asahayog aandolan

asahayog aandolan mahaatma Gandhi ke nettrutv me sitmbar, 1920[1] me chalaaya gaya tha. 4 fravari 1922 ko chauri chaura mein bhaarateeyon dvaara bitrish sarkaar ki ek police chauki ko aag laga kar usamein chhupe hue 22 police karmachaariyon ko jinda jala ke maar daala tha tab Gandhi ne kaha tha ki hinsa hone ke kaaran asahayog aandolan upayukt naheen rah gaya hai aur ise vaapas le liya tha.

1917 ka adhikaansh samay mahaatma gaaaindhi ko kisaanon ke liye kaashtakaari ki suraksha ke saath-saath apni pasand ki fsal upajaane ki aajaadi dilaane mein beeta. agale varsh yaani 1918 mein gaaaindhi ji Gujarat ke apne gruh raajya mein do abhiyaanon mein sanlagn rahe. sabse pehle unhonne Ahmedabad ke ek shram vivaad mein hastakshep kar kapde ki milon mein kaam karne vaalon ke liye kaam karne ki behtar sthitiyon ki maaaing ki. iske baad unhonne kheda mein fsal chaupat hone par raajya se kisaanon ka lagaan maaf karne ki maaaing ki. chanpaaran, Ahmedabad aur kheda mein ki gayi pahal se gaaaindhi ji ek aise raashtravaadi ke roop mein ubhare jinmein gareebon ke liye gahari sahaanubhooti thi. isi tarah ye sabhi sthaanik sangharsh the. iske baad 1919 mein aupaniveshik shaasakon ne gaaaindhi ji ki jholi mein ek aisa mudda daal diya jisse ve kaheen adhik vistrut aandolan khada kar sakte the.

anukram

press par pratibandh

1914-18 ke mahaan yuddh ke dauraan angrejon ne press par pratibandh laga diya tha aur bina jaaainch ke kaaraavaas ki anumati de di thi. ab sar Sydney raulet ki adhyakshata waali ek samiti ki sanstutiyon ke aadhaar par in kathor upaayon ko jaari rakha gaya. iske javaab mein gaaaindhi ji ne deshbhar mein 'raulet act' ke khilaaf ek abhiyaan chalaaya. uttari aur pashchimi Bhaarat ke kasbon mein chaaron taraf band ke samarthan mein dukaanon aur schoolon ke band hone ke kaaran jeevan lagbhag thahar sa gaya tha. Punjab mein, vishesh roop se kada virodh hua, jahaaain ke bahut se logon ne yuddh mein angrejon ke paksh mein seva ki thi aur ab apni seva ke badle ve inaam ki apeksha kar rahe the. lekin iski jagah unhein raulet act diya gaya. Punjab jaate samay gaaaindhi ji ko kaid kar liya gaya. sthaaneeya kaangresajanon ko girftaar kar liya gaya tha. praant ki yeh sthiti dheere-dheere aur tanaavapoorn ho gayi tatha April 1919 mein amrutasar mein yeh khoonakharaabe ke charamotkarsh par hi pahuainch gayi. jab ek angrej Brigadier ne ek raashtravaadi sabha par goli chalaane ka hukm diya tab jaaliyaaainvaala baag hatyaakaanda‎ ke naam se jaane gaye is hatyaakaand mein chaar sau se adhik log maare gaye. == asahayog ka aarambh == raulet satyaagrah se hi gaaaindhi ji ek sachche raashtreeya neta ban gaye. iski saflata se utsaahit hokar gaaaindhi ji ne angreji shaasan ke khilaaf asahayog aandolan ki maaaing kar di. jo bhaarateeya upaniveshavaad ka khtm karna chaahate the unase aagrah kiya gaya ki ve skoolo, kaulejo aur nyaayaalaya na jaaeain tatha kar na chukaaeain. sankshep mein sabhi ko angreji sarkaar ke saath ;sabhi aichhik sanbandho ke parityaag ka paalan karne ko kaha gaya. gaaaindhi ji ne kaha ki yadi asahayog ka theek dhang se paalan kiya jaae to Bhaarat ek varsh ke bheetar Swaraj praapt kar lega. apne sangharsh ka aur vistaar karte hue unhonne khilaafat aandolana‎ ke saath haath mila liye jo haal hi mein Turkey shaasak kamaal ataaturk dvaara samaapt kiye gaye sarv-islaamavaad ke prateek khaleefa ki punarsthaapana ki maaaing kar raha tha.

aandolan ki taiyaari

gaaaindhi ji ne yeh aasha ki thi ki asahayog ko khilaaft ke saath milaane se Bhaarat ke do pramukh samudaaya- hindu aur musalmaan milkar aupaniveshik shaasan ka ant kar deinge. in aandolanon ne nishchaya hi ek lokapriya kaarravaahi ke bahaav ko unmukt kar diya tha aur ye cheejein aupaniveshik Bhaarat mein bilkul hi abhootapoorv theen. vidyaarthiyon ne sarkaar dvaara chalaae ja rahe schoolon aur collegeon mein jaana chhod diya. vakeelon ne adaalat mein jaane se mana kar diya. kai kasbon aur nagaron mein shramik-varg hadtaal par chala gaya. sarkaari aaainkadon ke mutaabik 1921 mein 396 hadtaalein hui jinmein 6 lakh shramik shaamil the aur isse 70 lakh kaaryadivson ka nuksaan hua tha. dehaat bhi asantosh se aandolit ho raha tha. pahaadi janajaatiyon ne vanya kaanoonon ki avhelna kar di. avadhi ke kisaanon ne kar naheen chukaae. kumaauain ke kisaanon ne aupaniveshik adhikaariyon ka saamaan dhone se mana kar diya. in virodhi aandolanon ko kabhi-kabhi sthaaneeya raashtravaadi netrutv ki avajnyaa karte hue kaaryaanvayit kiya gaya. kisaanon, shramikon aur anya ne iski apne dhang se vyaakhya ki tatha aupaniveshik shaasan ke saath 'asahayog' ke liye unhonne upar se praapt nirdeshon par tike rahane ke bajaay apne hiton se mel khaate tareekon ka istemaal kar kaarravaahi ki. mahaatma gaaaindhi ke Amreeki jeevani-lekhak lui fishr ne likha hai ki 'asahayog Bhaarat aur gaaaindhi ji ke jeevan ke ek yug ka hi naam ho gaya. asahayog shaanti ki drushti se nakaaraatmak kintu prabhaav ki drushti se bahut sakaaraatmak tha. iske liye prativaad, parityaag aur sv-anushaasan aavashyak the. yeh svashaasan ke liye ek prashikshan tha.' 1857 ke vidroh ke baad pehli baar asahayog aandolan ke parinaamasvaroop angreji raaj ki neenv hil gayi.

chauri-chaura kaand

fravari 1922 mein kisaanon ke ek samooh ne sanyukt praant ke chauri-chaura purava mein ek police station par aakraman kar usamein aag laga di. is agnikaand mein kai police vaalon ki jaan chali gayi. hinsa ki is kaaryavaahi se gaaaindhi ji ko yeh aandolan tatkaal vaapas lena pada. unhonne jor diya ki, 'kisi bhi tarah ki uttejana ko nihatthe aur ek tarah se bheed ki daya par nirbhar vyaktiyon ki ghrunit hatya ke aadhaar par uchit naheen thaharaaya ja sakta hai'. parantu gandhi ji yaha yeh bhool gaye ki san 1919 me baisakhi ke din jaliyaanvaala baag me hajaaro nihatthe bhaarateeyo ko inhi police vaalo ne gher kar masheenagan se nirmamata se bhoon diya tha fir bhi asahayog aandolan ke dauraan hajaaron bhaarateeyon ko jail mein daal diya gaya. swayam gaaaindhi ji ko March 1922 mein raajadroh ke aarop mein girftaar kar liya gaya. un par jaaainch ki kaarravaahi ki adhyakshata karne vaale judge Justice si- N- broomafeeld ne unhein saja sunaate samay ek mahatvapoorn bhaashan diya. judge ne tippani ki ki, is tathya ko nakaarana asambhav hoga ki maine aaj tak jinki jaaainch ki hai athva karooainga aap unase bhinn shreni ke hain. is tathya ko nakaarana asambhav hoga ki aapke laakhon deshvaasiyon ki drushti mein aap ek mahaan deshbhakt aur neta hain. yahaaain tak ki raajaneeti mein jo log aapse bhinn mat rakhate hain ve bhi aapko uchch aadasho aur pavitra jeevan vaale vyakti ke roop mein dekhte hain. chooainki gaaaindhi ji ne kaanoon ki avhelna ki thi at: us nyaaya peeth ke liye gaaaindhi ji ko 6 varshon ki jail ki saja sunaaya jaana aavashyak tha. lekin judge broomafeeld ne kaha ki 'yadi Bhaarat mein ghat rahi ghatnaaon ki vajah se sarkaar ke liye saja ke in varshon mein kami aur aapko mukt karna sambhav hua to isse mujhse jyaada koi prasann naheen hoga.

prins of vels ka bahishkaar

April, 1921 mein prins of vels ke Bhaarat aagaman par unka sarvatr kaala jhanda dikhaakar svaagat kiya gaya. Gandhi ji ne Ali bandhuon ki rihaai na kiye jaane ke kaaran prins of vels ke Bhaarat aagaman ka bahishkaar kiya. 17 November 1921 ko jab prins of vels ka Mumbai, vartamaan mumbai aagaman hua, to unka svaagat raashtravyaapi hadtaal se hua. isi beech December, 1921 mein Ahmedabad mein Congress ka adhiveshan hua. yahaaain par asahayog aandolan ko tej karne evam savinya avajnyaa aandolan chalaane ki yojana bani.

aandolan samaapti ka nirnaya

isi beech 5 fravari 1922 ko devariya jile ke chauri chaura naamak sthaan par police ne jabaran ek juloos ko rokana chaaha, iske falasvaroop janta ne krodh mein aakar thaane mein aag laga di, jismein ek thaanedaar evam 21 sipaahiyon ki mrutyu ho gayi. is ghatna se Gandhi ji stabdh rah gaye. 12 fravari 1922 ko baaradoli mein hui Congress ki baithak mein asahayog aandolan ko samaapt karne ke nirnaya ke baare mein Gandhi ji ne yang indiya mein likha tha ki, "aandolan ko hinsak hone se bachaane ke liye main har ek apamaan, har ek yaatanaapoorn bahishkaar, yahaaain tak ki maut bhi sahane ko taiyaar hooain." ab Gandhi ji ne rachanaatmak kaaryon par jor diya.

netaaon ke vichaar

asahayog aandolan ke sthagan par Motilal Nehru ne kaha ki, "yadi kanyaakumaari ke ek gaaainv ne ahinsa ka paalan naheen kiya, to iski saja himaalaya ke ek gaaainv ko kyon milni chaahiye." apni pratikriya mein subhaashachandr Bose ne kaha, "theek is samay, jabki janta ka utsaah charamotkarsh par tha, vaapas lautane ka aadesh dena raashtreeya durbhaagya se kam naheen". aandolan ke sthagit karne ka prabhaav Gandhi ji ki lokapriyta par pada. 13 March 1922 ko Gandhi ji ko girftaar kiya gaya tatha nyaayaadheesh broom feeld ne Gandhi ji ko asantosh bhadkaane ke aparaadh mein 6 varsh ki kaid ki saja sunaai. svaasthya sambandhi kaaranon se unhein 5 fravari 1924 ko riha kar diya gaya.


sandarbh