakt kanikaaon ke nirmaan ko badhaava deti hain.
  • enteekoeguleint aushadhiyaaain (Anticoagulants drugs)- hepaarin jaisi aushadhiyaaain rakt jamane ki prakriya ko ghataakar rakt sancharan ko suchaaroo karti hain.
  • thraumbolitik aushadhiyaaain (Thrombolytics drugs) - ye aushadhiyaaain rakt ke thakkon ko ghol deti hain jinse rakt vaahikaaon ko jaam hone ka khatra hota hai. rakt vaahikaaon mein blauked ki vajah se hrudaya va mastishk ko rakt va okseejan ki aapoorti naheen ho paati hai.


keindreeya snaayu tantr ki aushadhiyaaain (Central Nervous System Drugs)

ye ve aushadhiyaaain hain jo meroodand aur mastishk ko prabhaavit karti hain. inka prayog tantrikeeya aur maanasik rogon ke ilaaj mein kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye anti-epeeleptik aushadhiyaaain (antiepilyptic drugs) mashtishk ke atiuttejit kshetron ki gatividhiyon ko kam karke mirgi ke dauron ko samaapt kar deti hain. anti-saaikotik aushadhiyaaain (anti-pcychotic drugs) seejofreniya (schizophrenia) jaise maanasik rogon ke ilaaj mein kaam aati hain. anti-dipreseint aushadhiyaaain (anti-depressent drugs) maanasik avasaad ki sthiti ko samaapt karti hain.

kainsararodhi aushadhiyaaain (Anticancer Drugs)

ye aushadhiyaaain kuchh kainsaron ko athva unki teevr vruddhi aur failaav ko rokati hain. ye aushadhiyaaain sabhi kainsaron ke liye kaaragar naheen hoti hain. pitt ki thaili, mastishk, livr athva haddaïai ityaadi ke kainsaron ke liye alag-alag aushadhiyaaain hoti hain. ye aushadhiyaaain kuchh vishesh tantuon athva angon ke liye vishishtaï hoti hain. anti Cancer aushadhiyaaain vishesh Cancer koshikaaon mein hastakshep karke apna kaarya anjaam deti hain.

baahari kadiyaaain