asamiya bhaasha

asamiya (অaaসaaমaaীaaযaa়aaা)
অaaসaaমaaীaaযaa়aaা Ôaaxôaamiya
boli jaati hai Bhaarat (asam aur anya paas ke raajya), Bangladesh, bhootaan
kul bolne vaale 1.5 karod
bhaasha parivaar hind-Irani
  • hind-aarya
    • asamiya (অaaসaaমaaীaaযaa়aaা)
aadhikaarik star
aadhikaarik bhaasha ghoshit asam (Bhaarat)
niyaamak koi aadhikaarik niyman naheen
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 as
ISO 639-2 asm
ISO 639-3 asm
Indic script
is panne mein hindi ke alaava anya bhaarateeya lipiyaan bhi hai. paryaapt software samarthan ke abhaav mein aapko aniyamit sthiti mein svar va maatraaen tatha sanyojak dikh sakte hain. adhik...

aadhunik bhaarateeya aaryabhaashaaon ki shrunkhala mein poorvi seema par avasthit asam ki bhaasha ko asami, asamiya athva aasaami kaha jaata hai. asamiya Bhaarat ke asam praant mein boli jaane waali pramukh bhaasha hai. bhaashaai parivaar ki drushti se iska sambandh aarya bhaasha parivaar se hai aur baangla, maithili, udiya aur nepaali se iska nikat ka sambandh hai. giyrsan ke vargeekaran ki drushti se yeh baahari upashaakha ke poorvi samudaaya ki bhaasha hai, par suneetikumaar chatarji ke vargeekaran mein praachya samudaaya mein iska sthaan hai. udiya tatha bangala ki bhaanti asami ki bhi utpatti praakrut tatha apabhransh se bhi hui hai.

yadyapi asamiya bhaasha ki utpatti satrahaveen shataabdi se maani jaati hai kintu saahityik abhiruchiyon ka pradarshan terahaveen shataabdi mein rudr kaandaali ke dron parv (mahaabhaarat) tatha maadhav kaandaali ke raamaayan se praarambh hua. vaishnavi aandolan ne praanteeya saahitya ko bal diya. shankar Dave (1449-1568) ne apni lambi jeevan-yaatra mein is aandolan ko svarachit kaavya, naatya va geeton se jeevit rakha.

seema ki drushti se asamiya kshetr ke pashchim mein bangala hai. anya dishaaon mein kai vibhinn parivaaron ki bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain. inmein se tibbati, barmi tatha khaasi pramukh hain. in seemaavarti bhaashaaon ka gahra prabhaav asamiya ki mool prakruti mein dekha ja sakta hai. apne pradesh mein bhi asamiya ekamaatr boli naheen hain. yeh pramukhat: maidaanon ki bhaasha hai.

anukram

asameeya evam bangala

bahut dinon tak asamiya ko bangala ki ek upaboli siddh karne ka upakram hota raha hai. asameeya ki tulana mein bangala bhaasha aur saahitya ke bahumukhi prasaar ko dekhkar hi log is prakaar ki dhaaran banaate rahe hain. parantu bhaashaavaijnyaaanik drushti se bangala aur asameeya ka samaanaantar vikaas aasaani se dekha ja sakta hai. maagadhi apabhransh ke ek hi srot se ni:srut hone ke kaaran donon mein samaanataaeain ho sakti hain, par unke aadhaar par ek doosari ki boli siddh naheen kiya ja sakta.

kshetravistaar evam seemaaeain

kshetreeya vistaar ki drushti se asamiya ke kai uparoop milte hain. inmein se do mukhya hain - poorvi roop aur pashchimi roop. saahityik prayog ki drushti se poorvi roop ko hi maanak maana jaata hai. poorvi ki apeksha pashchimi roop mein boleegat vibhinnataaeain adhik hain. asamiya ke in do mukhya roopon mein dhvani, vyaakaran tatha shabdasamooh, in teenon hi drushtiyon se antar milte hain. asamiya ke shabdasamooh mein sanskrut tatsam, tadbhav tatha deshaj ke atirikt videshi bhaashaaon ke shabd bhi milte hain. anaarya bhaashaaparivaaron se gruheet shabdon ki sankhya bhi kam naheen hai. bhaasha mein saamaanyat: tadbhav shabdon ki pradhaanata hai. hindi urdoo ke maadhyam se faarasi, arabi tatha purtagaali aur kuchh anya Europeeya bhaashaaon ke bhi shabd aa gaye hain.

shabdasamooh

bhaarateeya aaryabhaashaaon ki shrunkhala mein poorvi seema par sthit hone ke kaaran asamiya kai anaarya bhaashaaparivaaron se ghiri hui hai. is star par seemaavarti bhaasha hone ke kaaran uske shabdasamooh mein anaarya bhaashaaon ke kai sroton ke liye hue shabd milte hain. in sroton mein se teen apekshaakrut adhik mukhya hain :

(1) ostro-eshiyaatik - (a) khaasi, (aa) kolaari,

(i) malaayan

(2) tibbati-barmi-bodo

(3) thai-ahom

shabdasamooh ki is mishrit sthiti ke prasang mein yeh spasht kar dena uchit hoga ki khaasi, bodo tatha thai tatv to asamiya mein udhaar liye gaye hain, par malaayan aur kolaari tatvon ka mishran in bhaashaaon ke moolaadhaar ke paasparik mishran ke falasvaroop hai. anaarya bhaashaaon ke prabhaav ko asam ke anek sthaananaamon mein bhi dekha ja sakta hai. ostrik, bodo tatha ahom ke bahut se sthaananaam graamon, nagaron tatha nadiyon ke naamakaran ki prushthabhoomi mein milte hain. ahom ke sthaananaam pramukhat: nadiyon ko diye gaye naamon mein hain.

lipi

asamiya lipi moolat: braahmi ka hi ek viksit roop hai. bangala se usaki nikat samaanata hai. lipi ka praacheenatam upalabdh roop bhaaskaravarman ka 610 E. ka taamrapatr hai. parantu uske baad se aadhunik roop tak lipi mein "naagari" ke maadhyam se kai prakaar ke parivartan hue hain.

itihaas

asamiya bhaasha ka vyavasthit roop 13veen tatha 14veen shataabdi se milne par bhi usaka poorvaroop bauddh siddhon ke "charyaapad" mein dekha ja sakta hai. "charyaapad" ka samay vidvaanon ne isavi san 600 se 1000 ke beech sthir kiya hai. in dohon ke lekhak siddhon mein se kuchh ka to kaamaroop pradesh se ghanisht sambandh tha. "charyaapad" ke samay se 12veen shataabdi tak asami bhaasha mein kai prakaar ke maukhik saahitya ka srujan hua tha. manikonvar-fulakonvar-geet, daakavachan, tantr mantra aadi is maukhik saahiya ke kuchh roop hain.

asamiya bhaasha ka poorvavarti, apabhranshamishrit boli se bhinn roop praaya: 18 veen shataabdi se spasht hota hai. bhaashaagat visheshataaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue asamiya ke vikaas ke teen kaal maane ja sakte hain :

praarambhik asamiya

14veen shataabdi se 16veen shataabdi ke ant tak. is kaal ko fir do yugon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai : (a) vaishnav-poorv"yug tatha (aa) vaishnav. is yug ke sabhi lekhakon mein bhaasha ka apna svaabhaavik roop nikhr aaya hai, yadyapi kuchh praacheen prabhaavon se vah sarvatha mukt naheen ho saki hai. vyaakaran ki drushti se bhaasha mein paryaapt ekaroopata naheen milti. parantu asamiya ke pratham mahatvooparn lekhak shankaradev (janm--1449) ki bhaasha mein ye trutiyaaain nahi milti. vaishnav-poorv-yug ki bhaasha ki avyavastha yahaaain samaapt ho jaati hai. shankaradev ki rachanaaon mein brajabuli prayogon ka baahulya hai.

madhya asamiya

17veen shataabdi se 19veen shataabdi ke praarambh tak. is yug mein ahom raajaaon ke darbaar ki gadyabhaasha ka roop pradhaan hai. in gadyakartaaon ko buranji kaha gaya hai. buranji saahitya mein itihaas lekhan ki praarambhik sthiti ke darshan hote hain. pravrutti ki drushti se yeh poorvavarti dhaarmik saahitya se bhinn hai. buranjiyon ki bhaasha aadhunik roop ke adhik nikat hai.

aadhunik asameeya

19veen shataabdi ke praarambh se. 1819 E. mein Amreeki baptist paadariyon dvaara prakaashit asameeya gadya mein baaibil ke anuvaad se aadhunik asameeya ka kaal praarambh hota hai. mission ka kendra poorvi Assam mein hone ke kaaran usaki bhaasha mein poorvi Assam ki boli ko hi aadhaar maana gaya. 1846 E. mein mission dvaara ek maasik patra "arunodaya" prakaashit kiya gaya. 1848 mein asameeya ka pratham vyaakaran chhapa aur 1867 mein pratham asameeya angreji shabdakosh.

asameeya saahitya

asameeya ke shisht aur likhit saahitya ka itihaas paaainch kaalon mein vibhkt kiya jaata hai:

(1) vaishnavapoorvakaal : 1200-1449 E.,

(2) vaishnavakaal : 1449-1650 E.,

(3) gadya, buranji kaal : 1650-1926 E.,

(4) aadhunik kaal : 1026-1947 E.,

(5) svaadheenatottarakaal : 1947 E.-.

asameeya saahitya ki 16vi sadi se 19veen sadi tak ki kaavya dhaara ko chhah bhaagon mein baaaint sakte hain-

  • mahaakaavyon va puraanon ke anuvaad
  • kaavya ya puraanon ki kahaaniyaaain
  • geet
  • nirpeksh va upayogitaavaadi kaavya
  • jeevaniyon par aadhaarit kaavya
  • dhaarmik katha kaavya ya sangrah

asameeya ki paaramparik kavita uchchavarg tak hi seemit thi. bhartrudev (1558-1638) ne asamiya gadya saahitya ko sugathit roop pradaan kiya. Damodar Dave ne pramukh jeevaniyaaain likheen. purushottam thaakur ne vyaakaran par kaam kiya. athaarahavi shati ke teen dashak tak saahitya mein vishesh parivartan dikhaai naheen diye. uske baad chaalees varshon tak asamiya saahitya par baangla ka varchasv bana raha. asamiya ko jeevan pradaan karne mein chandra Kumar Agrawal (1858-1938), lakshmeenaath bejabaruaa (1867-1838), va hemachandr Goswami (1872-1928) ka yogadaan raha. asameeya mein chhaayaavaadi aandolan chhedne waali maasik patrika jonaaki ka praarambh inheen logon ne kiya tha. unneesaveen shataabdi ke upanyaasakaar padmanaabh gohen baruaa aur rajaneekant baardoloi ne aitihaasik upanyaas likhe. saamaajik upanyaas ke kshetr mein devaachandr taalukadaar va beena baruaa ka naam pramukhata se aata hai. svatantrata praapti ke baad birendr Kumar Bhattacharya ko mrutyanjaya upanyaas ke liye jnyaaanapeeth puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya. is bhaasha mein kshetreeya va jeevani roop mein bhi bahut se upanyaas likhe gaye hain. 40ve va 50vein dashak ki kavitaaeain va gadya maarksavaadi vichaaradhaara se bhi prabhaavit dikhaai deti hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain