arthavijnyaaan

bhaashaavijnyaaan ke antargat arthavijnyaaan ya 'shabdaarthavijnyaaan' (Semantics) shabdon ke arth se sambandhit vidha hai.

parichay

bhaasha ke daayare mein shabdon aur vaakyon ke taatparya ka adhyayan arth-vigyaan kahalaata hai. unneesaveen sadi ke uttaraardh se pehle arth-vigyaan ko ek alag anushaasan ke roop mein maanyata naheen thi. fraanseesi bhaasha-shaastri Michelle breel ne is anushaasan ki sthaapana ki aur ise 'seemeintiks' ka naam diya. beesaveen sadi ki shuruaat mein frdinaind the saisyoor dvaara pravartit bhaashaai kraanti ke baad se seemeintiks ke pair samaaj-vigyaan mein jamate chale gaye. seemeintiks ka pehla kaam hai bhaashaai shreniyon ki pehchaan karna aur unhein upayukt shabdaavali mein vyaakhyaayit karna. oopar se sahaj par bheetar se pecheeda lagne waali arth- sambandhi kavaayadein seemeintiks ki madad ke bina naheen ho sakateen. udaaharan ke liye 'nashvar hote hain log' aur 'nashvar the gaaaindhi' ke beech arth-grahan ke antar par drushti daal kar seemeintiks ki upayogita ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai. doosare vaakya ka nihitaarth yeh hai ki gaaaindhi ko amar maana jaata tha ya gaaaindhi jaise log bhi nashvar hote hain. seemeintiks yeh pata lagaata hai ki arth-grahan ka yeh antar paida karne mein bhaasha kaise kaam karti hai.

vichitr baat yeh hai ki arth-vigyaan par shuruaat mein bhaasha-shaastriyon bajaay ne gahari daali. saath ke dashak se bhaashaavidon ne bhaashaai arthon ke do buniyaadi prakaaron ko rekhaankit karna shuroo kiya. maana gaya ki arth ki pehli kism to bhaashaai roop mein hi sahajaat hoti hai. doosari kism ka taalluk us roop ke bole jaane aur us abhivyakti ke sandarbh ke beech anyonyakriya se hota hai. ke arth-niroopan teen ke vibhedon ke tahat kiya jaata raha hai. inmein pehla hai bodh aur sandarbh ke beech ka antar. doosra hai shabd ke arth aur vaakya ke arth ka bhed. teesara hai paath aur sandarbh ke beech ka antar. is teesare antar ko ab seemeintiks se alag karke bhaasha-shaastriyon ne praigamaitiks ke roop mein naya anushaasan bana diya gaya hai. seemeintiks ke tahat jis bhaasha ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai use lakshya-bhaasha (objekt laingvej) ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai aur jis bhaasha mein usaki vyaakhya ki jaati hai use maitaaleingvej kehte hain. ek lakshya-bhaasha apni vyaakhya ke maitaaleingvej bhoomika ada sakti hai. bhaasha-shaastr ke itihaas mein arth-grahan sambandhi kavaayadein pehle shabd-keindrit theen, fir ve vaakya-keindrit huin aur fir ve paath- keindrit ho gayeen. in teenon prakriyaaon ne media-adhyayan, saahityaalochana, vyaakhyaatmak samaajashaastr aur sanjnyaaanaatmak vigyaan ke anushaasanon ko prabhaavit kiya hai. seemeintiks prashn uthaata hai ki kisi shabd ke arth ki shinaakht bhaasha ke daayare ke bheetar hi ki jaae ya arth-niroopan ke liye uske baahari daayare se bhi madad li jaae. masalan, kursi ka matlab hamein pata hai, par, yeh arth ham kis prakaar haasil karte hain? ham kah sakte han ki kursi par baitha jaata hai. par, bhaasha ke bheetar kursi ka arth frneechar, mej, seat ya bench jaise anya arthon sahit uske sambandh ke saath bhi grahan kiya jaata hai. in shabdon ke saath rakh kar baithane ke liye kaam aane waali kursi ka arth-grahan alag ho jaata hai. bodh aur sandarbh ke beech antar ka ek aur udaaharan shukr grah ya Venus hai. ise bhor ka taara bhi kaha jaata hai aur saandhya-taara bhi, kyonki iski chamak subah bhi dikhaayi padti hai aur raat mein bhi. is tarah shukr, bhor ka taara aur saandhya-taara ek hi cheej ke teen naam hain. lekin sandarbh ek hi hote hue bhi teenon ko alag-alag bodh ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.

seemeintiks ka jor sandarbh par kam aur bodh par adhik rahata chooainki arth-grahan ke hi chaahata hai, isliye vah nateeja niklata hai ki yathaarth ki samajh bhi bhaasha ke jriye hi haasil ho sakti hai aur uske liye sanskruti, itihaas aur anya bhautik prakriyaaon ka koi mahattv naheen hai. bhaasha ke bheetar shabdaarth praapt karne ke liye seemeintiks mein teen mukhya sambandhon samaanaarthak, vilomaarthak aur haayaponaumikl ka sahaara liya jaata hai. haayaponaunimkal shreni ve aate jinke mein shabd abhivyaktiyaaain bhi shaamil hoti hain. jaise, kutta kisi billi, bandar, jiraaf ya kharagosh ki tarah ek pashu bhi hai aur saath mein vah teriyr, haaund, jarman shefrd ya ritreevar bhi ho sakta hai. dhyaan dene ke baat yeh hai ki ye teenon roop kisi suparibhaashit bhaashaai pranaali ke bheetar arth rachane ke kaam zaroor aate hain, lekin iska matlab yeh naheen hai ki arth-grahan aur arth- rachana ki saamaajik aur saamudaayik prakriyaaeain bhi unki mohataaj hoti hon. masalan, koi aisa samudaaya bhi ho sakta hai jo in teen sambandhon ke bina arthaat bhaasha ke daayare ke baahar shabdon ki arth-rachana karta ho. uttar ameriki mein hopi ek aisa hai pakshiyon chhod sabhi waali cheejon ke liye alag-alag ke bajaay ek hi shabd ka istemaal hota hai. is kabeele ke log machhar, gubbaara aur havaai jahaaj ya aisi hi kisi cheej ko 'masaayataaka' naam dete hain.

vaakyon ke maadhyam se shabdaarth grahan karna bhi seemeintiks ke daayare mein aata hai. 'ramesh ne Umesh se makaan khreeda' daraasal 'Umesh ne ramesh ko makaan becha' ka samaanaarthak hai. isi tarah ka samaanaarthak sambandh 'police ne aandolanakaariyon ko girkrataar kar liya' ka 'aandolanakaari police dvaara girkrataar kar liye gaye' ke beech hai. isi tarah vaakyon ke beech doosare arth-sambandh bante hain. udaaharan ke liye 'ameriki commando yunit ke haathon Osama bin Laden maara gaya' aur 'Osama bin Laden maara gaya' ke beech ka arth-sambandh dekha ja sakta hai. agar pehle vaakya ke mutaabik ameriki commando yunit ne Osama ko vaastav mein maar daala hai, to doosra vaakya bhi jis yathaarth ka niroopan karna chaahata hai use sach maan liya jaaega. arth ke lihaaj se ek vaakya ki doosare par nirbharata ke saath- saath vaakya apne arth ke liye usamein antarnihit poorv-maanyata par bhi nirbhar karte hain. jaise : 'raksha mantraalaya ke ek vaktavya ke anusaar Bhaarat ko un shaktiyon ka prayog karna chaahiye jinse Pakistan ko seema-paar se hone vaale aantakavaad ko protsaahit karne se roka ja sake'. is vaakya mein do poorv- maanyataaeain nihit hain : pehli, Bhaarat ke paas aavashyak shaktiyaaain hain aur doosari, Pakistan seema-paar aatankvaad ko protsaahit kar raha hai.

pichhle das saal mein seemeintiks aur praigamaitiks ke kshetron mein zabardast bhaasha-shaastreeya kaam hua hai. vaakyon aur shabdon ke arthon ke beech antar karne waali ye seemeintik kavaayadein oopar se dekhne mein bahut maamooli lag sakti hain, par kisi ibaarat mein antarnihit vichaaradhaaraatmak taatparyon aur daavedaariyon ko saamane laane ke liye inki ahamiyt se inkaar naheen kiya ja sakta. seemeintiks aur praigamaitiks ka sahaara lekar raajaneeti-vigyaan ke kai padon mein hue arth sambandhi parivrtanon ka adhyayan bhi kiya ja sakta hai. masalan, lokatantr ka arth arastoo ke jmaane se lekar kaafi dinon tak saadhaaran logon ya unki bheed ke tantr yaani avyavasthit aur araajak pranaali ke roop mein lagaaya jaata raha hai. lekin aaj lokatantr ek vyavasthit kriyaavidhi ke mutaabik kaam karne waali vyavastha ke arth mein roodh ho gaya hai. isliye jaise hi koi maaaing ya aandolan ki prakriyaaon seedhe hastakshep ki maaaing karta hai, use vyavastha ke liye khtara karaar diya jaane lagta hai. Bhaarat mein jayaprakaash Narayan ke netrutv mein chale sampoorn kraanti aandolan ne pratinidhi vaapasi ke adhikaar ki maaaing karke aisi hi arth-sambandhi bechainiyaaain paida ki theen. anna hajaare ke netrutv mein chale bhrashtaachaar virodhi aandolan ne bhi lokatantr se judi arth-sambandhi samasyaaon ko pesh kiya hai. ab yeh bhaasha-shaastriyon aur lokatantr ke chintakon ka kaam hai ki ve lokatantr ke arth mein aaye is parivartan ki arth-vaigyaanik vyaakhya karein.

sandarbh

1. aar. (1947), introduction seemeintiks, maisaachusets.

2. J. liyons (1977), seemeintiks, khand 2, kembrij yunivrsiti press, kembrij.

3. William fraaule (1992), linguistik seemeintiks, Lawrence erlabaum, hisladel, enaje.

4. thiyo aar. haufmaan (1993), relms of meening, laangamain, London.

5. Jacob L. mi (sampa.) (2009), kansaaij inasaaiklopeediya of praigmaitiks, elsaviyr, oksafrd.

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