anuvidhi

raajya ki prabhutvasanpann shakti dvaara nirmit kaanoon ko anuvidhi ya sanvidhi (statute) kehte hain. anyaanya deshon mein anuvidhinirmaan ki pruthak‌-pruthak‌ pranaaliyaaain hain jo vastut: us raajya ki shaasanapranaali ke anuroop hoti hain.

angreji anuvidhi

angreji kaanoon mein jo anuvidhi hai usamein san‌ 1235 E. ka 'staityoot ov martan' sabse praacheen hai. praarambh mein sabhi anuvidhiyaaain saarvajanik hua karti theen. richrd truteeya ke kaal mein iski do shaakhaaeain ho gayi - saarvajanik anuvidhi tatha niji anuvidhi. vartamaan anuvidhiyaaain chaar shroniyon mein vibhkt hain:-

1. saarvajaanik saadhaaran adhiniyam,

2. saarvajanik sthaaneeya tatha vyaktigat adhiniyam,

3. niji adhiniyam jo samraat ke mudrak dvaara mudrit hote hain,

4. niji adhiniyam jo is prakaar mudrit naheen hote. niji adhiniymon ka ab vyavahaar roop mein lop hota ja raha hai.

bhaarateeya anuvidhi

praacheen Bhaarat mein koi anuvidhi pranaali naheen thi. nyaaya siddhaant evam niyamon ka ullekh manu, yaajnyaavalkya, naarad, vyaas, bruhaspati, kaatyaayan aadi smrutikaaron ke granthon mein tatha baad mein unke bhaashyon mein milta hain muslim vidhi pranaali mein bhi anuvidhiyaaain naheen pai jaateen. angreji raajya ke praarambh mein kuchh anuvidhiyaaain 'viniym' ke roop mein I. baad mein anek pramukh adhiniymon ka nirmaan hua; jaise 'Indian penal code', 'civil proseejar code', 'kriminl proseejar code', 'evideins aikt' aadi san‌ 1935 E. 'gavarnameint ov India aikt' ke dvaara mahattvapoorn vaidhaanik parivartan hue. 15 agast‌ san‌ 1947 E. ko Bhaarat savatantr hua aur san‌ 1950 E. mein svanirmit samvidhaan ke antargat sampoorn prabhutvasanpann lokantatraatmak ganaraajya ban gaya. iske poorvavarti adhiniymon ko mukhya roop mein apna liya gaya. taduparaant sansad tatha raajyon ke vidhaanamandalon dvaara anek atyant mahattvapoorn adhiniymon ka nirmaan hua jinse desh ke raajaneetik, vaidhaanik, aarthik, saamaajik evam saanskrutik kshetron mein kaantikaari parivartan hue.

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke anuchhed 246 ke antargat sansad tatha raajyon ke vidhaanamandalon ki vidhi banaane ki shakti ka vishay ke aadhaar par teen vibhinn soochiyon mein vargeekaran kiya gaya hai-

(1) sanghasoochi, (2) samavarti soochi tatha (3) raajyasoochi.

sansad dvaara nirmit adhiniymon mein raashtrapati tatha raajya ke vidhaanamandal dvaara nirmit adhiniymon mein raajyapaal ki sveekruti aavashyak hai. samavarti soochi mein praganit vishyon ke sambandh mein yadi koi adhiniyam raajya ke vidhaanamandal dvaara banaaya jaata hai to usamein raashtrapati ki sveekruti apekshit hai.

saadhaaranat:

(1) saarvajanik adhiniyam, jab tak vidhi dvaara anyatha upabandh na ho, desh ki samast praja par laagoo hote hain. Bhaarat mein niji adhiniyam naheen hote.

(2) pratyek adhiniyam sveekrutipraapti ki tithi se chaaloo hota hai, jab tak kisi adhiniyam mein anya kisi tithi ka ullekh na ho.

(3) koi adhiniyam prayog ke abhaav mein aprayukt naheen samjha jaata, jab tak usaka nirsan na ho.

(4) anuvidhi ka sheershak, prastaavana athva paarshvalekh usaka ang naheen hota, yadyapi nirvachan mein unki sahaayata li ja sakti hai.

(5) praaya: adhiniymon ka vargeekaran vishyavastu ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai; jaise, shaashvat tatha asthaayi, dandaneeya tatha lokahitkaari, aajnyaaapak tatha nideshaatmak aur sakshamakaari tatha ayogyakaari.

(6) asthaayi adhiniyam swayam usi mein nirdhaarit tithi ko samaapt ho jaata hai.

(7) katipya adhiniyam prati varsh paarit hote hain.

adhiniyam ka nirvachan

kisi adhiniyam ke nirvachan ke liye hamein saamaanya vidhi tatha us adhiniyam ka aashray lena hota hai. nirvachan ke mukhya niyam is prakaar hain:

(1) adhiniyam ka nirvachan usaki shabdaavali ki apeksha uske abhipraaya tatha uddeshya ke aadhaar par karna chaahiye.

adhiniyam ka desh ki saamaanya vidhi se jo sambandh hai use dhyaan mein rakhana chaahiye.