arthashaastr (granth)

arthashaastr, kautilya ya chaanakya (chauthi shati isaapoorv) dvaara rachit sanskrut ka ek granth hai. ismein raajyavyavastha, krushi, nyaaya evam raajaneeti aadi ke vibhinn pahaluon par vichaar kiya gaya hai. apne tarah ka (raajya-prabandhan vishyak) yeh praacheenatam granth hai. iski shaili upadeshaatmak aur salaahaatmak (instructional) hai.

yeh praacheen bhaarateeya raajaneeti ka prasiddh granth hai. iske rachanaakaar ka vyaktinaam vishnugupt, gotranaam kautilya (kutil se vyutpatr) aur sthaaneeya naam chaanakya (pita ka naam chanak hone se) tha. arthashaastr (15.431) mein lekhak ka spasht kathan hai:

yen shaastran ch shastran ch nandaraajagata ch bhoo: .
amarshenoddhrutaanyaashu ten shaastramidankrutam . iti.
is granth ki rachana un aachaarya ne ki jinhonne anyaaya tatha kushaasan se kruddh hokar naandon ke haath mein gaye hue shaastr, shaastr evam pruthvi ka sheeghrata se uddhaar kiya tha.

chaanakya samraat chandragupt maurya (321-298 E.) ke mahaamantri the. unhonne chandragupt ke prashaasakeeya upayog ke liye is granth ki rachana ki thi. yeh mukhyat: sootrashaili mein likha hua hai aur sanskrut ke sootrasaahitya ke kaal aur parampara mein rakha ja sakta hai. yeh shaastr anaavashyak vistaar se rahit, samajhne aur grahan karne mein saral evam kautilya dvaara un shabdon mein racha gaya hai jinka arth sunishchit ho chuka hai. (arthashaastr, 15.6)'

arthashaastr mein samasaamayik raajaneeti, arthaneeti, vidhi, samaajaneeti, tatha dharmaadi par paryaapt prakaash padta hai. is vishay ke jitne granth abhi tak upalabdh hain unamein se vaastavik jeevan ka chitran karne ke kaaran yeh sabse adhik moolyavaan hai. is shaastr ke prakaash mein na keval dharm, arth aur kaam ka pranayan aur paalan hota hai apitu adharm, anarth tatha avaanchhaneeya ka shaman bhi hota hai (arthashaastr, 15.431).

is granth ki mahatta ko dekhte hue kai vidvaanon ne iske paath, bhaashaantar, vyaakhya aur vivechan par bade parishram ke saath bahumoolya kaarya kiya hai. shaam shaastri aur ganapati shaastri ka ullekh kiya ja chuka hai. inke atirikt Europeeya vidvaanon mein harmaan jaakobi (on di athauriti ov kautileeya, in.A., 1918), A. hilebraandt, dau॰ jolly, pro॰aA.bi. keeth (j.ra.A.si.) aadi ke naam aadar ke saath liye ja sakte hain. anya bhaarateeya vidvaanon mein dau॰ narendranaath la (stadeej in ainsheint hindu pauliti, 1914), shri pramathanaath Bannerjee (pablik aidaministreshan in ainsheint India), dau॰ kaasheeprasaad jaayasavaal (hindu pauliti), pro॰ vinyakumaar sarkaar (di paajitiv background ov hindu soshiyolauji), pro॰ naaraayanachandr vandyopaadhyaaya, dau॰ praananaath vidyaalankaanr aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

anukram

itihaas

yadyapi katipya praacheen lekhakon ne apne granthon mein arthashaastr se avataran diye hain aur kautilya ka ullekh kiya hai, tathaapi yeh granth lupt ho chuka tha. 1904 E. mein tanjor ke ek pandit ne bhattasvaami ke apoorn bhaashya ke saath arthashaastr ka hastalekh Mysore raajya pustakaalaya ke adhyaksh shri aar. shaam shaastri ko diya. shri shaastri ne pehle iska anshat: angreji bhaashaantar 1905 E. mein "Indian aintikveri" tatha "Mysore review" (1906-1909) mein prakaashit kiya. iske pashchaat is granth ke do hastalekh Munich laaibreri mein praapt hue aur ek sambhavat: Calcutta mein. tadanantar shaam shaastri, ganapati shaastri, yaduveer shaastri aadi dvaara arthashaastr ke kai sanskaran prakaashit hue. shaam shaastri dvaara angreji bhaashaantar ka chaturth sanskaran (1929 E.) praamaanik maana jaata hai.

pustak ke prakaashan ke saath hi Bhaarat tatha paashchaatya deshon mein halachal-si mach gayi kyonki ismein shaasan-vigyaan ke un adbhut tattvon ka varnan paaya gaya, jinke sambandh mein bhaarateeyon ko sarvatha anbhigya samjha jaata tha. paashchaatya vidvaan fleet, jauli aadi ne is pustak ko ek 'atyant mahattvapoorn' granth batalaaya aur ise Bhaarat ke praacheen itihaas ke nirmaan mein param sahaayak saadhan sveekaar kiya.

sanrachana

granth ke ant mein diye chaanakyasootr (15.1) mein arthashaastr ki paribhaasha is prakaar hui hai :

manushyon ki vrutti ko arth kehte hain. manushyon se sanyukt bhoomi hi arth hai. usaki praapti tatha paalan ke upaayon ki vivechana karanevaale shaastr ko arthashaastr kehte hain.

iske mukhya vibhaag hain :

(1) vinyaadhikran,
(2) adhyakshaprachaar,
(3) dharmastheeyaadhikran,
(4) kantakashodhan,
(5) vruttaadhikran,
(6) yonyadhikran,
(7) shaadgunya,
(8) vyasanaadhikran,
(9) abhiyaasyatkarmaadhikrana,
(10) sangraamaadhikran,
(11) sanghavruttaadhikran,
(12) aabaleeyasaadhikran,
(13) durgalambhopaayaadhikran,
(14) aupanishdikaadhikran aur
(15) tantrayuktyadhikran

in adhikranon ke anek upavibhaag (15 adhikran, 150 adhyaaya, 180 upavibhaag tatha 6,000 shlok) hain.

amaatya : arthashaastr ke anusaar praacheen hindu raajya ke padaadhikaari
pad angreji pad angreji
raaja King Yuvraj Crown prince
senaapati Chief, armed forces parishd Council
naagrik City manager pauravya vaahaarik City overseer
mantri Counselor kaarmik Works officer
sannidhaata Treasurer kaarmaantarik Director, factories
antepaal Frontier commander antar vinsak Head, guards
dauvaarik Chief guard gop Revenue officer
purohit Chaplain karanik Accounts officer
prashaasta Administrator naayak Commander
upayukt Junior officer pradeshta Magistrate
shoonyapaal Regent adhyaksh Superintendent

varnyavishya evam granth ka mahatva

arthashaastr mein samasaamayik raajaneeti, arthaneeti, vidhi, samaajaneeti, tatha dharmaadi par paryaapt prakaash padta hai. is vishay ke jitne granth abhi tak upalabdh hain unamein se vaastavik jeevan ka chitran karne ke kaaran yeh sabse adhik moolyavaan hai. is shaastr ke prakaash mein na keval dharm, arth aur kaam ka pranayan aur paalan hota hai apitu adharm, anarth tatha avaanchhaneeya ka shaman bhi hota hai (arthashaastr, 15.431).

is granth ki mahatta ko dekhte hue kai vidvaanon ne iske paath, bhaashaantar, vyaakhya aur vivechan par bade parishram ke saath bahumoolya kaarya kiya hai. shaam shaastri aur ganapati shaastri ka ullekh kiya ja chuka hai. inke atirikt Europeeya vidvaanon mein harmaan jaakobi (on di athauriti ov kautileeya, in.A., 1918), A. hilebraandt, dau॰ jolly, pro॰ A.bi. keeth (j.ra.A.si.) aadi ke naam aadar ke saath liye ja sakte hain. anya bhaarateeya vidvaanon mein dau॰ nareindranaath la (stadeej in ainsheint hindu pauliti, 1914), shri premathanaath Bannerjee (pablik aidaministreshan in ainsheint India), dau॰ kaasheeprasaad jaayasavaal (hindu pauliti), pro॰ vinyakumaar sarkaar (di paajitiv background ov hindu soshiyolauji), pro॰ naaraayanachandr vandyopaadhyaaya, dau॰ praananaath vidyaalankaar aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

pustak ka naam 'arthashaastr' hi kyon ?

kautilya ka 'arthashaastr' raajaneetik siddhaanton ki ek mahattvapoorn kruti hai. is sambandh mein yeh prashn uthata hai ki kautilya ne apni pustak ka naam 'arthashaastr' kyon rakha? praacheenakaal mein 'arthashaastr' shabd ka prayog ek vyaapak arth mein hota tha. iske antagart moolat: raajaneetishaastr, dharmashaastr, arthashaastr, kaanoon aadi ka adhyayan kiya jaata tha. aachaarya kautilya ki drushti mein raajaneeti shaastr ek svatantr shaastr hai aur aanveekshiki (darshan), trayi (ved) tatha vaarta env kaanoon aadi usaki shaakhaaeain hain. sampoorn samaaj ki raksha raajaneeti ya dand vyavastha se hoti hai ya rakshit praja hi apne-apne karttavya ka paalan kar sakti hai.

us samay arthashaastr ko raajaneeti aur prashaasan ka shaastr maana jaata tha. mahaabhaarat mein is sambandh mein ek prasang hai, jismein arjun ko arthashaastr ka visheshagya maana gaya hai.

samaaptavachane tasminnarthashaastr vishaarad:.
paartho dharmaarthatattvajnyao jagau vaakyamanandrit:. (3)

nishchit roop se kautilya ka arthashaastr bhi raajashaastr ke roop mein liya gaya hoga, yon usane arth ki kai vyaakhyaaeain ki hain. kautilya ne kaha hai— manushyaanaan vrutirrth: (4) arthaat manushyon ki jeevika ko 'arth' kehte hain. arthashaastr ki vyaakhya karte hue usane kaha hai—tasya pruthivya laabhapaalanopaay: shaastramarth-shaastramiti. (5) (manushyon se yukt bhoomi ko praapt karne aur usaki raksha karne vaale upaayon ka niroopan karne wala shaastr arthashaastr kahalaata hai.) is prakaar yeh bhi spasht hai ki 'arthashaastr' ke antargat raajavyavastha aur arthavyavastha donon se sambandhit siddhaanton ka samaavesh hai. vastut: kautilya 'arthashaastr' ko keval raajavyavastha aur arthavyavastha ka shaastr kehna upayukt naheen hoga. vaastav mein, yeh arthavyavastha, raajavyastha, vidhi vyavastha, samaaj vyavastha aur dharm vyavastha se sambandhit shaastr hai.

kautilya ke 'arthashaastr' ke poorv aur bhi kai arthashaastron ki rachana ki gayi thi, yadyapi unki paandulipiyaaain upalabdh naheen hain. Bhaarat mein praacheen kaal se hi arth, kaam aur dharm ke sanyog aur sammiln ke liye prayaas kiye jaate rahe hain aur uske liye shaastron, smrutiyon aur puraanon mein vishd charchaaeain ki gayi hain. kautilya ne bhi 'arthashaastr' mein arth, kaam aur dharm ki praapti ke upaayon ki vyaakhya ki hai. vaatsyaayan ke 'kaamasootr' mein bhi arth, dharm aur kaam ke sambandh mein sootron ki rachana ki gayi hai.

apne poorv arthashaastron ki rachana ki baat swayam kautilya ne bhi sveekaar kiya hai. apne 'arthashaastr' mein kai sandarbhon mein usane aachaarya vruhaspati, Bhardwaj, shukraachaarya, paraashar, pishun, vishaalaaksh aadi aachaaryon ka ullekh kiya hai. kautilya ke poorv anek aachaaryon ke granthon ka naamakaran dandaneeti ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. aisa prateet hota hai ki kautilya ke poorv shaastr dandaneeti kahe jaate the aur ve arthashaastr ke samaroop hote the. parantu jaisa ki anek vidvaanon ne sveekaar kiya hai ki dandaneeti aur arthashaastr donon samaroop naheen hain. you. N. ghoshaal ke kathanaanusaar arthashaastr jyaada vyaapak shaastr hai, jabki dandaneeti maatr usaki shaakha hai. (6)

kautilya ke paashchaat likhe gaye shaastr 'neetishaastr' ke naam se vikhyaat hue, jaise kaamandak neetisaar. vaise kai vidvaanon ne arthashaastr ko neetishaastr ki apeksha jyaada vyaapak maana hai. parantu, adhikaansh vidvaanon ki rai mein neetishaastr aur arthashaastr donon samaroop hain tatha donon ke vishay kshetr bhi ek hi hain. swayam kaamandak ne neetishaastr aur arthashaastr ko samaroop maana hai.

uparyukt vivechan se yeh spasht hai ki kautilya ke 'arthashaastr' ke poorv aur uske baad bhi 'arthashaastr' jaise shaastron ki rachana ki gayi.

'arthashaastr' ka rachanaakaar

is sambandh mein aise vidvaanon ki achhi-khaasi sankhya hai jo yeh maanate hain ki kautilya 'arthashaastr' ka rachanaakaar naheen tha. aise vidvaanon mein paashchaatya vidvaanon ki sankhya jyaada hai. sten, jolly, vintaraneej va keeth is prakaar ke vichaar ke pratipaadak hain. bhaarateeya vidvaan aar. ji. bhandaarakar ne bhi iska samarthan kiya hai. bhandaarakar ne kaha hai ki patanjali ne mahaabhaashya mein kautilya ka ullekh naheen kiya hai. 'arthashaastr' ke rachayita ke roop mein kautilya ko naheen maanyata denevaalon ne apne mat ke samarthan mein nimnalikhit tark prastut kiye hain—

  • (1) 'arthashaastr' mein maurya saamraajya ya paataliputr ka kaheen koi jikr naheen milta hai. yadi chandragupt ka mantri kautilya arthashaastr ka rachanaakaar hota to 'arthashaastr' mein usaka kaheen-na-kaheen kuchh jikr karta hi.
  • (2) is sambandh mein yeh kaha jaata hai ki 'arthashaastr' ki vishay-vastu jis prakaar ki hai, usase yeh naheen prateet hota hai ki iska rachanaakaar koi vyaavahaarik raajaneetijnya hoga. ni:sandeh koi shaastreeya pandit ne hi iski rachana ki hogi.
  • (3) chandragupt maurya ka mantri kautilya yadi 'arthashaastr' ka rachanaakaar hota to uske sootr evam uktiyaaain bade raajyon ke sambandh mein hote, parantu 'arthashaastr' ke uddharan evam uktiyaaain laghu evam madhyam raajyon ke liye sambodhit hain. at: spasht hai ki 'arthashaastr' ka rachanaakaar kautilya naheen tha. dau॰ beni prasaad ke anusaar 'arthashaastr' mein jis aakaar ya svaroop ke raajya ka jikr kiya gaya hai, ni:sandeh vah maurya, kaling ya Andhra saamraajya ke aadhaar se mel naheen khaata hai. 7
  • (4) vintaraneej ne kaha hai ki megaasthaneej ne, jo lambe arase tak chandragupt ke darbaar mein raha aur jisne apni pustak 'indika' mein chandragupt ke darbaar ke sambandh mein bahut kuchh likha hai, kautilya ke baare mein kuchh naheen likha hai aur na hi usaki pustak 'arthashaastr' ki kaheen koi charcha ki hai. yadi 'arthashaastr' jaise vikhyaat shaastr ka lekhak kautilya chandragupt ka mantri hota to megaasthaneej ki 'indika' mein usaka jikr avashya kiya jaata.
  • (5) megaasthaneej aur kautilya ke kai vivranon mein mel naheen khaata. udaaharan ke liye megaasthaneej ke anusaar us samay bhaarateeya raasaayanik prakriya se avagat naheen the, bhaaratavaasiyon ko keval paaainch dhaatuon ki jaankaari thi, jabki 'arthashaastr' mein in sabon ka varnan milta hai. iske atirikt prashaasakeeya sanrachana, udyog-vyavastha, vitt-vyavastha aadi ke sambandh mein bhi megaasthaneej aur 'arthashaastr' ka lekhak chandragupt maurya ka mantri kautilya naheen ho sakta hai.

chaanakya ko hi 'arthashaastr' ka rachanaakaar maanane ke peechhe tark

pustak ki samaapti par spasht roop se likha gaya hai-

''praaya: bhaashyakaaron ka shaastron ke arth mein paraspar matabhed dekhkar vishnugupt ne swayam hi sootron ko likha aur swayam hi unka bhaashya bhi kiya.'' (15/1)

saath hi yeh bhi likha gaya hai:

''is shaastr (arthashaastr) ka pranayan usane kiya hai, jisne apne krodh dvaara nandon ke raajya ko nasht karke shaastr, shastr aur bhoomi ka uddhaar kiya.' (15/1)

vishnu puraan mein is ghatna ki charcha is tarah ki gayi hai:

''mahaapadam-nand naam ka ek raaja tha. uske nau putron ne sau varshon tak raajya kiya. un nandon ko kautilya naam ke braahman ne maar diya. unki mrutyu ke baad mauryon ne pruthvi par raajya kiya aur kautilya ne swayam pratham chandragupt ka raajyaabhishek kiya. chandragupt ka putr bindusaar hua aur bindusaar ka putr ashokavardhan hua.'' (4/24)

'neetisaar' ke karta kaamandak ne bhi ghatna ki pushti karte hue likha hai:

''indr ke samaan shaktishaali aachaarya vishnugupt ne akele hi vajr-sadrush apni mantr-shakti dvaara parvat-tulya mahaaraaj nand ka naash kar diya aur uske sthaan par manushyon mein chandrama ke samaan chandragupt ko pruthvi ke shaasan par adhishthit kiya.''

in uddharanon se spasht hai ki vishnugupt aur kautilya ek hi vyakti the. 'arthashaastr' mein hi dviteeya adhikran ke dasham adhyaaya ke ant mein pustak ke rachayita ka naam 'kautilya' bataaya gaya hai:

''sab shaastron ka anusheelan karke aur unka prayog bhi jaan karke kautilya ne raaja (chandragupt) ke liye is shaasan-vidhi (arthashaastr) ka nirmaan kiya hai.'' (2/10)

pustak ke aarambh mein 'kautilyen krutan shaastram' tatha pratyek adhyaaya ke ant mein 'iti kautileeyeऽrthashaastre' likhkar granthakaar ne apne 'kautilya naam ko adhik vikhyaat kiya hai. jahaan-jahaan anya aachaaryon ke mat ka pratipaadan kiya hai, ant mein 'iti kautilya' arthaat kautilya ka mat hai-is tarah kehkar kautilya naam ke liye apna adhik pakshapaat pradarshit kiya hai.

parantu yeh sarvatha nirvivaad hai ki vishnugupt tatha kautilya abhinn vyakti the. uttarakaaleen dandi kavi ne ise aachaarya vishnugupt naam se yadi kaha hai, to baanabhatt ne ise hi kautilya naam se pukaara hai. donon ka kathan hai ki is aachaarya ne 'dandaneeti' athva 'arthashaastr' ki rachana ki.

panyachatantr mein isi aachaarya ka naam chaanakya diya gaya hai, jo arthashaastr ka rachayita hai. kavi vishaakhadatt-praneet suprasiddh naatak 'mudraaraakshas' mein chaanakya ko kabhi kautilya tatha kabhi vishnugupt naam se sambodhit kiya gaya hai.

'arthashaastr' ki rachana 'shaasan-vidhi' ke roop mein pratham maurya samraat chandragupt ke liye ki gayi. at: iski rachana ka kaal vahi maanana uchit hai, jo samraat chandragupt ka kaal hai. puraatattvavetta vidvaanon ne yeh kaal 321 E.poo. se 296 E.poo. tak nishchit kiya hai. kai anya vidvaan samraat sendraakotas (jo yoonaani itihaas mein samraat chandragupt ka paryaayavaachi hai) ke aadhaar par nishchit ki hui is tithi ko sveekaar naheen karte.

arthashaastr ka varnya-vishay

sukhasya moolan dharm: . dharmasya moolan arth: . arthasya moolan raajyan . raajyasya moolan indriya jay: . indriyaajayasya moolan viny: . vinyasya moolan vruddhopaseva.

sukh ka mool hai, dharm. dharm ka mool hai, arth. arth ka mool hai, raajya. raajya ka mool hai, indriyon par vijay. indriyjaya ka mool hai, vinaya. vinaya ka mool hai, vruddhon ki seva.

— kautilya dvaara rachit chaanakyasootr 1-6[1]

jaise oopar kaha gaya hai, iska mukhya vishay shaasan-vidhi athva shaasan-vigyaan hai: ''kautilyen narendraarthe shaasanasya vidhi: krut:.'' (kautilya ne raajaaon ke liye shaasan vidhi ki rachana ki hai.) in shabdon se spasht hai ki aachaarya ne iski rachana raajaneeti-shaastr tatha visheshataya shaasan-prabandh ki vidhi ke roop mein ki. arthashaastr ki vishay-soochi ko dekhne se (jahaan amaatyotpatti, mantraadhikaar, doot-pranidhi, adhyaksh-niyukti, dandakarm, shaadgunyasamuddeshya, raajaraajyayo: vyasan-chinta, balopaadaan-kaal, skandhaavaar-nivesh, koot-yuddh, mantr-yuddh ityaadi vishyon ka ullekh hai) yeh sarvatha pramaanit ho jaata hai ki ise aajkal kahe jaane vaale arthashaastr (ikonomiks) ki pustak kehna bhool hai. pratham adhikran ke praarambh mein hi swayam aachaarya ne ise 'dandaneeti' naam se soochit kiya hai.

shukraachaarya ne dandaneeti ko itni mahattvapoorn vidya batalaaya hai ki ismein anya sab vidyaaon ka antarbhaav maan liya hai- kyonki 'shastren rakshite deshe shaastrachinta pravartate' ki ukti ke anusaar shastr (dand) dvaara sushaasit tatha surakshit desh mein hi ved aadi anya shaastron ki chinta ya anusheelan ho sakta hai. at: dandaneeti ko anya sab vidyaaon ki aadhaarbhoot vidya ke roop mein sveekaar karna aavashyak hai aur vahi dandaneeti arthashaastr hai.

jise aajkal arthashaastr (economics) kaha jaata hai, uske liye 'vaarta' shabd ka prayog kiya gaya hai, yadyapi yeh shabd poornataya arthashaastr ka dyotak naheen. kautilya ne vaarta ke teen ang kahe hain - krushi, vaanijya tatha pashu-paalan, jinse praaya: vrutti ya jeevika ka upaarjan kiya jaata tha. manu, yaajnyaavalkya aadi shaastrakaaron ne bhi in teen angon vaale vaartaashaastr ko sveekaar kiya hai. peechhe shukraachaarya ne is vaarta mein kuseed (bainkig) ko bhi vrutti ke saadhan-roop mein sammilit kar diya hai. parantu arthashaastr ko sabhi shaastrakaaron ne dandaneeti, raajaneeti athva shaasanavijnyaaan ke roop mein hi varnit kiya hai. at: 'kautilya arthashaastr' ko raajaneeti ki pustak samajhna hi theek hoga na ki sampattishaastr ki pustak. vaise ismein kaheen-kaheen sampattishaastr ke dhanotpaadan, dhanopabhog tatha dhan-vinimay, dhan-vibhaajan aadi vishyon ki bhi praasangik charcha ki gayi hai.

'kautilya arthashaastr' ke pratham adhikran ka praarambhik vachan is sambandh mein adhik prakaash daalne wala hai:

pruthivya laabhe paalne ch yaavantyarthashaastraani poorvaachaarye: prastaavitaani praayash: taani sanhrutya ekamidmarthashaastr krutam.

arthaat-praacheen aachaaryon ne pruthvi jeetne aur paalan ke upaaya batalaane vaale jitne arthashaastr likhe hain, praay: un sabka saar lekar is ek arthashaastr ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai.

yeh uddharan arthashaastr ke vishay ko jahaan spasht karta hai, vahaan is satya ko bhi prakaashit karta hai ki 'kautilya arthashaastr' se poorv anek aachaaryon ne arthashaastr ki rachanaaen keen, jinka uddeshya pruthvi-vijay tatha uske paalan ke upaayon ka pratipaadan karna tha. un aachaaryon ne arthashaastr ki rachanaaen keen, jinka uddeshya pruthvi-vijay tatha uske paalan ke upaayon ka pratipaadan karna tha. un aachaaryon tatha unke sampradaayon ke kuchh naamon ka nirdeshan 'kautilya arthashaastr' mein kiya gaya hai, yadyapi unki krutiyaan aaj upalabdh bhi naheen hoteen. ye naam nimnalikhit hai:

(1) maanav - manu ke anuyaayi
(2) baarhaspatya - bruhaspati ke anuyaayi
(3) aushanas - ushana athva shukraachaarya ke mataanuyaayi
(4) Bhardwaj (dronaachaarya)
(5) vishaalaaksh
(6) paraashar
(7) pishun (naarad)
(8) kaunapadant (bheeshm)
(9) vaataavyaadhi (uddhav)
(10) baahudanti-putr (indr).

arthashaastr ke in das sampradaayon ke aachaaryon mein praaya: sabhi ke sambandh mein kuchh-na-kuchh gyaat hai, parantu vishaalaaksh ke baare mein bahut kam parichay praapt hota hai. in naamon se yeh to atyant spasht hai ki arthashaastr neetishaastr ke prati anek mahaan vichaarakon tatha daarshanikon ka dhyaan gaya aur is vishay par ek ujjaval saahitya ka nirmaan hua. aaj vah saahitya lupt ho chuka hai. anek videshi aakramanon tatha raajyakraantiyon ke kaaran is saahitya ka naam-maatr shesh rah gaya hai, parantu jitna bhi saahitya avashisht hai vah ek vistrut arthashaastreeya parampara ka sanket karta hai.

'kautilya arthashaastr' mein in poorvaachaaryon ke vibhinn maton ka sthaan-sthaan par sangrah kiya gaya hai aur unke shaasan-sambandhi siddhaanton ka vishleshanaatmak vivechan kiya gaya hai.

is arthashaastr mein ek aisi shaasan-paddhati ka vidhaan kiya gaya hai jismein raaja ya shaasak praja ka kalyaan sampaadan karne ke liye shaasan karta hai. raaja svechhaachaari hokar shaasan naheen kar sakta. use mantriprishd ki sahaayata praapt karke hi praja par shaasan karna hota hai. raajya-purohit raaja par ankush ke samaan hai, jo dharm-maarg se chyut hone par raaja ka niyntran kar sakta hai aur use kartavya-paalan ke liye vivsh kar sakta hai.

sarvalokahitkaari raashtra ka jo svaroop kautilya ko abhipret hai, vah 'arthashaastr' ke nimnalikhit vachan se spasht hai-

praja sukhe sukhan raajnya: prajaanaan ch hite hitm.
naatmapriyan priyan raajnya: prajaanaan tu priyan priym. (1/19)

arthaat-praja ke sukh mein raaja ka sukh hai, prajaake hit mein usaka hit hai. raaja ka apna priya (svaarth) kuchh naheen hai, praja ka priya hi usaka priya hai.

sandarbh

3. mahaabhaarat, 12. 161. 9

4. arthashaastr, adhikran-15, adhyaaya-1

5. vahi

6. U. N. Ghosal: A History of Political Ideas. Oxford Univ. Press, Bombay. 1959.p. 84

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • JS Rajput (2012), Seven Social Sins: The Contemporary Relevance, Allied, ISBN 978-8184247985, pages 28-29