anusandhaan evam vikaas

anusandhaan evam vikaas (Research and development ; often called R&D) yojanaabaddh dhng se kiye gaye srujanaatmak kaarya ko kehte hain. iska dhyeya maanav ki gyaan-sanpada ki vruddhi karna hota hai. ismein maanav ke baare mein, usaki sanskruti ke baare mein evam samaaj ke baare mein gyaan ki vruddhi bhi shaamil hai.

vaanijya ki duniya mein kisi utpaad ke vikaas ki parikalpana (conception) karne ka prabhaag (phrase) anusandhaan evam vikaas kahalaata hai. iska arth hai ki utpaad banaane ke liye aavashyak 'moolabhoot vigyaan' pata hona chaahiye ya yadi is gyaan ka abhaav hai to iski 'khoj' ki jaani chaahiye - yeh anusandhaan ka phase kahalaayega. kintu yadi utpaad se sambandhit vigyaan maujood hai to is gyaan ko ek upayogi utpaad mein badalna bhi ek bada kaam hota hai jise 'vikaas' kehte hain. alag shabdon mein 'vikaas' ke liye 'praudyogiki' shabd ka bhi prayog kiya jaata hai jiska mukhya dhyeya uchit moolya, uchit aakaar, uchit urja-khapat aadi ki praapti hota hai.

baahari kadiyaaain