arab ka itihaas

arabi praayadveep ki sabse badi ghatna hai islaam ka janm. yeh saataveen sadi ke poorvaardh mein hua tha jiske pehle ka itihaas tathaajnyaaat nahi hai.

pragaitihaasik kaal

praacheen kaal mein dilman sabhyata sumer tatha misr ki praacheen sabhyata ke samakaaleen thi. san 3500-2500 isaapoorv ke madhya mein kuchh arabon ka bebeeloniya-aseeriya ke ilaake mein aagaman arabon ke itihaas ki pehli mahatvapoorn ghatna maani jaati hai. saataveen sadi tak arabon ka itihaas kabeelon ke jhagadon aur chhitput roop se videshi prabhutv ki kahaani lagti hai.

muhammad saahab aur islaam

san 613 isvi ke aaspaas ek arabi dafaatar ne logon mein ek divya gyaan ka prachaar kiya. unka kehna tha ki use iska gyaan parameshvar (Allah) ke doot jibraail ne diya aur pratyek insaan ko unheen tareekon ko apanaana chaahiye. unka naam muhammad s a va s tha aur vo khaadeeja naam ki vidhva ke vyaapaar mein madad karta tha. logon ko usaki baat par ya to yakeen naheen aaya ya saadhaaran si lagi. par gareebon ko ye baat bahut pasand I ki kisi ka shoshan naheen karna chaahiye jo yeh karega use kayaamat ke din narak ka praapti hogi. logon ke beech samaanata ke bhaav ki baat daliton aur nichle tabakon mein lokapriyta milne lagi. fir dheere dheere aur log bhi uske anuyaayi banane lage. usaki badhti khyaati dekhkar makka ke kabeelon ko apni lokapriyta aur satta kho dene ka bhaya hua aur unhonne muhammad ko san 622 (hijri) mein makka chhodne ko vivsh kar diya. vo madeena chala aaya jahaaain logon, khaaskar sanbhraant kul ke logan aur yahoodiyon se use samarthan mila. iske baad uske anucharon ki sankhya aur shakti badhati gayi. muhammad ne makka par chadhaai kar di aur vahaaain ke pradhaan ko hara diya. uske 'sandesh' se aur log prabhaavit hone lage aur usaki prabhusatta mein vishvaas karne lage. uske baad muhammad ne apne netrutv mein kai aise sainik abhiyaan bhi chalaae jinmein unka virodh karne vaalon ko hara diya gaya. san 632 mein muhammad saahab ki mrutyu tak lagbhag saara arab praayadveep muhammad saabah ke sandesh ko kubool kar chuka tha. in logon ko muslim kaha jaane laga.

muhammad saahab ke baad

muhamamd saahab ki mrutyu ke baad arabon ki raajanaitik shakti mein bahut vruddhi hui. san 700 isvi tak Iran, misr, iraak tatha madhyapoorv mein islaam ki saamarik vijay sthaapit ho gayi thi. arab in ilaakon mein chhitput roop se bas bhi gaye the. islaam ki raajanaitik satta khilaaft ke haath rahi. aarambh mein to islaam ka kendra damishk raha aur fir makka par aathaveen sadi ke madhya tak bagdaad islaam ki raajanaitik rajdhani bana. islaam ke raajanaitik vaaris arab hi rahe par kai aur nasl/jaati ke log bhi dheere dheere ismein milne lage. solahaveen sadi mein usmaanon ne makka par adhikaar kar liya aur islaam ki raajanaitik shakti turkon ke haath chali gayi aur san 1922 tak unheen ke haathon rahi.