arthashaastr

yeh prushth arthashaastr vishay se sanbandhit hai. kautilya dvaara rachit arthashaastr granth ke liye yahaaain dekhein.

vishv ke vibhinn deshon ki vaastavik sakal ghareloo utpaad ki vruddhi dar (san 2014)

arthashaastr saamaajik vigyaan ki vah shaakha hai, jiske antargat vastuon aur sevaaon ke utpaadan, vitran, vinimay aur upabhog ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. 'arthashaastr' shabd sanskrut shabdon arth (dhan) aur shaastr ki sandhi se bana hai, jiska shaabdik arth hai - 'dhan ka adhyayan'. kisi vishay ke sambandh mein munashyon ke kaaryo ke kramabaddh gyaan ko us vishay ka shaastr kehte hain, isliye arthashaastr mein munashyon ke arthasanbandhi kaayon ka kramabaddh gyaan hona aavashyak hai.

arthashaastr ka prayog yeh samajhne ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai ki arthavyavastha kis tarah se kaarya karti hai aur samaaj mein vibhinn vargon ka aarthik sambandh kaisa hai. arthashaastreeya vivechana ka prayog samaaj se sambandhit vibhinn kshetron mein kiya jaata hai, jaise:- aparaadh, shiksha, parivaar, svaasthya, kaanoon, raajaneeti, dharm, saamaajik sansthaan aur yuddh ityadi.[1]

pro. saimyoolasan ke anusaar,

arthashaastr kala samooh mein praacheenatam tatha vigyaan samooh mein naveenatam vastut: sabhi saamaajik vijnyaaanon ki raani hai.
(Economics is the oldest of the arts, the newest of sciences - indeed the queen of all the social sciences)

anukram

parichay

british arthashaastri alfred maarshal ne is vishay ko paribhaashit karte hue ise 'manushya jaati ke rojamarra ke jeevan ka adhyayan' bataaya hai. maarshal ne paaya tha ki samaaj mein jo kuchh bhi ghat raha hai, uske peechhe aarthik shaktiyaan hua karti hain. iseeliye saamaj ko samajhne aur ise behtar banaane ke liye hamein iske arthik aadhaar ko samajhne ki jaroorat hai.

liyonel robinsan ke anusaar aadhunik arthashaastr ki paribhaasha is prakaar hai-

vah vigyaan jo maanav svabhaav ka vaikalpik upayogon vaale seemit saadhanon aur unke prayog ke madhya antarsambandhon ka adhyayan karta hai.

durlabhata (scarcity) ka arth hai ki upalabdh sansaadhan sabhi maangon aur jaruraton ko poora karne mein asamarth hain. durlabhata aur sansaadhanon ke vaikalpik upayogon ke kaaran hi arthashaastr ki praasangikta hai. ataev yeh vishay prerakon aur sansaadhanon ke prabhaav mein vikalp ka adhyayan karta hai.

arthashaastr mein arthasanbandhi baaton ki pradhaanata hona svaabhaavik hai. parantu hamako yeh na bhool jaana chaahiye ki gyaan ka uddeshya arth praapt karna hi naheen hai, satya ki khoj dvaara vishv ke liye kalyaan, sukh aur shaanti praapt karna bhi hai. arthashaastr yeh bhi batalaata hai ki manushyon ke aarthik prayatnon dvaara vishv mein sukh aur shaanti kaise praapt ho sakti hai. sab shaastron ke samaan arthashaastr ka uddeshya bhi vishvakalyaan hai. arthashaastr ka drushtikon antarraashtreeya hai, yadyapi usamein vyaktigat aur raashtreeya hiton ka bhi vivechan rahata hai. yeh sambhav hai ki is shaastr ka adhyayan kar kuchh vyakti ya raashtra dhanavaan ho jaaeain aur adhik dhanavaan hone ki chinta mein doosare vyakti ya raashtron ka shoshan karne lagein, jisse vishv ki shaanti bhang ho jaae. parantu unke shoshan sambandhi ye sab kaarya arthashaastr ke anuroop ya uchit naheen kahe ja sakte, kyonki arthashaastr to unheen kaaryon ka samarthan kar sakta hai, jiske dvaara vishvakalyaan ki vruddhi ho. is vivechan se spasht hai ki arthashaastr ki saral paribhaasha is prakaar honi chaahiye-arthashaastr mein munashyon ke arthasanbandhi sab kaaryo ka kramabaddh adhyayan kiya jaata hai. usaka dhyeya vishvakalyaan hai aur usaka drushtikon antarraashtreeya hai.

paribhaasha

arthashaastr ki vishay-saamagri ka sanket iski paribhaasha se milta hai.

  • prasiddh arthashaastri Adam smith ne 1776 mein prakaashit apni pustak (An Enquiry into the Nature and the Causes of the Wealth of Nations ) mein arthashaastr ko dhan ka vigyaan maana hai.
  • Dr. elfred maarshal ne 1890 mein prakaashit apni pustak arthashaastr ke siddhaant (Principles of Economics) mein arthashaastr ki kalyaan sambandhi paribhaasha dekar isko lokapriya bana diya.
  • Britain ke prasiddh arthashaastri laard raabins ne 1932 mein prakaashit apni pustak, ''An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science'' mein arthashaastr ko durlabhata ka siddhaant maana hai. is sambandh mein unka mat hai ki maanaveeya aavashyakataaen aseemit hai tatha unako poora karne ke saadhan seemit hai.
  • aadhunik arthashaastri saimyoolsan (Samuelson) ne arthashaastr ko vikaas ka shaastr (Science of Growth ) kaha hai.

arthashaastr ka mahatva

arthashaastr ka saiddhaantik evam vyavahaarik mahatva hai

saiddhaantik mahatva

  • gyaan mein vruddhi
  • siddhaanton mein vruddhi
  • tarkashakti mein vruddhi
  • vishleshan shakti mein vruddhi
  • anya shaastron se sambandh ka gyaan

vyaavahaarik mahatva

  • utpaadakon ko laabh,
  • shramikon ko laabh,
  • upabhoktaaon ko laabh,
  • vyaapaariyon ko laabh,
  • sarkaar ko laabh,
  • samaajasudhaarakon ko laabh,
  • raajaneetijnyaon ko laabh,
  • prabandhakon ko laabh ,
  • vidyaarthiyon ko laabh,
  • vaigyaaniko ko laabh.

itihaas

Bhaarat mein arthashaastr

arthashaastr par likhi gayi pratham pustak kautilya rachit arthashaastr hai. yadyapi utpaadan aur vitran ke baare mein paricharcha ka ek lamba itihaas hai, kintu aadhunik arthashaastr ka janm Adam smith ki kitaab the velth aaf neshans ke 1776 mein prakaashan ke samay se maana jaata hai.

arthashaastr bahut praacheen vidya hai. chaar upaved ati praacheen kaal mein banaae gaye the. in chaaron upavedon mein arthaved bhi ek upaved maana jaata hai. parantu ab yeh upalabdh naheen hai. vishnupuraan mein Bhaarat ki praacheen tatha pradhaan 18 vidyaaon mein arthashaastr bhi parignit hai. is samay baarhaspatya tatha kautileeya arthashaastr upalabdh hain. arthashaastr ke sarvapratham aachaarya bruhaspati the. unka arthashaastr sootron ke roop mein praapt hai, parantu usamein arthashaastr sambandhi sab baaton ka samaavesh naheen hai. kautilya ka arthashaastr hi ek aisa granth hai jo arthashaastr ke vishay par upalabdh kramabaddh granth hai, isliye iska mahatva sabse adhik hai. aachaarya kautilya, chaanakya ke naam se bhi prasiddh hain. ye chandragupt maurya (321-297 E.poo.) ke mahaamantri the. inka granth 'arthashaastr' panditon ki rai mein praaya: 2,300 varsh puraana hai. aachaarya kautilya ke mataanusaar arthashaastr ka kshetr pruthvi ko praapt karne aur usaki raksha karne ke upaayon ka vichaar karna hai. unhonne apne arthashaastr mein brahmacharya ki deeksha se lekar deshon ki vijay karne ki anek baaton ka samaavesh kiya hai. shaharon ka basaana, guptacharon ka prabandh, sena ki rachana, nyaayaalayon ki sthaapana, vivaah sambandhi niyam, daayabhaag, shutraon par chadhaai ke tareeke, kilaabandi, sandhiyon ke bhed, vyooharachana ityaadi baaton ka vistaararoop se vichaar aachaarya kautilya apne granth mein karte hain. pramaanat: is granth ki kitni hi baatein arthashaastr ke aadhunik kaal mein nirdisht kshetr se baahar ki hain. usamein raajaneeti, dandaneeti, samaajashaastr, neetishaastr ityaadi vishyon par bhi vichaar hua hai.

paashchaatya arthashaastr

arthashaastr ka vartamaan roop mein vikaas paashchaatya deshon mein (visheshakar England mein) hua. aidam smith vartamaan arthashaastr ke janmadaata maane jaate hain. aapne 'raashtron ki sampatti' (velth of neshans) naamak granth likha. yeh san‌ 1776 E. mein prakaashit hua. ismein unhonne yeh batalaaya hai ki pratyek desh ke arthashaastr ka uddeshya us desh ki sampatti aur shakti badhaana hai. unke baad maalthas, rikaardo, mil, jevans, kaal maarks, sijvik, maarshal, vaakar, taasig or raabins ne arthashaastr sambandhi vishyon par sundar rachanaaeain keen. parantu arthashaastr ko ek nishchit roop dene ka shreya profesar maarshal ko praapt hai, yadyapi profesar raabins ka profesar maarshal se arthashaastr ke kshetr ke sambandh mein matabhed hai. paashchaatya arthashaastriyon mein arthashaastr ke kshetr ke sambandh mein teen dal nishchit roop se dikhaai padte hain. pehla dal professor raabins ka hai jo arthashaastr ko keval vigyaan maankar yeh sveekaar naheen karta ki arthashaastr mein aisi baaton par vichaar kiya jaae jinke dvaara aarthik sudhaaron ke liye maargadarshan ho. doosra dal profesar maarshal, profesar peegoo ityaadi ka hai, jo arthashaastr ko vigyaan maanate hue bhi yeh sveekaar karta hai ki arthashaastr ke adhyayan ka mukhya vishay manushya hai aur usaki aarthik unnati ke liye jin jin baaton ki aavashyakta hai, un sabka vichaar arthashaastr mein kiya jaana aavashyak hai. parantu is dal ke arthashaastri raajeeneeti se arthashaastr ko alag rakhana chaahate hain. teesara dal kaarl maarks ke samaan samaajavaadiyon ka hai, jo manushya ke shram ko hi utpati ka saadhan maanata hai aur poonjeepatiyon tatha jameendaaron ka naash karke majadooron ki unnati chaahata hai. vah majadooron ka raaj bhi chaahata hai. teenon dalon mein arthashaastr ke kshetr ke sambandh mein bahut matabhed hai. isliye is prashn par vichaar kar lena aavashyak hai:

aadhunik vishv ka aarthik itihaas

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad amareeka aur soviyt sangh me sheet yuddh chhid gaya. yeh koi yuddh naheen tha parantu isse vishv do bhaagon mein baint gaya.

sheet yuddh ke dauraan amareeka, England, Germany (pashchim), Australia, France, Canada, Spain ek taraf the. ye sabhi desh lokatantrik the aur yahaaain par khuli arthavyavastha ki neeti ko apnaaya gaya. logon ko vyaapaar karne ki khuli chhoot thi. share baajaar mein paisa lagaane ki chhoot thi. in deshon me bahut saari badi-badi kampaniyaaain bani. in companyon me naye-naye anusandhaan hue. vishvavidyaalaya, soochana praudyogiki, injineeyari udyog, bank aadi sabhi kshetroain me jamkar tarakki hui. ye sabhi desh doosare deshoain se vyaapaar ko badhaava dene ki neeti ko sveekaarate the. 1945 ke baad se in sabhi deshoain ne khoob tarakki ki .

doosari taraf roos, cheen, myaanmaar, poorvi Germany sahit kai aur desh the jahaaain par samaajavaad ki arth neeti apanaayi gayi. yahaaain par adhikaansh udyogon par kada sarkaari niyantran hota tha. udyogon se hone vaale laabh par sarkaar ka adhikaar rahata tha. saamaanyat: ye desh doosare lokataantrik deshon ke saath bahut kam vyaapaar karte the. is tarah ki arth neeti ke kaaran yahaan ke udyogon me adhik pratispardha naheen hoti thi. aam logon ko bhi laabh kamaane ke liye koi protsaahan naheen tha. in karanon se in deshon mein aarthik vikaas bahut kam hua.

3 October-1990 ko poorv Germany aur pashchim Germany ka vilay hua. sanyukt Germany ne pragatisheelat pashchimi Germany ki tarah khuli arthavyavastha aur loktantr ko apnaaya. iske baad 1991 me soviyt roos ka vikhandan hua aur roos sahit 15 deshon ka janm hua. roos ne bhi samaajavaad ko chhodkar khuli arthvyavastha ko apnaaya. cheen ne samaajavaad ko poori tarah to naheen chhoda par 1970 ke ant se udaar neetiyon ko apnaaya aur agale 3 varshon mein bahut unnati ki. chekoslovaakiaa bhi samaajavaadi desh tha. 1-janvari-1993 ko iska check ripblik aur Slovakia me vikhandan hua. in deshon ne bhi samaajavaad chhod ke lokatantr aur khuli arthavyavastha ko apnaaya.

mool avadhaaranaayein

moolya

moolya ki avadhaarana arthashaastr mein kendreeya hai. isko maapane ka ek tareeka vastu ka baajaar bhaav hai. Adam smith ne shram ko moolya ke mukhya shrot ke rup mein paribhaashit kiya. "moolya ke shram siddhaant" ko kaarl maarks sahit kai arthashaastriyon ne pratipaadit kiya hai. is siddhaant ke anusaar kisi seva ya vastu ka moolya uske utpaadan mein prayukt shram ke baraabar hot hai. adhikaansh logon ka maanana hai ki iska moolya vastu ke daam nirdhaarit karta hai. daam ka yeh shram siddhaant "moolya ke utpaadan laagat siddhaant" se niktata se juda hua hai.

maaaing aur aapoorti

alag-alag moolya par maaaing aur aapoorti ; jis moolya par maaaing aur aapoorti samaan hote hain vah santulan bindu kahalaata hai.

maaaing aur aapoorti ki sahaayata se poornat: pratispardhi baajaar mein beche gaye vastuon keemat aur maatra ki vivechana, vyaakhya aur purvaanumaan lagaaya jaata hai. yeh arthashaastr ke sabse mulabhoot praarupon mein se ek hai. kramash: bade siddhaanton aur praaroopon ke vikaas ke liye iska vishd rup se prayog hota hai.

maaaing, kisi niyat avadhi mein kisi utpaad ki vah maatra hai, jise niyat daam par upabhokta khareedna chaahata hai aur khareedne mein saksham hai. maaaing ko saamaanyat: ek taalika ya graaf ke rup mein pradarshit karte hain jismein keemat aur ichhit maatra ka sanbandh dikhaaya jaata hai.

aapoorti vastu ki vah maatra hai jise niyat samay mein diye gaye daam par utpaadak ya vikreta baajaar mein bechne ke liye taiyaar hai. aapoorti ko saamaanyat: ek taalika ya graaf ke rup mein pradarshit karte hain jismein keemat aur aapoorti ki maatra ka sanbandh dikhaaya jaata hai.

arthashaastr ka kshetr

pro॰ raabins ke anusaar arthashaastr vah vigyaan hai jo manushya ke un kaaryon ka adhyayan karta hai jo ichhit vastu aur uske parimit saadhanon ke roop mein upasthit hote hain, jinka upayog vaikalpik ya kam se kam do prakaar se kiya jaata hai. arthashaastr ki is paribhaasha se nimnalikhit baatein spasht hoti hain-

(1) arthashaastr vigyaan hai;
(2) arthashaastr mein manushya ke kaaryon ke sambandh mein vichaar hota hai;
(3) arthashaastr mein unheen kaaryon ke sambandh mein vichaar hota hai jinmein-
(a) ichhit vastu praapt karne ke saadhan parimit rahate hain aur
(b) in saadhanon ka upayog vaikalpik roop se kam se kam do prakaar se kiya jaata hai.

manushya apni ichhaaon ki trupti se sukh ka anubhav karta hai. isliye pratyek manushya apni ichhaaon ko trupt karna chaahata hai. ichhaaon ki trupti ke liye uske paas jo saadhan, dravya ityaadi hain ve parimit hain. vyakti kitna bhi dhanavaan kyon na ho, uske dhan ki maatra avashya parimit rahati hai; fir vah is parimit saadhan dravya ka upayog kai tarah se kar sakta hai. isliye upayukt paribhaasha ke anusaar arthashaastr mein manushyon ke un sab kaaryo ke sambandh mein vichaar kiya jaata hai jo vah parimit saadhanon dvaara apni ichhaaon ko trupt karne ke liye karta hai. is prakaar uske upabhog sambandhi sab kaaryo ka vivechan arthashaastr mein kiya jaana aavashyak ho jaata hai. isi prakaar manushya ko baajaar mein anek vastueain kis prakaar khareedne ka saadhan dravya parimit rahata hai. is parimit saadhan dvaara vah apni aavashyak vastueain kis prakaar khareedata hai, vah kaun si vastu kis dar se, kis parimaan mein, khareedata ya bechata hai, arthaat‌ vah viniym kis prakaar karta hai, in sab baaton ka vichaar arthashaastr mein kiya jaata hai. manushya jab koi vastu taiyaar karta hai, iske taiyaar karne ke saadhan parimit rahate hain aur un saadhanon ka upayog vah kai tarah se kar sakta hai. isliye utpati sambandhi sab kaaryo ka vivechan arthashaastr mein hona svaabhaavik hai.

manushya ko apne samay ka upayog karne ki anek ichhaaeain hoti hain. parantu samay hamesha parimit rahata hai aur usaka upayog kai tarah se kiya ja sakta hai. maan leejiye, koi manushya so raha hai, pooja kar raha hai ya koi khel khel raha hai. profesar raabins ki paribhaasha ke anusaar in kaaryon ka vivechan arthashaastr mein hona chaahiye, kyonki jo samay sone mein pooja mein ya khel mein lagaaya gaya hai, vah anya kisi kaarya mein lagaaya ja sakta tha. manushya koi bhi kaam kare, usamein samay ki aavashyakta avashya padti hai aur is parimit saadhan samay ke upayog ka vivechan arthashaastr mein avashya hona chaahiye. profesar raabins ki arthashaastr ki paribhaasha itni vyaapak hai ki iske anusaar manushya ke pratyek kaarya ka vivechan, chaahe vah dhaarmik, raajaneetik ya saamaajik hi kyon na ho, arthashaastr ke andar aa jaata hai. is paribhaasha ko maan lene se arthashaastr, raajaneeti, dharmashaastr aur samaajashaastr ki seemaaon ka spashteekaran baraabar naheen ho paata hai.

professor raabins ke anuyaayiyon ka mat hai ki parimit saadhanon ke anusaar manushya ke pratyek kaarya ka aarthik pahaloo rahata hai aur isi pahaloo par arthashaastr mein vichaar kiya jaata hai. ve kehte hain, yadi kisi kaarya ka sambandh raajya se ho to usaka us pahaloo se vichaar raajaneetishaastr mein kiya jaae aur yadi us kaarya ka sambandh dharm se bhi ho to us pahaloo se unka vichaar dharmashaastr mein kiya jaae.

maan lein, ek manushya chorabaajaar mein ek vastu ko bahut adhik moolya mein bech raha hai. saadhan parimit hone ke kaaran vah jo kaarya kar raha hai aur usaka prabhaav vastu ki utpati ya poorti par kya pad raha hai, iska vichaar to arthashaastr mein hoga; chorabaajaari karanevaale ke sambandh mein raajya ka kya kartavya hai, iska vichaar raajaneetishaastr ya dandaneeti mein hoga. yeh kaarya achha hai ya bura, iska vichaar samaajashaastr, aachaarashaastr ya dharmashaastr mein hoga. aur, yeh kaise roka ja sakta hai, iska vichaar shaayad kisi bhi shaastr mein na ho. kisi bhi kaarya ka keval ek hi pahaloo se vichaar karna uske uchit adhyayan ke liye kahaaain tak uchit hai, yeh vichaaraneeya hai.

profesar raabins ki arthashaastr ki paribhaasha ki doosari dhyaan dene yogya baat yeh hai ki vah arthashaastr ko keval vigyaan ki maanata hai. usamein keval aise niyamon ka vivechan rahata hai jo kisi samay mein kaarya kaaran ka sambandh batalaate hain. paristhitiyon mein kis prakaar ke parivartan hone chaahiye aur paristhitiyon ke badalne ke kya tareeke hain, in gambhir prashnon par usamein vichaar naheen kiya ja sakta, kyonki ye sab kaarya vigyaan ke baahar hain. maane lein, kisi samay kisi desh mein sharaab peenevaale vyaktiyon ki sainkhya badh rahi hai. professor raabins ki paribhaasha ke anusaar arthashaastr mein keval yahi vichaar kiya jaaega ki sharaab peenevaalon ki sankhya badhne se sharaab ki keemat, sharaab paida karanevaalon aur swayam sharaabiyon par kya asar padega. parantu unke arthashaastr mein is prashn par vichaar karne ke liye gunjaaish naheen hai ki sharaab peena achha hai ya bura aur sharaab peene ki aadat sarkaar dvaara kaise band ki ja sakti hai. unke arthashaastr mein maargadarshan ka abhaav hai. pratyek shaastr mein maargadarshan usaka ek mahatvapoorn bhaag maana jaata hai aur isi bhaag ka professor raabins ke arthashaastr ki paribhaasha mein abhaav hai. is kami ke kaaran arthashaastr ka adhyayan janta ke liye laabhakaari naheen ho sakta.

samaajavaadi chaahate hain ki pooainjeepatiyon aur jameendaaron ka astitv na rahane paae, sarkaar majadooron ki ho aur desh ki aarthik dasha par sarkaar ka poorn niyantran ho. ve apni arthashaastr sambandhi pustakon mein in prashnon par bhi vichaar karte hain ki majadoor sarkaar kis prakaar sthaapit honi chaahiye. jameendaaron aur pooainjeepatiyon ka astitv kaise mitaaya jaae. majadoor sarkaar ka sagathan kis prakaar ka ho aur unka sangathan sansaaravyaapi kis prakaar kiya ja sakta hai. is prakaar samaajavaadi lekhak arthashaastr ka kshetr itna vyaapak bana dete hain ki usamein raajaneetishaastr ki bahut si baatein aa jaati hain. hamako arthashaastr ka kshetr is prakaar nirdhaarit karna chaahiye jisse usamein raajaneetishaastr ya anya kisi shaastr ki baaton ka samaavesh na hone paae.

arthashaastr ke kshetr ke sambandh mein professor maarshal ki arthashaastr ki paribhaasha par bhi vichaar kar lena aavashyak hai. professor maarshal ke mataanusaar arthashaastr manushya ke jeevan sambandhi saadhaaran kaaryon ka adhyayan karta hai. vah manushyon ke aise vyaktigat aur saamajik kaaryon ki jaaainch karta hai jinka ghanishth sambandh unke kalyaan ke nimit bhautik saadhan praapt karne aur unka upayog karne se rahata hai.

professor maarshal ne munashya ke kalyaan ko arthashaastr ki paribhaasha mein sthaan dekar arthashaastr ke kshetr ko kuchh badha diya hai. parantu is arthashaastri ne bhi arthashaastr ke dhyeya ke sambandh mein apni pustak mein kuchh vichaar naheen kiya. vartamaan kaal mein paashchaatya arthashaastriyon ne arthashaastr ka kshetr to badha diya hai, parantu aaj bhi ve arthashaastr ke dhyeya ke sambandh mein vichaar karna arthashaastr ke kshetr ke adanr sveekaar naheen karte. ab to arthashaastr ko kala ka roop diya ja raha hai. sansaar mein sarvatr aarthik yojanaaon ki charcha hai. aarthik yojana taiyaar karna ek kala hai. bina dhyeya ke koi yojana taiyaar hi naheen ki ja sakti. arthashaastr ko koi bhi sarvasafal nishchit dhyeya na hone ke kaaran in yojana taiyaar karanevaalon ka bhi koi ek dhyeya naheen hai. pratyek yojana ka ek alag hi dhyeya maan liya jaata hai. arthashaastr mein ab deshvaasiyon ki dasha sudhaarane ke tareekon par bhi vichaar kiya jaata hai, parantu is dasha sudhaarane ka antim lakshya abhi tak nishchit naheen ho paaya hai. sarvamaanya dhyeya ke abhaav mein arthashaastriyon mein matabhinnata itni badh gayi hai ki kisi vishay par do arthashaastriyon ka ek mat kathinta se ho paata hai. is matabhinnata ke kaaran arthashaastr ke adhyayan mein ek badi baadha upasthit ho gayi hai. is baadha ko door karne ke liye paashchaatya arthashaastriyon ko apne granthon mein arthashaastr ke dhyeya ke sambandh mein ganbheerataapoorvak vichaar karna chaahiye aur jahaaain tak sambhav ho, arthashaastr ka ek sarvamaanya dhyeya sheegra nishchit kar lena chaahiye.

arthashaastr ka dhyeya

sansaar mein pratyek vyakti adhik se adhik sukhi hona aur du:kh se bachana chaahata hai. vah jaanta hai ki apni ichha jab trupt hoti hai tab sukh praapt hota hai aur jab ichha ki poorti naheen hoti tab du:kh ka anubhav hota hai. dhan dvaara ichhit vastu praapt karne mein sahaayata milti hai. isliye pratyek vyakti dhan praapt karne ka prayatn karta hai. vah samajhta hai ki sansaar mein dhan dvaara hi sukh ki praapti hoti hai. adhik se adhik sukh praapt karne ke liye vah adhik se adhik dhan praapt karne ka prayatn karta hai. is dhan ko praapt karne ki chinta mein vah praaya: yeh vichaar naheen karta ki dhan kis prakaar se praapt ho raha hai. iska parinaam yeh hota hai ki dhan aise saadhanon dvaara bhi praapt kiya jaata hai jinse doosaron ka shoshan hota hai, doosaron ko dukh pahuainchata hai. is prakaar dhan praapt karne ke anek udaaharan diye ja sakte hain. pooainjeepati adhik dhan praapt karne ki chinta mein apne majadooron ko uchit majadoori naheen deta. isse majadooron ki dasha bigadne lagti hai. dookaanadaar khaadya padaartho mein milaavat karke apne graahakon ke svaasthya ko nasht karta hai. chorabaajaari dvaara anek saral vyakti thage jaate hain, mahaajan karjadaaron se atyadhik sood lekar aur jameendaar kisaanon se atyadhik lagaan lekar asankhya vyaktyaaein ke parivaaron ko badbaad kar dete hain. prakruti ka yeh atal niyam hai ki jo jaisa bota hai usako vaisa hi kaatna padta hai. doosaron ka shoshan kar ya du:kh pahuainchaakar dhan praapt karanevaale is niyam ko shaayad bhool jaate hain. jo dhan doosaron ko dukh pahuainchaakar praapt hota hai usase ant mein du:kh hi milta hai. usase sukh ki aasha karna vyarth hai. yeh satya hai ki doosaron ko dukh pahuainchaakar jo dhan praapt kiya jaata hai usase ichhit vastueain praapt ki ja sakti hai aur in vastuon ko praapt karne se sukh mil sakta hai. parantu yeh sukh asthaayi hai aur ant mein dukh ka kaaran ho jaata hai. sansaar mein aisi kai vastueain hain jinka upayog karne se tatkaal to sukh milta hai, parantu deerghakaal mein unase dukh ki praapti hoti hai. udaaharanaarth maadak vastuon ke sevan se tatkaal to sukh milta hai, paratu jab unki aadat pad jaati hai tab unka sevan atyadhik maatra mein hone lagta hai, jiska svaasthya par bura prabhaav padta hai. isse ant mein du:khi hona padta hai. doosaron ko haani pahuainchaakar jo dhan praapt hota hai vah nishchit roop se buri aadaton ko badhaata hai aur kuchh samay tak asthaayi sukh dekar vah du:kh badhaane ka saadhan ban jaata hai. doosaron ko dukh dekar praapt kiya hua dhan kabhi bhi sthaayi sukh aur shaanti ka saadhak naheen ho sakta.

sukh do prakaar ke hain. kuchh sukh to aise hain jo doosaron ko dukh pahuainchaakar praapt hote hain. inke udaaharan oopar diye ja chuke hain. kuchh sukh aise hain jo doosaron ko sukhi banaakar prapt hote hain. ve manushya ke man mein shaanti utpann karte hain. apna kartavya paalan karne se jo sukh praapt hota hai vah bhi shaanti prad hota hai kartavyapaalan karte samay jo shram karna padta hai usase kuchh kasht avashya maaloom hota hai, parantu kaarya poora hone par vah du:kh sukh mein parint ho jaata hai aur usasen man mein shaanti utpann hoti hai. is prakaar ka sukh bhavishya mein du:kh ka saadhan naheen hota or is prakaar ke sukh ko aanand kehte hain. jab aanand hi aanand praapt hota hai tab du:kh ka lesh maatr bhi naheen rah jaata. aisi dasha ko paramaanand kehte hain. paramaanand praapt karna pratyek vyakti ka sarvottam dhyeya hai. vahi aatmakalyaan ki charam seema hai. pratyek manushya ka kalyaan isi mein hai ki vah paramaanand praapt karne ka hamesha prayatn karta rahe. vah hamesha aisa sukh praapt karta rahe jo bhaavishya mein du:kh ka kaaran ya saadhan na ban jaae aur vah shaanti aur santosh ka anubhav karne lage.

jab ham apne prayatnon dvaara doosaron ko sukh pahuainchaate hain aur unke kalyaan ke saadhan ban jaate hain tab prakruti ke atal niyam ke anusaar inheen prayatnon dvaara hamaare kalyaan mein bhi vruddhi hone lagti hai. aatmakalyaan praapt karne ka saral upaaya doosaron ke kalyaan ka saadhan banana hai. isi prakaar apne kaaryon dvaara kisi ko bhi du:kh na pahuainchaana apne dukh se bachane ka sabse saral tareeka hai. pratyek vyakti ko yeh achhi tarah samajh lena chaahiye ki usaka sachcha hitsaadhan doosaron ke hitsaadhan ya paramaarth dvaara hi siddh ho sakta hai. isse yeh spasht hai ki doosaron ka sukh arthaat‌ vishvakalyaan hi apne sthaayi sukh aur shaanti arthaat‌ aatmakalyaan ka ekamaatr saadhan hai. jab pratyek vyakti apna kalyaan karne ke liye doosaron ke kalyaan ka hamesha prayatn karne lagega tab kisi bhi tarah se svaartho ka virodh na hoga, sansaar mein sab prakaar ka sangharsh door ho jaaega aur sarvatr sukh aur shaanti sthaayi roop se sthaapit ho jaaegi.

aatmakalyaan ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki pratyek vyakti doosaron ke svaarthon ko utana hi mahatva de jitna vah apne svaarth ko deta hai. jaise vah apne sukhon ko badhaane ka prayatn karta hai, vaise hi use doosaron ke sukhon ko badhaane ka bhi prayatn karna chaahiye. iska paarinaam yeh hoga ki aise kaarya band ho jaaeainge jinke kaaran doosaron ke du:khon ki vruddhi hoti hai. isse vishv ke jeevon mein sukh ki nirantar vruddhi hone lagegi aur vishv ka kalyaan badhte badhte charam seema tak pahuainch jaaega. bina vishvakalyaan ke kisi bhi vyakti ka aatmakalyaan naheen ho sakta. sachcha aatmakalyaan vishv kalyaan dvaara hi praapt ho sakta hai. aatmakalyaan hi pratyek vyakti ka sarvottam dhyeya hai aur jab arthashaastr manushya ke aarthik prayatnon ka adhyayan karta hai tab usaka dhyeya bhi aatmakalyaan hi hona chaahiye. parantu, jaisa oopar batalaaya ja chuka hai, sachcha aatmakalyaan vishv kalyaan dvaara hi praapt kiya ja sakta hai. isliye arthashaastr ka dhyeya vishvakalyaan hi hona chaahiye.

ham yeh pehle hi bata chuke hain ki jab kisi ichha ki poorti naheen hoti tab du:kh ka anubhav hota hai. isliye yadi kisi vastu ki ichha hi na ki jaae to du:kh praapt karne ka avsar hi na praapt ho. kuchh sajjanon ka mat hai ki sampoorn ichhaaon ki nivruti dvaara du:kh ka abhaav aur sthaayi sukh tatha shaanti praapt ho sakti hai. isliye is drushti se dekha jaae tab to sab ichhaaon ka abhaav hi arthashaastr ka dhyeya hona chaahiye. yeh theek hai ki abhyaas dvaara ichhaaon ka niyantran avashya kiya ja sakta hai, parantu aisi dasha praapt kar lena jab kisi bhi prakaar ki ichha utpann hi na hone paae, saadhaaran manushya mein se ek ke liye bhi vyaavahaarik naheen hai. astu, arthashaastr ka dhyeya sampoorn ichhaaon ke abhaav ko maan lene se thode se vyaktiyon ka hi kalyaan ho sakega aur janta ka usase kuchh bhi laabh na hoga, isliye is dhyeya ko maan lena uchit na hoga.

kuchh vyakti maanavakalyaan hi arthashaastr ka dhyeya maanate hain. ve jeevajantuon tatha pashupakshiyon ke hiton ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak naheen samajhte. ve shaayad yeh maanate hain ki jeevajantuon aur pashu pakshiyon ko ishvar ne manushya ke sukh ke liye hi utpann kiya hai. isliye unako du:kh pahuainchaakar ya vadh karke yadi manushyon ki ichhaaon ki poorti ho sakti ho to unako du:kh pahuainchaane mein kuchh bhi aapatti naheen honi chaahiye. kintu dharmashaastr aur mahaatma Gandhi ka to yeh mat hai ki pratyek vyakti ko aisa hi kaarya karna chaahiye jisse 'saarvabhaum hit' arthaat sab jeevadhaariyon ka hit ho, kisi ki bhi haani na hone paae. jab manushya pratyek jeevadhaari ke hit ko apne niji hit ke samaan maanane lagta hai tabhi usako sthaayi sukh aur shaanti praapt hoti hai. mahaatma Gandhi ne is maarg ko 'sarvodaya' naam diya hai. is sarvodaya maarg dvaara hi sansaar mein pratyek prakaar ka sangharsh door ho sakta hai, shoshan ka ant ho sakta hai aur vishvashanti sthaapit ho sakti hai. sarvodaya ka maarg pratyek vyakti ka kalyaan or vishvakalyaan ki vruddhi karne ka uttam saadhan hai. isliye unke anusaar arthashaastr ka dhyeya maanavakalyaan na maankar vishvakalyaan hi maanana chaahiye.

aarthik kriyaane

arthashaastr ki vishay saamagri ke sambandh mein aarthik kriyaaon ka varnan bhi jaroori hai. poorv mein utpaadan, upabhog, vinimay tatha vitran - arthashaastr ke ye chaar pradhaan ang (ya, aarthik kriyaayein) maane jaate the. aadhunik arthashaastr mein in kriyaaon ko paanch bhaagon mein baanta ja sakta hai.

  • vitran (Distribution)

aarthik kriyaaon ke uddeshya ke aadhaar par 1933 mein sarvapratham reganar frrish (Ragnor Frisch) ne arthashaastr ko do bhaagon mein baanta.

  • vyaktigat arthashaastr (Micro Economics)
  • samashtigt arthashaastr (Macro Economics)

antararaashtreeya vyaapaar, videshi viniym, banking aadi samashti arthashaastr ke roop hain. sankshep mein, adhyayan ke drushtikon se arthashaastr ke vibhinn angon ko ham is prakaar rakh sakte hain:

vyashti arthashaastr

yeh vaiyaktik ikaaiyon ka adhyayan karta hai, jaise vyakti, parivaar, farm, udyog, vishesh vastu ka moolya. boldig keanusaar, vyashti arthashaastr vishesh farmo, vishesh parivaaron, vaiyaktik keematon, majadooriyon, aayon, vaiyaktik udyogon tatha vishisht vastuon ka adhyayan hai. yeh seemaant vishleshan ko mahatva deta hai.

samashti arthashaastr

aadhunik aarthik sinddhaant ke bahut se mahatvapoorn vishay jaise antararaashtreeya vyaapaar, videshi vinimay, raajasv, baiking, vyaapaar chakr, raashtreeya aay tatha rojagaar ke siddhaant, aarthik niyojan evam aarthik vikaas aadi ka adhyayan iske antargat hota hai. boldig ke shabdon mein, samashti arthashaastr, arthashaastr ka vah bhaag hai jo arthashaastr ke bade samoohon aur ausaton ka adhyayan karta hai, na ki usaki vishesh madon ka. vah in samoohon ko upayogi dhaing se paribhaashit karne ka prayatn karta hai tatha inke paarasparik sambandhon ko jaaainchata hai.

sankshep mein ye hi arthashaastr ke ang hai. keins ke baad ke aadhunik arthashaastri ab kuchh nae naamon se arthashaastr ke vibhinn angon ka vivechan karte hain, jaise poonji ka arthashaastr, pooainji nirmaan, shram arthashaastr, yaataayaat ka arthashaastr, maudrik arthashaastr, keinseeya arthashaastr, alp viksit deshon ka arthashaastr, vikaas ka arthashaastr, tulanaatmk arthashaastr, antararaashtreeya arthashaastr aadi. aadhunaki kaal mein desh videsh mein arthashaastr vishay ki snaatakottar shiksha bhi inheen naamon ke prashnapatron ke anusaar di jaati hai.

aarthik pranaaliyaan

aarthik pranaali ( (Economic Systems)) ek aisi pranaali hai jiske antargat vibhinn vyavasaayon mein kaam karke log apni jeevika kamaate hai. aarthik kriyaaon ko suchaaroo roop se sanchaalit karne ke liye pratyek desh alag-alag aarthik pranaali apanaata hain. aarthik pranaaliyon ko mukhya roop se teen bhaagon mein baanta gaya hai.

(1) poonjeevaadi arthavyavastha (Capitalistic Economy)
(2) samaajavaadi arthavyavastha (Socialistic Economy)
(3) mishrit arth vyavastha (Mixed Economy)

aadhunik arthik praniliyon mein samaajavaad tatha poonjeevaad ka sarvaadhik ullekh ho raha hai.

aarthik neetiyaan

pratyek desh, chaahe vah kisi bhi aarthik pranaali ke antargat kaam karta hai, usako vibhinn aarthik samasyaaon jaise gareebi, dhan va aay ki asamaanata, berojgaari, mudraasfeeti va mandi aadi ka saamana karna padata hain. in samasyaaon ke samaadhaan ke liye vah vibhinn neetiyon ko apanaata hai. mukhya aarthik neetiyaan is prakaar hai.

  • maudrik neeti (Monetary Policy)
  • raajakosheeya neeti (Fiscal Policy)
  • keemat neeti (Price Policy)
  • aay neeti (Income Policy)
  • rojagaar neeti (Employment Policy)
  • aarthik yojana (Economic Planning)

prasiddh arthashaastri

prasiddh bhaarateeya arthashaastri

Bhaarat ki arthashaastr ko jaanane, samajhne aur prayog mein laane ki apni vishesh panrapara rahi hai. yeh du:kh ka vishay hai ki praacheen ev naveen bhaarateeya arthashaastriyon ki pramukh krutiyon ka moolyaankan uchit roop se abhi tak naheen kiya gaya hai aur hamaare vidyaarthi keval paashchaatya arthashaastriyon evam unke siddhaanto ko padhte rahe hain.

praacheen kaal ke aarthik vichaaron ko ham vedon, upanishdon, mahaakaavyon, dharmashaastron, gruhmasootron, naarad, shukr, vidur ke neetigranthon aur sarvaadhik roop se kautilya ke arthashaastr se praapt karte hain.

vartamaan samay mein mukhya bhaarateeya arthashaastriyon mein-

(1) daadaabhaai nauroji (1825),
(2) mahaadev govind raanaade (1842),
(3) rameshachandr datt (1848),
(4) gopaal Krishna gokhale (1866),
(5) mahaatma Gandhi (1869) tatha
(5) vishveshvaraiya (1861) ke naam ullekhaneeya hai.

sarvodaya arthashaastr

mahaatma Gandhi dvaara praneet tatha aachaarya vinoba bhaave dvaara prayog mein laai gayi arthashaastr ki yeh vichaaradhaara ati aadhunik hai aur bhaarateeyon ki vishisht den hai. iske atanrgat graamasvaraajya, svaavalanban, sahaastitv ke prayog tatha ahinsak kraanti jaise vichaar hain, jo, jayaprakaash Narayan ke shabdon mein, Bhaarat mein hi naheen, vishv mein kaheen bhi kabhi bhi aarthik kaanti la sakte hain. inka prayog nai shiksha ke saath saath Bhaarat mein ho raha hai.

ganiteeya arthashaastr

aadhunik arthashaastr aadhe se adhik ganiteeya maadalon, saadhyon, sameekaranon tatha faaramoolon (sutron) mein bandh gaya hai. poorv mein saankhyiki ka prayog arthashaastri aichhik roop se karte the parantu ab vah arthashaastr ke hetu anivaarya ho gaya hai. iske atirikt arthamiti bhi vikaas maadalon mein poorn viksit ho rahi hai. pravaigik roop mein 'in-put out-put vishleshan' se lekar arthashaastr ne 'game theory' tatha 'teknikl flo' tak nikaal daala hai. aarthik siddhaanton ko spasht karne hetu ganiteeya aujaaron ka prayog sab arthashaastri kar rahe hain. liniyr prograaming' tatha 'vibhedeekeekaran prakriya' ke antargat arthashaastri ganiteeya (vishesh beejaganiteeya sootron se) drushya prabhaavon ke saath-saath adrushya aarthik prabhaavon ko bhi dikhaane ka prayatn kar rahe hain. ganana ki chhoti machine se lekar vishaalatam computer tak arthashaastriyon ki ganiteeya pragati ke vyaavahaarik roop hain. sambhavat: agale do teen dashak tak aisi vidhiyaaain avishkrut ho jaaeaingi jinse ganiteeya vidhiyon dvaara ati sankshep mein keval nishkarsh praapt honge tatha prakriya ka koi bhi taalamel baithaana aavashyak na hoga. aajkal arthashaastri ganiteeya arthashaastr paddhati par sabse adhik nirbhar kar rahe hain.

alpaviksit deshon ka vikaas

vyaavahaarik arthashaastr gareeb evam saadhanarahit deshon ki vyaavahaarik samasyaaon ko sulajha raha hai. gunaar mridl krut asian drama sambhavat: maarks ke das kaipitl ke baad sabse bada arthashaastreeya granth prakaashit hua hai jismein alpaviksit deshon ki samasyaaeain sulajhaai gayi hain. arthashaastr ki yeh vichaaradhaara bhi dviteeya mahaayuddh ke baad ubhari hai aur iska bhi nit naveen vistaar ho raha hai. isi ke antargat yojanaakaran (planning), poonji nirmaan tatha videshi sahaayata jaisi vartamaan antaraashtreeya samasyaaon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

arthashaastr ki upaadeyata

arthashaastr ka mahatva badi teevr gati se badhata ja raha hai. sanyukt raashtra sangh efaake ki report, (1970) E. ke anusaar arthashaastr par lagbhag 1,000 granth ya lekh prati ghante vishv mein prakaashit ho rahe hain. raajaneeti ke baad lokapriyta mein arthashaastr ka hi sthaan hain. vastut: arthashaastr ka prayog kalyaan ke hetu karna hi padega anyatha keval bhautik saadhan jutaane ka lakshya rakhakar ek din yeh sabko le doobega. santosh ki baat hai ki ab arthashaastri is baat ko samajhne lage hain. Bhaarat ka praacheen darshan is tathya ko praarambh se jaanta hai ki keval bhautik saadhanon ka baahulya hi manushya ko sukhi naheen kar sakta. pro॰ shunpeetar ne apne naveenatam lekh arthashaastr ka bhavishya mein sveekaar kiya hai ki siddhaant roop se aarthik vishleshan chaahe jitni pragati kar le, vyavahaar mein use hamesha shaanti, sukh evam kalyaan ke hetu hi kaarya karna hoga. yadi arthashaastr samast maanav ke samaan kalyaan ke hetu kaarya kar sake to iska bhavishya bahut ujval hoga. isi kaaran ab arthashaastr par Nobel puraskaar bhi diya jaane laga hai.

arthashaastr ki seemaaen

arthashaastr ki mukhya seemaayein (Limitations) nimnalikhit hain-

  • aarthik niyam kam nishchit hote hai.
  • arthashaastr vigyaan tatha kala donon hai.
  • arthashaastr keval maanaveeya kriyaaon ka adhyayan karta hai.
  • saamaajik manushya ka adhyayan
  • vaastavik manushya ka adhyayan
  • aarthik kriyaaon ka adhyayan
  • saamaanya munashya ka adhyayan
  • kaanooni seema ke antargat aane vaale vyaktiyon ka adhyayan
  • durlabh padaartho ka adhyayan

sandarbh granth

  • vaachaspati gairola: kautilya arthashaastr;
  • tilkanaaraan hajela: aarthik vichaaron ka itihaas;
  • nionel raarbis: arthashaastr ka svaroop aur mahatva;
  • alfed maarshal: arthashaastr ke siddhaant;
  • bi.si. sinha: keens ka arthashaastr;
  • J.ke.Mehta: stadeej in aidavaansad ekonaamik thiyri;
  • pi.di. hajela: kenseeya evam klaasikl rojagaar siddhaant;
  • sudhaakaant mishr: arthashaastr ke siddhaant;
  • di.N. chaturvedi: mahaatma Gandhi ka arthik darshan;
  • alekjaindar gre: aarthik siddhaant ka vikaas.
  1. Micro Economy

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain