ashvadhaavan

ashvadhaavan pratiyogita

ashvadhaavan athva ghuddaud (Horse race) ghodon ke veg ki pratiyogita hai. aisi pratiyogita mukhyat: dulaki, sarapat aur kshetragaami (kraus-country) ya avarodhayukt (obstaikal) daudon mein hoti hai.

itihaas

ashvadhaavan ki pratha ati praacheen hai, parantu pratham ashvadhaavan pratiyogita, jiska ullekh dinaank sahit praapt hai, 684 E. poo. ki hai jo 23 veen olympic pratiyogita thi. 40 varsh baad pratham baar 33vein olympic mein ashvaarohi pratiyogita hui. yoonaan mein ashvadhaavan sarvapriya khelon mein se tha aur raashtreeya khel maana jaata tha.

yoonaan ke samaan rom mein bhi ashvadhaavan prachalit tha aur lokapriya khelon mein samjha jaata tha. aisa anumaan kiya jaata hai ki great Britain mein roman adhiptya kaal mein hi ashvadhaavan ka prachalan pratiyogita ke roop mein hua. praanrabh mein is prakaar ke khel kood isaai dharm ke virood samajhe jaate the. par dharm is khel ke aakarshan ko na daba saka. Germany mein sarvapratham aise khelon ko dhaarmik samaarohon mein bhi sthaan mila. kuchh kaal mein ashvadhaavan itna lokapriya ho gaya ki raajakul se bhi ise utsaah milne laga. san 1512 mein chestar mein sarvasaadhaaran ke liye ashvadhaavan pratiyogita praarambh hui. yeh pratiyogita nagaraadhyaksh (mayor) ke sabhaapatitv mein hoti thi. England ke James pratham ne England mein ashvadhaavan sthal sthaapit kiye aur saath hi ghodon ki nasl sudhaarane ki bhi cheshta ki. ashvadhaavan pratiyogitaaon mein England ke raajaaon ki roochi badhti gayi aur paaritoshik bhi usi anupaat mein badhte gaye. san 1721 E. mein George pratham ne jeetanevaale ashv ko 100 gini paaritoshik mein di. ashvadhaavan ke prabandh ko sucha degree roop se chalaane ke liye san 1750 mein ashvaarohi samiti (jauki club) ki sthaapana hui. is sabha ko England mein ashvadhaavan sambandhi sabhi baaton ke antim nirnaya ka adhikaar diya gaya.

great Britain mein ashvadhaavan ek raashtreeya khel samjha jaata hai aur bade samaaroh ke saath vibhinn sthaanon mein saal mein iski anek badi badi pratiyogitaaeain hoti hain. inmein se ye paanch pratiyogitaaeain paramparaagat, praacheen aur sarvotam maani jaati hain: (1) seint lejar ashvadhaavan pratiyogita, jiska praarambh 1776 E. mein hua. yeh daunakaastar mein September maas ke madhya mein hoti hai. (2) oks pratiyogita, jiska praarambh 1779 E. mein hua aur jo ipsam mein, May ke atan mein, suprasaddhi darbi pratiyogita ke turant baad padnevaale shukravaar ko hoti hai. (3) darbi pratiyogita, jo san 1780 E. mein aarambh hui. yeh bhi ipsam mein daudi jaati hai. ipsam teevr modon tatha kathin utaar aur chadhaav ke liye prasiddh hai. is pratiyogita ko vishesh mahatva diya jaata hai. (4) new market mein daudi jaanevaali ""do hajaar gili"" ki daud jo 1809 E. mein praarambh hui. (5) ""ek hajaar gini keee daud"" bhi isi new market sthal mein daudi jaati hai. iski sthaapana san 1814 E. mein hui. in paaainch daudon ke atirikt bahut si daude aisakat, gudavud aadi kshetron mein daudi jaati hain aur ye bhi paryaapt mahatvapoorn hain.

san 1839 E. mein new market kshetr mein ""haindeepakaip"" ghuddaud praarambh ki gayi. is daud ka uddeshya sarvotam ashvon ke virooddh anya ashvon ko bhi daud mein safalta praapt karne ka avsar dena tha. haindeekaip ke niymaanusaar ashvon ki khyaati, dhaavanashakti evam aayu ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue unke savaaron ka bhaar nishchit kiya jaata hai. sarvotam ashv ko bhaari tatha nimn shreni ke ashv ko halka ashvaarohi diya jaata hai. kis ashv ko is prakaar kitni suvidha athva asuvidha di jaae, iska nirnaaya ashvarohi samiti (jauki club) karti hai. savaar ke bhaar ke liye pratibandh rahate hain. ashvaarohi ka apne bhaar ko aath nau ston (stonaulagabhag saat serasar) tak banaae rakhana ati aavashyak hai. bhaari ghudsavaar anutteern kar diye jaate hain.

san 1884 mein sain daaun ke prabandhakartaaon ne ek nai 10,000 pound ki pratiyogita ki yojana nikaali. yeh daud iklips ke naam se prasiddh hui.

san 1839 mein ""the grand naishanal"" naamak ek aur lokapriya ghuddaud ka prachalan hua. yeh saadhe chaar meal lambi daud livrapul mein hoti hai. yathaarth mein yeh great Britain ki puraani steepanalachej pratha ka aadhunik roop hai. puraane samay mein steepachalej susanpann logon neechi bhoomi tatha chhote bade avarodhon ko laaainghate hue, kisi doorasth church ki nukeeli meenaar ko lakshya maan ashvaarohi ek doosare se hod lete the. parantu ab vibhinn prakaar ki baadhaaeain nirdhaarit roop se khadi karke pratiyogita ek nishchit kshetr mein hone lagi hai.

ashvadhaavan amareeka mein bhi ati lokapriya hai. 17veen sadi ke madhya se hi iska prachalan varajeeniya aur mereelaind mein tha.

amareeka mein dulaki chaal ki daud (trauting race) utani hi priya hai jitni sarapat daud dulaki daud do prakaar se daudi jaati hai: (1) ghudsavaar ghode ki kaathi par rahata hai. (2) ek chhoti do pahiyonvaali gaadi ghode mein jotakar ashvarohi isi gaadi par baithata hai.

France mein aadhunik dhang se ashvadhaavan san 1833 se prachalit hua. priks d oralio, priks doo jauki, priks doo pinras inpeeriyl aur the grand priks di peris yahaaain ki mukhya aur mahatvapoorn daundon mein peris grand steepal chejpramukh hai.

Australia, Germany, Italy tatha anya deshon mein ashvadhaavan moolat: England ki hi pratha niyamon ke anusaar hota hai.