appeal

'appeal' (appeal) shabd moolat: angreji ka hai jismein yadyapi uske kai arth hain tathaapi hindi mein usaka prayog 'aavedanapatr' ke aashay mein hota hai jo kisi hetu ya vaad ko neeche ke nyaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadhikran se hataakar uchchatar nyaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadhikran ke samaksh, neeche ke nyaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadhikran nirnaya par punarvichaar ke liye, prastut kiya jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

kisi hetu ya vaad ke neeche ke nyaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadhikran se hataakar uchchatar nayaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadheesh ke samaksh prastut karna chaar vibhijh pranaliyon dvaara hota hai--

(1) appeal dvaara,

(2) punareekshan dvaara,

(3) lekh dvaara, tatha

(4) nirdesh ki kaarravaai dvaara.

punaraavalokan ki kaarravaai dvaara kisi nyaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadhikran ke nirnaya ka punarvichaar usi nyaayaadheesh ya nyaayaadheesh dvaara bhi ho sakta hai.

appeal aur punareekshan mein antar yeh hai ki punareekshan uchchatar nyaayaalaya ke svavivek par sadaiv nirbhar rahata hai aur adhikaar ya svatv ke roop mein usaki maaaing naheen ki ja sakti. uchchatar nyaayaalaya punareekshan isi aadhaar par viyukt kar sakta hai ki neeche ke nyaayaalaya dvaara saar roop mein nyaaya ho chuka hai chaahe vah nirnaya vidhi ke pratikool hi hua ho. parantu appeal aise kisi aadhaar par viyukt naheen ki ja sakti kyonki appeal ka, ek baar sveekaar ho jaane par, nirnaya vidhi ke anusaar kiya jaana tab tak anivaarya hai jab tak appeal karaneka adhikaar denevaaleee samavidhi mein koi vipreet upabandh na ho.

appeal Bhaarat ki lekhapranaali se anek roopon mein bhinn hai. lekh ki kaarravaai keval uchch nyaayaalayon tatha uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein ho sakti hai jab ki appeal uchch nyaayaalayon tatha uchchatam nyaayaalaya ke atirikt anya nyaayaalayon ya nyaayaadhikran mein bhi ho sakti hai. lekh uchch nyaayaalaya ki adheekaran shakti ke antargat is hetu nikaala jaata hai ki neeche ke nyaayaalaya, nyaayaadhikran, shaasan ya uske adhikaareegan apne kshetraadhikaar ke baahar kaam na karein ya saarvajanik prayojan ke liye diye hue kshetraadhikaar ka prayog karna asveekaar na karein, athva unke nirnaya pratyaksh roop se desh ki vidhi ke pratikool na hone paavein tatha ve apna kartavyapaalan uchit reeti se karein. appeal is prakaar seemaabaddh naheen hai. appeal sabhi prashnon ko lekar ho sakti hai---prashn chaahe tathya ka ho chaahe vidhi ka. dviteeya appeal keval vidhi ke prashnon tak hi seemit rahati hai.

appeal aur nirdesh mein yeh bhed hai ki nirdesh ki yaachana neeche ke nyaayaalaya dvaara uchchtar nyaayaalaya se ki jaati hai taaki vidhi ya pratha ke kisi aise prashn ka, jiske sambandh mein neeche ke nyaayaalaya ko yuktiyukt sandeh ho, uchchatar nyaayaalaya dvaara nirnaya kara liya jaae.

itihaas

angreji saamaanya vidhi mein appeal ke liye koi upabandh naheen tha. parantu saamaanya vidhi nyaayaalayon ki galatiyaaain trutilekh ke maadhyam se kings bench nyaayaalaya dvaara sudhaari jaae sakti theen. trutilekh keval vidhi ke prashn par hota tha, tathya ke prashn par naheen.

parantu roman vidhi mein appeal ke liye upabandh tha. inglaid mein appeal ki kaarravaai roman vidhi se li gayi aur angreji vidhi mein usaka samaavesh un vaadon mein hua jinka nirnaya suneeti kshetraadhikaar ke antargat laard chaansalar dvaara athva dharm ya naukaadhikran nyaayaalayon dvaara hota tha. baad mein, samavidhi ne appeal ke adhikaar ko, saamaanya vidhi tatha anya kshetraadhikaar ke antargat honevaale donon prakaar ke vaadon mein, niyamit roop diya.

praacheen Bhaarat mein, jab vivaad kam hote the, raaja swayam prajaae ke vivaadon ka niptaara karta tha. us samay appeal ka prashn naheen tha kyonki raaja nyaaya ka srot tha. parantu raaja ke nyaayaalaya ke saath saath lokapriya nyaayaalaya hua karte the, baad mein raaja ne swayam neeche ke nyaayaalayon ki sthaapana ki. lokapriya nyaayaalaya ya neeche ke nirnaya ke viruddh appeal raaja ke samaksh ho sakti thi.

mugal kaal mein vyavahaaravaadon ki appeal sadar deevaani adaalat mein tatha dandavaadi ki appeal nijaam--A--adaalat mein hoti thi. parantu san‌ 1857 E. ke asafal svaatantraya yuddh ke pashchaat‌ jab british raajya ne Bhaarat ka shaasan East India company se apne haath mein liya, sadar deevaani adaalat tatha nijaam-A-adaalat ka unmoolan ho gaya aur unka kshetraadhikaar Calcutta, Mumbai tatha Madras sthit mahanagar-uchch-nyaayaalayon ko de diya gaya. baad mein Bhaarat ke vibhinn praanton mein uchch nyaayaalayon ki sthaapana hui.

appeal ke prakaar

appeal saamaanyat: do prakaar ki hoti hai---pratham appeal ya dviteeya. katipya vaadon mein truteeya appeal bhi ho sakti hai. pratham appeal aaranbhik nyaayaalaya ke nirnaaya ke sambandh mein uchchatar nyaayaalaya mein hoti hai. dviteeya appeal--appeal nyaayaalaya ke nirnaya ke sambandh mein shreshthatam adhikaari ke samaksh hoti hai.

vyavahaar appeal

vyavahaar vaadon mein nyaayaalaya ke samast aadesh do bhaagon mein vibhaajit hote hain--'aajnyaapti' tatha aadesh'. aajnyaapti se taatparya us abhinirnayan se hai jiske dvaara, jahaaain tak abhinirnayan denevaale nyaayaalaya ka sambandh hai, vaad ya vaadaanuroop anya aaranbhik kaarravaai mein nihit vivaadagrast sab ya kisi ek vishay ke sambandh mein, vibhijh pakshon ke adhikaaron ka antim roop se nivaaran hota hai (dhaara 2 (2) vyavahaar-prakriya-sanhita). aadesh se taatparya vyavahaar nyaayaalaya ke aise pratyek vinishchaya se hai jaae aajnyaapti ki shreni mein naheen aata (dhaara 2 (14), vyavahaar-prakriya-sanhita). aadesh ke virooddh keval ek appeal ho sakti hai.

pratham appeal vyavahaar-prakriya-sanhita ki dhaara 96 ke antargat kisi aajnyaapti ke viruddh baad ke moolyaanusaar uchch nyaayaalaya ya jila nyaayadheesh ke samaksh hoti hai. pratham appeal mein tathya tatha vidhi ke sabhi prashnon par vichaar ho sakta hai. pratham appeal nyaayaalaya ko pareekshan nyaayaalaya ki samast shaktiyaaain praapt hain. dviteeya appeal, vyavahaar--prakriya--sanhita ki jaara 100 ke antargat vyavahaaravaadon mein aajnyaapti ke viruddh keval vidhi sambandhi prashnon par, na ki tathya ke prashn par, uchch nyaayaalaya mein hoti hai. jab dviteeya appeal ki sunavaai uchch nyaayaalaya ke ek nyaayaadheesh dvaara hoti hai tab yeh nyaayaadheesh 'letars peteint' ya uchch nyaayaalaya vidhaaneeya adhiniyam ke antargat, usi nyaayaalaya ke do nyaayadheeshon ke khand ke samaksh ek aur appeal ki anumati de sakta hai.

dand appeal

dand appeal sanbadhi vidhi dand--prakriya--sanhita ki dhaara 404 se lekar 431 tak mein di hui hai. dand sambandhi vaadon mein keval ek appeal ho sakti hai. iska ek hi apavaad hai. jab appeal nyaayaalaya abhiyukt ko nimukt kar deta hai tab dand-prakriya-sanhita ki dhaara 417 ke antargat vimukti aadesh ke viruddh dviteeya appeal uchch nyaayaalaya mein ho sakti hai.

jab jilaadheesh ke atirikt koi anya dandanaayak dand--prakriya--sanhita ki dhara 122 ke antargat kisi vaad ko sveekaar ya vimukt karna asveekaar kar de tab uske aadesh ke viruddh appeal jilaadheesh ke samaksh ho sakti hai (dhaara 406 (a) dand-prakriya-sanhita). uttar pradesh raajya ne jilaadheesh ke samaksh honevaali is appeal ka bhi unmoolan kar diya hai aur appeal jilaadheesh ke samaksh na hokar satranyaayaalaya mein hoti hai.

aise maamalon ko chhodkar, jinmein pareekshan nyaayaalaya dvaara hota hai, dand appeal tathya tatha vidhi, donon prashnon par ho sakti hai. mrutyu-dand-praapt vyakti ke saath pareekshit vyakti ki or se ki jaanevaali apeelon ko chhodkar, nyaayasabhya dvaara pareekshit samast vaadon ki appeal keval vidhi vishyak prashnon kein sambandh mein hi ho sakti hai. appeal-nyaayaalaya pareekshan-nyaayaalaya dvaara diye gaye dandaadesh ki pushti kar sakta hai athva usako ulat sakta hai, abhiyukt ko vimukt kar sakta hai, siddhadosh thahara sakta hai ya us abhiyog se mukt kar sakta hai jiske liye usaka pareekshan hua tha athva dandaadesh yathaasthit rakhate hue sanmati badal sakta hai, parantu dandaadesh ki vruddhi naheen kar sakta. vah pun: pareekshan athva pareekshanaarth samarpan ka aadesh bhi de sakta hai. (dhaara 423, dand-prakriya-sanhita).

samvidhaan ke anuchhed 132 se 136 tak ke upabandhon ke anusaar kisi uchch nyaayaalaya ya antim kshetraadhikaaravaale kisi nyaayaadhikran ke nirnaya ke viruddh, uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein appeal ho sakti hai. anuchhed 132 ke antargat kisi bhi nirnaya, aajnyaapti athva dandaadesh ke viruddh appeal uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein ho sakti hai, yadi uchch nyaayaalaya pramaanit kar de ki us maamale mein samvidhaan ke nirvachan ka koi saaravaan vidhiprashn antargrast hai. yadi uchch nyaayaalaya aisa pramaanapatr dena sveekaar kar de to uchchatam nyaayaalaya appeal ke liye vishesh ijaajat de sakta hai. jahaaain uchch nyaayaalaya aisa pramaanapatr de deta hai athva uchchatam nyaayaalaya vishesh ijaajat de deta hai vahaaain uchchatam nyaayaalaya ki anujnyaa se samvidhaan ke nirvachan sambandhi prashn ke atirikt anya prashn bhi uthaae jaae sakte hain.

uchch nyaayaalaya ke kisi antim nirnaya, aajnyaapti ya aadesh appeal uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein ho sakti hai, yadi uchch nyaayaalaya yeh pramaanit kar de ki (k) vivaadavishya ki raashi ya moolya pratham baar ke nyaayaalaya mein bees hajaar rupae ya kisi aisi anya raashi se, jo is baare mein ullikhit ki jaae, kam naheen hai, athva (kh) usamein utani raashi ya moolya ki sampatti se sambaddh koi vaad ya prashn pratyaksh ya paroksh roop mein antagrast hai, athva (g) maamala uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein appeal ke yogya hai. yadi uchch nyaayaalaya ka nirnaya poorvavat‌ neeche ke nyaayaalaya ke nishchaya ki pushti karta hai tab uchch nyaayaalaya ko yeh aur pramanit karna hota hai ki appeal mein koi saaravaan‌ vidhiprashn antargrast hai (anuchhed 133).

uchch nyaayaalaya ki kisi dand kaarravaai mein diye hue nirnaya ya antim aadesh ki appeal uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein hoti hai, yadi uchch nyaayaalaya ne appeal mein abhiyukt vyakti ko mrutyudandaadesh diya hai; athva uchch nyaayaalaya pramaanit karta hai ki maamala uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne yogya hai.

anuchhed 136 ke antargat uchchatam nyaayaalaya ki vishesh anumati se appeal ho sakti hai.

prati-aapatti

jab vyavahaaravaad mein kisi paksh ki or se appeal hoti hai tab uttaravaadi ko aajnyaapti ke us bhaag ke viruddh, jo uske vipreet hai, prati-aapati prastut karne ka adhikaar hota hai. vah apni niji appeal bhi kar sakta hai parantu prati-appeal tatha prati-aapatti mein yeh antar hota hai ki prati-appeal to appeal ke liye nirdhaarat avadhi ke bheetar honi chaahiye tatha sambandhi samasat niyamon ka paalan aavashyak hain, kintu prati-aapatti, vyavahaar-prakriya-sanhita ki kramasankha 41, niyam 23 ke antargat, appeal ki sunavaai ki soochana uttaravaadi dvaara praapt ki jaane ki tithi se 30 din ke andar prastut ki ja sakti hai. uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein honevaali athva dandavishyak apeelon mein koi prati-aapatti naheen hoti.

avadhi

Calcutta, Madras tatha Mumbai ke uchch nayaayaalayon dvaara, aaranbhik kshetraadhikaar ke prayog ke antargat di gayi aajnyaapti ya aadesh mein appeal karne ki avadhi 20 din hai.

vyavahaaravaadon mein appeal jila nyaayaadheesh ke samaksh aajnyaapti ya aadesh mein tithi se 30 din ke andar ki ja sakti hai. uchch nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki avadhi 30 din hai aur ek nyaayaadheesh ki aajnyaaapti ya aadesh se do nyaayaadheeshon ke samaksh appeal karne ki avadhi 90 din hai.

mrutyudandaadesh ke viruddh uchch nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki avadhi mrutyudandaadesh ki tithi se saat din hai.

uchch nyaayaalaya ke atirikt anya kisi nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki avadhi 30 din hai. vimukti ke aadesh ke viruddh uchch nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki avadhi teen maas hai. shesh maamalon mein appeal karne ki avadhi 60 din hai.

uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki anumati ke liye aavedanapatr uchch nyaayaalaya mein prastut karne ki avadhi 90 din hai. yadi uchch nyaayaalaya vah pramaanapatr dena asveekaar kar de jiske liye praarthana ki gayi hai, to asveekaar kiye jaane ki tithi se 60 din ke andar, uchch nyaayaalaya mein bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke anuchhed 132 ya 136 ke antargat pramaanapatr ke liye aavedan diya ja sakta hai.

aise maamalon mein jinmein uchch nyaayaalaya ko uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki anumati ya pramaanapatr dene ki shakti hai, uchchatam nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki ijaajat ke liye kisi aise aavedanapatr ko angeekaar naheen karta jo uchch nyaayaalaya mein na diya jaakar seedhe usako diya jaata hai. apavaad roop kuchh maamalon ko chhod etadarth keval kuchh aise maamale hi apavaad samajhe jaate hain jinmein is aadhaar par aavedanapatr ko asveekaar karne se ghor anyaaya hone ki aashanka rahati hai. jahaaain uchch nyaayaalaya mein aavedanapatr dene ka koi upabandh vidhi mein haneen hai vahaaain samvidhaan ke anuchhed 136 ke antargat aavedanapatr dene ki avadhi sambaddh aadesh (jiske viruddh appeal honi hai) ki tithi se 80 din hai.

saadhaaran siddhaant

appeal mein prayukt honevaale saadhaaran siddhaant is prakaar hain:

(1) appeal ki kaarravaai samavidhi se utpann hui hai at: jab tak vidhi mein koi upabandh na ho, appeal naheen ho sakti.

(2) appeal vaad ya anya kaarravaai ki shrunkhala hai aur appeal nyaayaalaya ka nirnaya praathamik roop se unheen paristhition par aadhaarit hota hai jo neeche ke nyaayaalaya ke vinishchaya ki tithi par vartamaan theen. kintu appeal-nyaayaalaya baad ki ghatnaaon par bhi dhyaan de sakta hai aur neeche ke nyaayaalaya ki aajnyaapti ya aadesh mein vaadavishya ke anusaar nyaayochit sanshodhan kar sakta ya use hata sakta hai.

(3) appeal prakriya ka vishay na hokar maulik adhikaar ka vishay samajhi jaati hai aur yeh maan liya jaata hai ki appeal ke adhikaar ka apaharan karanevaali kisi vidhi ka prayog chaaloo appeal ya vaad mein tab tak naheen hoga jab tak aavashyak roop se usako anudarshi prabhaav na diya gaya ho. yadi aisa koi anudarshi prabhaav naheen diya gaya hai to chaahe neeche ke nyaayaalaya ke nirnaya ke poorv hi vah vidhi laagoo ho chuki ho, appeal ka nirnaya us vidhi ke anusaar hoga jo vaad ya anya kaarravaai ke aarambh ki tithi par laagoo tha.

(4) saadhaaranataya appeal ka nirnaya neeche ke nyaayaalaya mein prastut kiye gaye saakshya ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. keval vahi naya saakshya appeal nyaayalaya dvaara sveekaar kiya jaae sakta hai jaae kisi paksh ko samuchit khoj tatha prayatn karne par bhi us samay praapt naheen ho saka tha jis samay aarambh ke nyaayaalaya mein vaad ka pareekshan chal raha tha.

(5) neeche ke nyaayaalaya ki aajnyaapti ka appeal-nyaayaalaya ki aajnyaapti ya aadesh mein samaavesh tabhi hota hai jab vah aajnyaapti ya aadesh appeal ke sabhi maamalon ki poori sunavaai ke baad diya jaata hai, parantu jab appeal kisi dosh ke kaaran athva kisi praarambhik aapatti ke aadhaar par, jaise nyaayaalaya shulk na dene par ya avadhi samaapti ke kaaran, vimukt kar di jaati hai tab aisa naheen kiya ja sakta. kintu appeal-nyaayaalaya ki aajnyaapti mein pareekshan nyaayaalaya ki aajnyaapti ka samaavesh ho jaane se vaad ya anya kaarravaai upasthit karne ke avadhikaal ki gati naheen rukati jab tak ki vaadahetu neeche ke nyaayaalaya ke vinishchaya se utpann hua hai.

(6) dand sambandhi un maamalon ko chhodkar jinmein appeal nyaayaalaya dandaadesh mein vruddhi naheen kar sakta, appeal nyaayaalaya ko aisa koi bhi aadesh dene ki shakti rahati hai jo aarambh ke nyaayaalaya dvaara diya ja sakta hai.