ashvatthaama

mahaabhaarat yudhd se purv guru dronaachaarya ji anek sthaano me bhraman karte hue himaalaya (rishikesh) p‌aahuche. vaha tamasa nadi ke kinaare ek divya gufa me tapeshvar naamak svaymabhoo shivlig he. yaha guru dronaachaarya ji aur unki patni maata krupi ne shivji ki tapasya ki. inki tapasya se khush hokar Bhagwan Shiv ne inhe putr praapti ka varadaan diya. kuchh samay baad maata krupi ne ek sundar tejashvi baalk ko janm diya. janm grahan karte hi inke kanth se hinhinaane ki si dhvani hui jisse inka naam ashvatthaama pada. janm se hi ashvatthaama ke mastak mein ek amoolya mani vidyamaan thi |jo ki use daitya, daanav, shastr, vyaadhi, devata, naag aadi se nirbhaya rakhati thi.

mahaabhaarat yudhd ke samay guru dronaachaarya ji ne hastinaapur (Meerut) raajya ke prati nishtha. hone ke kaaran koravo ka saath dena uchit samjha. ashvatthaama bhi apne pita ki tarah shaastr va shastr vidya me nipoon the. mahaabhaarat ke yuddh mein unhonne sakriya bhaag liya tha. mahaabhaarat yuddh mein ye kaurav-paksh ke ek senaapati the. unhonne bheem-putr ghatotkach ko paraast kiya tatha ghatotkach putr anjanaparva ka vadh kiya. uske atirikt drupadakumaar, shatrunjaya, balaaneek, jayaaneek, jayaashv tatha raaja shrutaahu ko bhi maar daala tha. unhonne kunteebhoj ke das putron ka vadh kiya. pita-putr ki jodi ne mahaabhaarat yudhd ke samay paandav sena ko titr-bitr kar diya. paandavo ki sena ki haar dekhkar shreekrushn ne yudhishthir se kut-niti sahaara lene ko kaha. is yojana ke tahat yeh baat fela di gayi ki "ashvatthaama maara gaya" jab guru dronaachaarya ne dharmaraaj yudhishthir se ashvatthaama ki satyata jaanana chaahi to unhone javaab diya-"ashvatthaama maara gaya parantu haathi". shreekrushn ne usi samay shankhanaad kiya, jiske shor se guru dronaachaarya aakhri shabd nahi sun paae. apne priya putr ki mot ka samaachaar sunakar aapne shastr tyaag diye aur yudhd bhoomi me aakhe band kar shok avastha me bet gaye. guru dronaachaarya ji ko nihtta jaanakar dropadi ke bhaai dyushtadyumn ne talavaar se aapka sir kaat daala. guru dronaachaarya ji ki nirmam hatya ke baad paandavon ki jeet hone lagi. is tarah mahaabhaarat yuddh mein arjun ke teeron evam bheemasen ki gada se kauravon ka naash ho gaya. dusht aur abhimaani duryodhan ki jaaaingh bhi bheemasen ne mallayuddh mein tod di. apne duryoraaja dhan ki

aisi dasha dekhkar aur apne pita dronaachaarya ki mrutyu ka smaran kar ashvatthaama adheer ho gaya. duryodhan paani ko baandhane ki kala jaanta tha. so jis taalaab ke paas gadaayudhd chal raha tha usi taalaab me ghus gaya aur paani ko baandhakar chhup gaya. duryodhan ke paraajaya hote hi yuddh mein paandavo ki jeet pakki ho gayi thi sabhi paandav kheme ke log jeet ki khushi me matavaale ho rahe the.

ashvatthaama ne dronaachaarya vadh ke pashchaat apne pita ki nirmam hatya ka badla lene ke liye paandavo par Narayan astr ka prayog kiya tha. jiske aage saari paandav sena ne hathiyaar daal diya tha| yudhd hthke pashchaat ashvatthaama ne dropadi ke paaaincho putr aur dyushtadyumn ka vadh kar diya| ashvatthaama ne abhimnyu putr pareekshit par bahmasheersh astr ka prayog kiya. ashvatthaama amar hai aur aaj bhi jeevit haiain. Bhagwan krashn ke shraap ke kaaran ashvatthaama ko code rog ho gaya. aaj bhi aap jeevit hai. chhup kar vah paandavon ke shivir mein pahuaincha aur ghor kaalaraatri mein krupaachaarya tatha krutavarma ki sahaayata se paandavon ke bache huye veer mahaarathiyon ko maar daala. keval yahi naheen, usane paandavon ke paaainchon putron ke sir bhi ashvatthaama ne kaat daale. ashvatthaama ke is kukarm ki sabhi ne ninda ki yahaaain tak ki duryodhan tak ko bhi yeh achha naheen laga.

putron ke hatya se dukhi draupadi vilaap karne lagi. uske vilaap ko sun kar arjun ne us neech karm hatyaare braahman ke sir ko kaat daalne ki pratijnyaa ki. arjun ki pratijnyaa sun ashvatthaama bhaag nikla. shreekrushn ko saarathi banaakar evam apna gaandeev dhanush lekar arjun ne usaka peechha kiya. ashvatthaama ko kaheen bhi suraksha naheen mili to bhaya ke kaaran usane arjun par brahmaastr ka prayog kar diya. ashvatthaama brahmaastr ko chalaana to jaanta tha par use lautaana naheen jaanta tha.

us ati prachand tejomaya agni ko apni or aata dekh arjun ne shreekrushn se vinti ki, “ahe janaardan! aap hi is trigunamayi shrrushti ko rachane vaale parameshvar hain. shrrushti ke aadi aur ant mein aap hi shesh rahate hain. aap hi apne bhaktajanon ki raksha ke liye avataar grahan karte hain. aap hi brahmaasvaroop ho rachana karte hain, aap hi vishnu svaroop ho paalan karte hain aur aap hi rudrasvaroop ho sanhaar karte hain. aap hi bataaiye ki yeh prachand agni meri or kahaaain se aa rahi hai aur isse meri raksha kaise hogi?”

shreekrushn bole, “ahai arjun! tumhaare bhaya se vyaakul hokar ashvatthaama ne yeh brahmaastr tum par brahmaastr se tumhaare praan ghor sankat mein hai. vah ashvatthaama iska prayog to jaanta hai kintu iske nivaaran se anbhigya hai. isse bachane ke liye tumhein bhi apne brahmaastr ka prayog karna hoga kyon ki anya kisi astr se iska nivaaran naheen ho sakta.”

shreekrushn ki is mantrana ko sunakar mahaarathi arjun ne bhi tatkaal aachaman karke apna brahmaastr chhod diya. donon brahmaastr paraspar bhid gaye aur prachand agni utpann hokar teenon lokon ko tapt karne lagi. unki lapaton se saari praja dagdh hone lagi. is vinaash ko dekhkar arjun ne donnon brahmaastron ko lauta kar shaant kar diya aur jhapat kar ashvatthaama ko pakad kar baaaindh liya. shreekrushn bole, “ahe arjun! dharmaatma, soye huye, asaavadhaan, matavaale, paagal, ajnyaaani, rathaheen, stri tatha baalak ko maarana dharm ke anusaar varjit hai. isne dharm ke viruddh aacharan kiya hai, soye huye nirparaadh baalakon ki hatya ki hai. jeevit rahega to pun: paap karega. at: tatkaal iska vadh karke aur iska kata hua sir draupadi ke saamane rakh kar apni pratijnyaa poori karo.”

shreekrushn ke in shabdon ko sunane ke baad bhi dheeravaan arjun ko guruputr par daya hi I aur unhonne ashvatthaama ko jeevit hi shivir mein le jaakar draupadi ke saamane upasthit kiya. pashu ki tarah baindhe huye guruputr ko dekh kar mamataamayi draupadi ka komal hrudaya pighl gaya. usane guruputr ko namaskaar kiya aur use bandhanamukt karne ke liye arjun se kaha, “ahe aaryaputr! ye guruputr tatha braahman hain. braahman sada poojaneeya hota hai aur usaki hatya karna paap hai. aapne inke pita hi in apoorv shastraastron ka gyaan praapt kiya hai. putr ke roop mein aachaarya dron hi aapke sammukh bandi roop mein khade hain. inka vadh karne se inki maata krupi meri tarah hi kaatar hokar putr shok mein vilaap karegi. putr se vishesh moh hone ke kaaran hi vah dronaachaarya ke saath sati naheen hui. krupi ki aatma nirntar mujhe kosegi. inke vadh karne se mere mrut putr laut kar to naheen aa sakte! at: aap inhein mukt kar deejiye.”

Draupadi and Ashvatthaman, Punjab Hills c. 1730

draupadi ke in nyaaya tatha dharmayukt vachanon ko sun kar sabhi ne usaki prashansa ki kintu bheem ka krodh shaant naheen hua. is par shreekrushn ne kaha, “ahe arjun! shaastron ke anusaar patit braahman ka vadh bhi paap hai aur aatataayi ko dand na dena bhi paap hai. at: tum vahi karo jo uchit hai.” unki baat ko samajh kar arjun ne apni talavaar se ashvatthaama ke sir ke kesh kaat daale aur uske mastak ki mani nikaal li. mani nikal jaane se vah shreeheen ho gaya. shreeheen to vah usi kshan ho gaya tha jab usane baalakon ki hatya ki thi kintu kesh mund jaane aur mani nikal jaane se vah aur bhi shreeheen ho gaya aur usaka sir jhuk gaya. arjun ne use usi apamaanit avastha mein shivir se baahar nikaal diya.