ashafaakullaah khaaain

ashafaak ulla khaaain
1900 se 1927 tak
ashafaakulla khaaain vaarasi 'hasarat' ka chitr

upanaam : 'vaarasi' evam 'hasarat'
janmasthal : shaahajahaaainpur, british Bhaarat
mrutyusthal: faijaabaad, british Bhaarat
aandolan: bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam
pramukh sangathan: Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan


ashafaak ulla khaaain, (urdoo: اaaشaaفaaاaaق اaaُaaلaaلaaہ خaaاaaن, angreji:Ashfaq Ulla Khan, janm:1900, mrutyu:1927) bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke ek pramukh kraantikaari the. unhonne kaakori kaand mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaayi. british shaasan ne unke oopar abhiyog chalaaya aur 19 December san 1927 ko unhein faijaabaad jail mein faaainsi par lataka kar maar diya gaya. Ram prasaad bismil ki bhaaainti ashafaak ulla khaaain bhi urdoo bhaasha ke behatareen shaayar the. unka urdoo takhallus, jise hindi mein upanaam kehte hain, hasarat tha. urdoo ke atirikt ve hindi va aaingreji mein lekh evam kavitaayein bhi likha karte the. unka poora naam ashafaak ulla khaaain vaarasi hasarat tha. bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke sampoorn itihaas mein bismil aur ashafaak ki bhoomika nirvivaad roop se hindu-muslim ekta[1] ka anupam aakhyaan hai.

anukram

sankshipt jeevan gaatha

ashafaak ulla khaaain ka janm uttar pradesh ke shaheedagadh shaahajahaaainpur mein railway station ke paas sthit kadanakhail jalaalanagar[2]muhalle mein 22 October 1900 ko hua tha. unke pita ka naam mohammad shafeek ulla khaaain tha. unki maaain majahoorunnishaaain begam bala ki khoobsoorat khabaateenon (striyon) mein gini jaati theen.[3]ashafaak ne swayam apni daayari mein likha hai ki jahaaain ek or unke baap-daadon ke khaanadaan mein ek bhi graduate hone tak ki taaleem na pa saka vaheen doosari or unki nanihaal mein sabhi log uchch shikshit the. unamein se kai to deputy collector va esa0 je0 ema0 (sab judeeshiyl maijistret) ke ohadon par mulaajim bhi rah chuke the. 1857 ke gadar mein un logon (unke nanihaal vaalon) ne jab Hindustan ka saath naheen diya to janta ne gusse mein aakar unki aaleeshaan kothi ko aag ke havaale kar diya tha. vah kothi aaj bhi poore shahar mein jali kothi ke naam se mashahoor hai. baharahaal ashafaak ne apni kurabaani dekar nanihaal vaalon ke naam par lage us badanuma daag ko hamesha - hamesha ke liye dho daala.

bismil se mulaakaat

ashafaak apne bhaai-bahanon mein sabse chhote the. sab unhein pyaar se achhoo kehte the. ek roj unke bade bhaai riyaasat ulla ne ashafaak ko bismil ke baare mein bataaya ki vah bada kaabil sakhsh hai aur aala darje ka shaayar bhi, goya aajkal mainapuri kaand mai giraftaari ki vajah se shaahajahaaainpur mein najar naheen aa raha. kaafi arse se faraar hai khuda jaane kahaaain aur kin haalaat mein basar karta hoga. bismil unka sabse umda klaasafelo hai. ashafaak tabhi se bismil se milne ke liye betaav ho gaye. vakt gujara. 1920 mein aam muaafi ke baad Ram prasaad bismil apne vatan shaahajahaaainpur aaye aur ghareloo kaarobaar mein lag gaye. ashafaak ne kai baar bismil se mulaakaat karke unka vishvaas arjit karna chaaha parantu kaamayaabi naheen mili. chunaaainche ek roj raat ko khannaut nadi ke kinaare sunasaan jagah mein meeting ho rahi thi ashafaak vahaaain ja pahuainche. bismil ke ek sher par jab ashafaak ne aameen kaha to bismil ne unhein paas bulaakar parichay poochha. yeh jaanakar ki ashafaak unke klaasafelo riyaasat ulla ka saga chhota bhaai hai aur urdoo jubaan ka shaayar bhi hai, bismil ne usase aarya samaaj mandir mein aakar alag se milne ko kaha. ghar vaalon ke lakh mana karne par bhi ashafaak aarya samaaj ja pahuainche aur Ram prasaad bismil se kaafi der tak guftagoo karne ke baad unki party maatruvedi ke aiktiv membar bhi ban gaye. yaheen se unki jindagi ka naya falasafa shuroo hua. ve shaayar ke saath-saath kaum ke khidmatagaar bhi ban gaye.

Ahmedabad aur gaya kaaaingres mein shirkat

ashafaak bahut dooradarshi the unhonne Ram prasaad bismil ko yeh salaah di ki kraantikaari gatividhiyaaain ke saath-saath Congress party mein bhi apni paith banaakar rakhana hamaari kaamayaavi mein madadgaar hi saabit hoga. baharahaal ashafaak va bismil ke saath shaahajahaaainpur ke aur bhi kai navayuvak Congress mein shaamil hue aur party ko kaumi taakat ata ki. 1921 ki Ahmedabad Congress mein Ram prasaad bismil va premakrushn khanna ke saath ashafaak bhi shaamil hue. adhiveshan mein unki mulaakaat maulaana hasarat mohaani se hui jo Congress ke vrarishth sharamaayedaaron mein shumaar kiye jaate the. maulaana hasarat mohaani dvaara prastut poorn Swaraj ke prastaav ka jab gaandhi ji ne virodh kiya to shaahajahaaainpur ke Congressi svayansevakon ne gaandhi ki dtakar mukhaalafat ki aur khoob hangaama machaaya. aakhirkaar gaandhi ji ko na chaahate hue bhi vah prastaav sveekaar karna hi pada. isi prakaar December 1922 ki gaya Congress mein bhi navayuvakon dvaara gaandhi ki jamkar khinchaayi ki gayi. ismein Bengal, Bihar va uttar pradesh ke navayuvak ek ho gaye. un sabka gaandhi se ek hi savaal tha- "aapne kisase poochhakar asahayog aandolan vaapas liya?"

echa0aara0e0 ka gathan

1922 ki gaya Congress ke baad party mein do dal ban gaye ek dhanaadhya logon ka doosra aam tabake se aaye hue navayuvakon ka. pehle vaale dal ne 1 January 1923 ko Swaraj party bana li doosare dal ne kraantikaari party ke gathan ka man bana liya. Bengal ke kuchh navayuvak seedhe shaahajahaaainpur aakar mainapuri shadyantr ke anubhavi kraantikaari pandit Ram prasaad bismil se mile aur unase nayi party ke gathan mein sahayog karne ka aagrah kiya. bismil un dinon silk ki saadiyon ke vyaapaar mein ulajhe hue the unke paas samay naheen tha. is par ashafaak ne unhein samajhaaya aur apni or se poora sahayog karne ka vachan diya. uske baad hi bismil ne apne saajheedaar banaarasi laal ko saara kaarovaar saunp diya aur poore man se ashafaak aur bismil kraantikaari party ke kaam mein jut gaye. party ki or se 1 January 1925 ko aaingreji mein chhaape gaye ghoshana patra di rivolooshanari ko poore uttar pradesh ke pratyek jile tak pahuainchaane mein ashafaak ki saraahaneeya bhoomika ko dekhte hue echa0aara0e0 ki kendreeya kaaryakaarini ke sadasya yogesh chandr chatarji ne ashafaak ko bismil ka sahakaari (leftinent) manoneet kiya aur pradesh ki jimmevaari in donon ke kandhon par daal kar swayam Bengal chale gaye.

kaakori kaand mein ashafaak ki bhoomika

Bengal mein shacheendranaath saanyaal va yogesh chandr chatarji jaise do pramukh vyaktiyon ke giraftaar ho jaane par Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan ka poora daaromadaar bismil ke kandhon par aa gaya. ismein shaahajahaaainpur se prem Krishna khanna, thaakur roshan Singh ke atirikt ashafaak ulla khaaain ka yogadaan saraahaneeya raha. jab aayaralaind ke kraantikaariyon ki tarj par jabaran dhan chheenane ki yojana banaayi gayi to ashafaak ne apne bade bhaai riyaasat ulla khaaain ki laaiseinsi bandook aur do peti kaaratoos bismil ko upalabdh karaaye taaki dhanaadhya logon ke gharon mein dakaitiyaaain daalkar party ke liye paisa ikattha kiya ja sake. kintu jab bismil ne sarkaari khajaana lootane ki yojana banaayi to ashafaak ne akele hi kaaryakaarini meeting mein iska khulkar virodh kiya. unka tark tha ki abhi yeh kadam uthaana khatre se khaali na hoga; sarkaar hamein nestanaabood kar degi. is par jab sab logon ne ashafaak ke bajaay bismil par khullamakhulla yeh fabti kasi-"pandit ji! dekh li is miyaaain ki kartoot. hamaari party mein ek muslim ko shaamil karne ki jid ka asar ab aap hi bhugatiye, ham log to chale." is par ashafaak ne yeh kaha-"pandit ji hamaare leedar hain ham unke ham unke baraabar naheen ho sakte. unka faisala hamein manjoor hai. ham aaj kuchh naheen kaheinge lekin kal saari duniya dekhegi ki ek pathaan ne is aikshan ko kis tarah anjaam diya?" aur vahi hua, agale din 9 August 1925 ki shaam kaakori station se jaise hi train aage badhee, raajendranaath laahidi ne chen kheenchi, ashafaak ne driver ki kanapati par maaujar rakhakar use apne kabje mein liya aur Ram prasaad bismil ne guard ko jameen par aundhe muainh litaate hue khajaane ka baksa neeche gira diya. lohe ki majaboot tijori jab kisi se na tooti to ashafaak ne apna maaujar manmathanaath gupt ko pakadaaya aur ghan lekar poori taakat se tijori par pil pade. ashafaak ke tijori todate hi sabhi ne unki faulaadi taakat ka najaara dekha. varana yadi tijori kuchh der aur na tootati aur Lucknow se police ya army aa jaati to mukaabale mein kai jaane ja sakti theen; fir us kaakori kaand ko itihaas mein koi doosra hi naam diya jaata.

giraft se baahar

26 sitmbar 1925 ki raat jab poore desh mein ek saath girftaariyaaain huin ashafaak police ki aaainkhon mein dhool jhonk kar faraar ho gaye. pehle ve Nepal gaye kuchh din vahaaain rahakar Kanpur aa gaye aur ganeshashankar vidyaarthi ke prataap press mein 2 din ruke. vahaaain se banaaras hote hue Bihar ke ek jile daaltanaganj mein kuchh dinon naukri ki parantu police ko iski bhanak lagne se pehle uttar pradesh ke shahar Kanpur vaapas aa gaye. vidyaarthi ji ne unhein apne paas se kuchh rupaye dekar Bhopal unke bade bhaai riyaasat ulla khaaain ke paas bhej diya. kuchh samay vahaaain rahakar ashafaak Rajasthan gaye aur apne bhaai ke mitr arjunalaal sethi ke ghar thahare. sethi ji ki ladki un par fida ho gayi aur unke saamane shaadi ka prastaav pesh kar diya. aakhirkaar ek raat ve vahaaain se bhi rafoochakkar ho gaye aur Bihar ke usi jile daaltanaganj pahuainch kar apni puraani jagah naam badal kar naukri shuroo kar di. ek din bhed khul gaya to ashafaak train pakad kar Delhi chale gaye aur apne jile shaahajahaaainpur ke hi mool nivaasi ek puraane dost ke ghar par thahare. yahaaain bhi vahi museebat ashafaak ke peechhe lag gayi. jiske yahaaain thahare hue the us dost ki ladki ne bhi ashafaak par dore daalne shuroo kar diye. haalaat se aajij aakar ashafaak ne passport banava kar kisi prakaar Delhi se baahar videsh jaakar laala haradayaal se milne ka mansooba banaaya hi tha ki kisi bhediye ki khabar paakar Delhi khufiya police ke upakaptaan ikaraamul hak ne unhein dhar dabocha. aisa kaha jaata hai ki us dost ne hi ashafaak ko pakadavaane mein police ki imadaad (sahaayata) ki thi.

kaakori case ke deegar haalaat

yeh ek aitihaasik sachchaai hai ki kaakori kaand ka faisala 6 April 1926 ko suna diya gaya tha. ashafaak ulla khaaain aur shacheendranaath bakhshi ko police bahut baad mein giraftaar kar paayi thi at: special session judge je0aara0dabloo0 bainet[4] ki adaalat mein 7 December 1926 ko ek poorak mukadama daayar kiya gaya. mukadame ke magistrate ainuddeen ne ashafaak ko salaah di ki ve kisi muslim vakeel ko apne case ke liye niyukt karein kintu ashafaak ne jid karke krupaashankar hajela ko apna vakeel chuna. is par ek din see0aai0dee0 ke police kaptaan khaanabahaadur tasadduk husain ne jail mein jaakar ashafaak se mile aur unhein faaainsi ki saja se bachane ke liye sarkaari gavaah banane ki salaah di. jab ashafaak ne unki salaah ko tabajjo naheen di to unhonne ekaant mein jaakar ashafaak ko samajhaaya-

"dekho ashafaak bhaai! tum bhi muslim ho aur Allah ke fajal se main bhi ek muslim hooain is baaste tumhein aagaah kar raha hooain. ye Ram prasaad bismil bagaira saare log hindu hain. ye yahaaain hindu saltanat kaayam karna chaahate hain. tum kahaaain in kaafiron ke chakkar mein aakar apni jindagi jaaya karne ki jid par tule hue ho. main tumhein aakhiri baar samajhaata hooain, miyaaain! maan jaao; faayde mein rahoge."

itna sunate hi ashafaak ki tyoriyaaain chadh gayeen aur ve gusse mein daaaintakar bole-

"khabaradaar! jubaan samhaal kar baat keejiye. pandit ji (Ram prasaad bismil) ko aapse jyaada main jaanta hooain. unka maksad yeh bilkul naheen hai. aur agar ho bhi to hindu raajya tumhaare is angreji raajya se behtar hi hoga. aapne unhein kaafir kaha iske liye main aapse yahi darakhvaast karooainga ki meharabaani karke aap abhi isi vakt yahaaain se tashareef le jaayein varana mere oopar dafa 302 (katl) ka ek case aur kaayam ho jaayega."

itna sunate hi bechaare kaptaan saahab (tasadduk husain) ki sitti-pitti gum ho gayi aur ve apna sa muainh lekar vahaaain se chupachaap khisak liye. baharahaal 13 July 1927 ko poorak mukadame (sapleementri case) ka faisala suna diya gaya - dafa 120 (bi) va 121 (A) ke antargat umr-kaid aur 396 ke antargat sajaaye-maut arthaat faaainseeka dand.

tamaam appeal daleel ke baavajood faaainsi

judge ne apne faisale mein saaf-saaf likha tha ki in abhiyukton ne apne vyaktigat laabh ke liye yeh shadyantr naheen kiya magar fir bhi agar ye log apne kiye par pashchaataap prakat karein to saja kam ki ja sakti hai. vakeel ki salaah par Lucknow jail mein jaakar ashafaak bismil se mile aur unka mat jaanana chaaha. is par bismil ne unhein samajhaaya ki jis prakaar shataranj ke khel mein haari hui baaji jeetne ke liye kabhi kabhaar apne ek do mohare maravaane hi padate hai, theek usi prakaar ham log bhi maafeenaama daayar kar apne ko maut ki saja se bacha sakein to behtar rahega. saat saal mein umr-kaid poori ho jaane ke baad ham isse bhi bhayankar kaand karke is beraham sarkaar ki naak mein dam kar deinge. paarasparik sahamati se udhar Ram prasaad bismil ne aur idhar ashafaak ulla khaaain ne apna-apna maafeenaama daayar kar diya. ashafaak ne pehla maafeenaama 11 August 1927 va doosra maafeenaama 29 August 1927 ko likhkar bheja. iske atirikt vakeel ki salaah par ek aur marsi-appeal ashafaak ki maaain musammaat majahoorunnishaaain begam ki taraf se vaayasaraaya tatha Governor general ko bheji gayi parantu us par koi vichaar hi naheen hua.

ashafaak va unki maaain ke baad vidhaan sabha sadasyon ne sanyukt roop se hastaakshar karke sanyukt praant ke Governor William moris ko ek memorendam naineetaal bheja. uske saath hi pan0 govind vallabh pant va see0vaai0 chintaamani ne bhi ek praarthana patra bheja kintu sab prayatn bekaar hi rahe. 22 sitmbar 1927 ko hom sekretari echa0 dabloo0 Hague ne apni final report di jiske ant mein usane spasht likha tha- "in logon ka uddeshya ek sthaapit sarkaar ko ulatana tha. yeh chooainki poori tarah siddh ho chuka hai at: is maamale mein faaainsi hi di ja sakti hai, jabki Bengal shadyantr mein, jiski yeh ek shaakha thi, ab tak aisi koi tathyaatmak pushti naheen hui hai; at: vahaaain ke logon ko faaainsi ki saja se mukt rakha gaya hai. mujhe pakka vishvaas hai ki yadi inhein faaainsi ki saja na dekar jinda chhod diya gaya to ye Bengal to kya, poore Hindustan mein fail jaayeinge[5]."

in tamaam apeelon va daleelon ka itna asar jaroor hua ki faaainsi ki taareekh do baar aage badha di gayi. pahle yeh taareekh 16 sitmbar 1927 thi, baad mein 11 October 1927 hui. chooainki landan ki privi-kaunsil mein marsi-appeal ja chuki thi at: faaainsi ki taareekh fir se aage ke liye taal di gayi. aakhirkaar 19 December 1927 ki taareekh mukarrar hui aur iski soochana chaaro jailon ko bhej di gayi. faijaabaad jail mein yeh soochana pahuainchate hi ashafaak ne 29 November 1927 ko apne bhaai riyaasat ulla khaaain, 15 December 1927 ko apni vaalida mohatarama majahoorunnishaaain begam tatha 16 December 1927 ko apni muainh boli bahan nalini deedi ko khat likha aur khuda ki ibaadat mein jut gaye.

viraadaraane-vatan ke naam

jumeraat (guruvaar), 15 December 1927 ki shaam faijaabaad jail ki kaal kothari se ashafaak ulla khaaain ne apna yeh aakhiri paigaam Hindustan ke avaam ke naam likhkar urdoo bhaasha mein bheja tha. unka maksad yeh tha ki muslim samudaaya ke log is par khaas tavajjo ata karein. ek police adhikaari pan0 vidyaarnav sharma ki pustak yug ke devata : bismil aur ashafaak mein prushth sankhya 172 se 178 tak yeh poora sandesh diya hua hai usi mein se kuchh khaas ansh vikipeediya ke darshakon hetu yahaaain par diye ja rahe hain.

gavarnament ke khufiya ejent majahabi buniyaad par propeganda faila rahe hain. in logon ka maksad majahab ki hifaajat ya tarakki naheen hai, balki chalti gaadee mein rodaa atakaana hai. mere paas vakt naheen hai aur na mauka hai ki sab kachcha chittha khol kar rakh deta, jo mujhe ayyaame-faraari (bhoomigat rahane) mein aur uske baad maaloom hua. yahaaain tak mujhe maaloom hai ki maulavi niyaamatulla kaadiyaani kaun tha jo Kabul mein sangasaar (pattharon se peet kar dher) kiya gaya. vah british ejent tha jiske paas hamaare karamafarama (bhaagyavidhaata) khaanabahaadur tasadduk husain saahab deputy suparintendent see0aai0dee0 gavarnament of indiya paigaam lekar gaye the magar bedaaramagj hukoomate-Kabul (Kabul ki hoshiyaar sarkaar) ne usaka ilaaj jald kar diya aur marj ko vahaaain par failane na diya[6].


iske baad unhonne hindu-muslim ekta ke faayde, Ahmedabad Congress jaisa ittihaad (melamilaap), gori angrejiyt ka bhoot utaarane ki baat karte hue desh ke sabhi communist group (bhaarateeya communist party) se videshi moh va deshi cheejon se nafarat ka tyaag karne ki naayaab naseehat dete hue chand angreji panktiyon ke saath rukhasat hone ki gujaarish ki thi.

mere bhaaiyo! mera salaam lo aur is naamukammal (adhoore) kaam ko, jo hamse rah gaya hai, tum poora karna. tumhaare liye humne yoo0pee0 (uttar pradesh) ka maidaane-amal (kaarya-kshetr) taiyaar kar diya. ab tum jaano tumhaara kaam jaane. main chand sutoor (panktiyon) ke baad rukhasat (vida) hota hooain[7]:

"To every man upon this earth, death cometh soon or late.
But how can man die better, than facing fearful odds.
For the ashes of his fathers, and temples of his gods."


ashafaak ki aakhiri raat

shaahajahaaainpur ke aagneya kavi svargeeya agnivesh shukl ne yeh bhaavapoorn kavita likhi thi jismein unhonne faijaabaad jail ki kaal-kothari mein faaainsi se poorv apni jindagi ki aakhiri raat gujaarte hue ashafaak ke dilo-dimaag mein uth rahe jajvaaton ke toofaan ko hindi shabdon ka khoobsoorat jaama pahanaaya hai. vikipeediya ke paathakon ki seva mein yahaaain us kavita ke chuninda ansh diye ja rahe hain[8]:

jaaooainga khaali haath magar, yeh dard saath hi jaayega;jaane kis din hindostaan, aajaad vatan kahalaayega.

bismil hindu hain kehte hain, fir aaooainga-fir aaooainga; le naya janm ai Bhaarat maaain! tujhako aajaad karaaooainga..
ji karta hai main bhi kah dooain, par majahab se baindh jaata hooain; main musalmaan hooain punarjanm ki baat naheen kah paata hooain.
haaain, khuda agar mil gaya kaheen, apni jholi faila dooainga; au' jannat ke badle usase, yak naya janm hi maaaingooainga..


faaainseeghar se majaar tak ka safar

chitr:Dead Body of Ashfaq405.jpg
Lucknow station par paaraseeshaah photographer dvaara kheencha hua ashafaak ke shav ka photo

faaainsi vaale din somvaar dinaank 19 December 1927 ko ashafaak hamesha ki tarah subah uthe, shauch aadi se nivrutt ho snaan kiya. kuchh der vajraasan mein baith Quraan ki aayaton ko dohraraaya aur kitaab band karke use aaainkhon se chooma. fir apne aap jaakar faaainsi ke takhte par khade ho gaye aur kaha- "mere ye haath insaani khoon se naheen rainge. khuda ke yahaaain mera insaaf hoga." fir apne aap hi fanda gale mein daal liya. ashafaak ki laash faijaabaad jila kaaraagaar se shaahajahaaainpur laayi ja rahi thi. Lucknow station par gaadi badalate samay Kanpur se beemaari ke baavajood chalakar aaye ganeshashankar vidyaarthi ne unki laash ko apne shraddha-suman arpit kiye. paaraseeshaah photographer se ashafaak ke shav ka photo khinchavaaya aur ashafaak ke parivaar janon ko yeh hidaayat dekar Kanpur vaapas chale gaye ki shaahajahaaainpur mein inka pakka makabara jaroor banava dena, agar rupayon ki jaroorat pade to khat likh dena main Kanpur se maneeaardar bhej dooainga. ashafaak ki laash ko unke pushtaini makaan ke saamane vaale bageeche mein dafna diya gaya. unki majaar par sangamaramar ke patthar par ashafaak ulla khaaain ki hi kahi hui ye panktiyaaain likhva di gayeen:

jindagi vaade-fana tujhako milegi 'hasarat',

tera jeena tere marne ki badaulat hoga.


ashafaak yeh pehle se hi jaante the ki unki shahaadat ke baad Hindustan mein libral party yaani Congress hi power mein aayegi aur un jaise aam tabake ke balidaaniyon ka koi charcha naheen hoga; sirf shaasakon ke smruti-lekh hi surakshit rakhe jaayeinge. tabhi to unhonne ye kta kehkar vartamaan haalaat ki bhavishya-vaani bahut pehle san 1927 mein hi kar di thi[9]:

jubaane-haal se ashafaak ki turbat ye kehti hai, muhibbaane-vatan ne kyon hamein dil se bhulaaya hai?

bahut afsos hota hai badee takaleef hoti hai, shaheed ashafaak ki turbat hai aur dhoopon ka saaya hai!!


ganeemat hai ganeshashankar vidyaarthi ne 200 rupaye ka maneeaardar bhejkar ashafaak ki majaar par chhat dalava kar use dhoop ke saaye se bacha liya.

ashafaak aur bismil ki tarahi shaayari

faaainsi ki smruti mein bana amar shaheed ashafaak ulla Khan dwaar (faijaabaad jail, uttar pradesh)

Ram prasaad 'bismil' ki tarah ashafaak bhi bahut achhe shaayar the. in donon ki shaayari ki agar tulana ki jaaye to ratti bhar ka bhi fark aapko najar naheen aayega. pehli baar ki mulaakaat mein hi bismil ashafaak ke mureed ho gaye the jab ek meeting mein bismil ke ek sher ka jabaav unhonne apne ustaad jigr muraadaabaadi ki gajal ke makte se diya tha[10]. jab bismil ne kaha-

"bahe bahare-fana mein jald ya rab! laash 'bismil' ki.
ki bhookhi machhaliyaaain hain jauhare-shamasheer kaatil ki.."

to ashafaak ne "aameen" kehte hue jabaav diya-

"jigr mainne chhupaaya lakh apna darde-gam lekin.
bayaaain kar di meri soorat ne saari kaifiyat dil ki.."

ek roj ka vaakaya hai ashafaak aarya samaaj mandir shaahajahaaainpur mein bismil ke paas kisi kaam se gaye. sanyog se us samay ashafaak jigr muraadaabaadi ki yeh gajal[11]gunaguna rahe the-

"kaun jaane ye tamanna ishk ki manjil mein hai.
jo tamanna dil se nikli fir jo dekha dil mein hai.."

bismil yeh sher sunakar muskara diye to ashafaak ne poochh hi liya-"kyon Ram bhaai! mainne misra kuchh galat kah diya kya?" is par bismil ne jabaab diya- "naheen mere Krishna kanhaiya! yeh baat naheen. main jigr saahab ki bahut ijjat karta hooain magar unhonne mirja gaalib ki puraani jameen par ghisa pita sher kehkar kaun-sa bada teer maar liya. koi nayi rangat dete to main bhi ishaad kehta." ashafaak ko bismil ki yeh baat jainchi naheen; unhonne chunauti bhare lahaje mein kaha- "to Ram bhaai! ab aap hi ismein girh lagaaiye, main maan jaaooainga aapki soch jigr aur mirja gaalib se bhi parale darje ki hai." usi vakt pandit Ram prasaad 'bismil' ne ye sher[12] kaha-

"sarafaroshi ki tamanna ab hamaare dil mein hai.
dekhna hai jor kitna baaju-kaatil mein hai?"

yeh sunate hi ashafaak uchhal pade aur bismil ko gale laga ke bole- "Ram bhaai! maan gaye; aap to ustaadon ke bhi ustaad hain."

iske baad to ashafaak aur bismil mein hod-si lag gayi ek se ek umda sher kehne ki. parantu agar dhyaan se dekha jaaye to donon mein ek tarah ki teleepaithi kaam karti thi tabhi to unke jajbaaton mein ekaroopata dikhaayi deti hai. misaal ke taur par chand misre haajir hain[13]: bismil ka yeh sher-

"ajal se ve darein jeene ko jo achha samajhte hain.
miyaaain! ham chaar din ki jindagi ko kya samajhte hain?"

ashafaak ki is kata ke kitna kareeb jaan padata hai-

"maut ek baar jab aana hai to darna kya hai!
ham ise khel hi samjha kiye marana kya hai?
vatan hamaara rahe shaadakaam aur aabaad,
hamaara kya hai agar ham rahe, rahe na rahe.."

mulk ki maali haalat ko khasta hota dekhkar likhi gayi bismil ki ye panktiyaaain[14]-

"tabaahi jiski kismat mein likhi varke-hasad se thi,
usi gulashan ki shaakhe-khushk par hai aashiyaaain mera."

ashafaak ke is sher se kitni adhik milti hain-

"vo gulashan jo kabhi aabaad tha gujre jamaane mein,
main shaakhe-khushk hooain haaain! haaain! usi ujade gulishtaaain ki."

isi prakaar vatan ki baravaadi par bismil ki peeda[15]-

"gulo-nasareeno-sambul ki jagah ab khaak udati hai,
ujaada haaya! kis kambakht ne yeh bostaaain mera?"

se milta julata ashafaak ka yeh sher kisi bhi tarah apni kaifiyat mein kamtar naheen-

"vo rang ab kahaaain hai nasareeno-nasataran mein,
ujada hua pada hai kya khaak hai vatan mein?"

bismil ki ek badi mashahoor gajal ummeede-sukhan ki ye panktiyaaain-

"kabhi to kaamayaabi par mera hindostaaain hoga.
riha saiyyaad ke haathon se apna aashiyaaain hoga.."

ashafaak ko bahut pasand theen. unhonne isi bahar mein sirf ek hi sher kaha tha jo unki aprakaashit daayari mein is prakaar milta hai[16]:-

"bahut hi jald tooteingi gulaami ki ye janjeerein,
kisi din dekhna aajaad ye hindostaaain hoga."

jinhein ashafaak aur bismil ki shaayari ka vishesh ya tulanaatmak adhyayan karna ho ve kisi bhi pustakaalaya mein jaakar svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas granthaavali ka doosra bhaag dekh sakte hain.

sandarbh srot

  1. madanalaal varma 'kraant' sarafaroshi ki tamanna (bhaag-ek) prushth-70 se 73
  2. dau॰ madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth 533
  3. majarooh na thi jab tak, dil hi na tha mera; sadake tere teeron ka 'bismil' nazar aata hai.
  4. dau॰ ena0 see0 meharotra va maneesha tandan svatantrata aandolan mein shaahajahaaainpur janapad ka yogadaan prushth-134
  5. dau॰ madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas) bhaag-do) prushth 537-538
  6. vidyaarnav sharma yug ke devata : bismil aur ashafaak prushth-173
  7. vidyaarnav sharma yug ke devata : bismil aur ashafaak prushth-177
  8. vidyaarnav sharma yug ke devata : bismil aur ashafaak prushth-210
  9. dau॰ madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-545
  10. dau॰ madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-539
  11. dau॰ madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-539
  12. dau॰ madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-540
  13. madanalaal varma 'kraant' sarafaroshi ki tamanna (bhaag-ek) prushth-148
  14. madanalaal varma 'kraant' sarafaroshi ki tamanna (bhaag-ek) prushth-149
  15. madanalaal varma 'kraant' sarafaroshi ki tamanna (bhaag-ek) prushth-150
  16. madanalaal varma 'kraant' sarafaroshi ki tamanna (bhaag-ek) prushth-152

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain