anusandhaan

vyaapak arth mein anusandhaan (Research) kisi bhi kshetr mein 'gyaan ki khoj karna' ya 'vidhivt gaveshana' karna hota hai. vaigyaanik anusandhaan mein vaigyaanik vidhi ka sahaara lete hue jijnyaaasa ka samaadhaan karne ki koshish ki jaati hai. naveen vastuon ki khoj aur puraane vastuon evam sidhaanton ka pun: pareekshan karna, jisse ki nae tathya praapt ho sake, use shodh kehte hai.

vaishveekaran ke vartamaan daur mein uchch shiksha ki sahaj upalabdhata aur uchch shiksha sansthaanon ko shodh se anivaarya roop se jodne ki neeti ne shodh ki mahatta ko badha diya hai. aaj shaikshik shodh ka kshetr vistrut aur saghan hua hai.

anukram

parichay

vyakti ka shiksha se do roopon mein sambandh banta hai. ek vah shiksha se apne bodh ko vistrut karta hai, doosare vah apne adhyayan se Dixit hokar shiksha ke kshetr mein kaarya karte hue shiksha mein ya apne shaikshik vishay mein kuchh jodta hai. is prakaar pratham sopaan shiksha se gyaan praapt karna hai, doosra gyaan mein kuchh naya jodna hai. shodh ka sambandh is doosare sopaan se hai. pi-H.di./ di. fil ya di.lit/di.S-si. jaisi shodh upaadhiyaaain isi apeksha se judi hain ki inmein adhyeta apne shodh se gyaan ke kuchh nae aayaam udghaatit karega.

snaatak-snaatakottar star ka gyaan chhaatr ke bodhaatmak star tak seemit hota hai. vah us vishay ke samast sarvamaanya siddhaanton, avadhaaranaaon, maton, niyamon, upakaranon se parichay praapt karta hai. prakaaraantar se gyaan ka yeh star shikshaarthi ke bodh ka vistaar hai. isse oopar ka star maatr swayam ke bodh ka vistaar naheen hai apitu us gyaan ki seema ka vistaar hai. arthaat jab ham kisi vishay ke shaastr se poorn parichit hokar aur adhyayan-mananasheel hote hain to ham gyaan ke aalok mein apne ko viksit karne ke uparaant, ab gyaan ko viksit karne ki prakriya mein hote hain. shodh ke star par research, 'pun: khoj' naheen hai apitu 'gahan khoj' hai. iske dvaara ham kuchh naya avishkrut kar us gyaan parampara mein kuchh nae adhyaaya jodte hain.

shodh samasyaamoolak hote hain. hamaare saamane koi aagat bauddhik samasya ya jijnyaaasa kuchh anveshit karne ko prerit karti hai. pafalat: ham anusandhaan ke kaarya mein aage badhte hain. kisi vishesh gyaan kshetr mein shodh samasya ka samaadhaan ya jijnyaaasa ki poorti mein kiya gaya kaarya us vishesh gyaan kshetr ka vistaar hai. shiksha ki nayi-nayi shaakhaaon ka janm vastut: isi gyaan vistaar ki svaabhaavik parinti hai. patrakaarita, lok prashaasan, prabandhan aadi kuchh aise vishay hain jo kaarya kshetr ki jarooraton ke aadhaar par viksit hue hain. ye sabhi apne-apne kaarya kshetr ya jijnyaaasa kshetr ki vishyavastu ke shaastreeya pratipaadan hain. is prakaar shodhaatmak gatividhiyon se na keval vishyon ka vistaar ya samruddh hoti hai varan naye-naye shaikshik anushaasanon ka udbhav hota hai jo apne vishay kshetr ki visheshajnyaata ka pratinidhitv karte hain. vaishveekaran aur soochana praudyogiki ke vistaar ne poori duniya ke gyaan tantr ki seemaaon ko khol diya hai. isse pratyek shaikshik anushaasan apne ko samruddh karne ki sthiti mein hai. is vaataavaran mein shodh ke maadhyam se pratyek shaikshik anushaasan paraspar samvaad ki prakriya mein hai. pafalat: antaraanushaasanaatmak shodh ka mahattv badha hai. isse vibhinn shaikshik vishyon ka paraspar aadaan-pradaan sambhav hua hai.

paashchaatya shodh parampara visheshajnyaata (Specialization) aadhaarit hai. gyaan maarg mein aage badhta hua shodhaarthi apne vishay kshetr mein visheshajnyaata aur pun: ati visheshajnyaata (Super Specialization) praapt karta hai. shodh samasya ke samaadhaan ke drushti se yeh atyant upaadeya hai. bhaarateeya gyaan saahitya ki avichhinn parampara ke pramaan se ham yeh kah sakte hain ki shodh ki bhaarateeya parampara, jagat ke antim satya ki or le jaati hai. antim satya ki or jaate hi tathya gaun hone lagte hain aur nishkarsh pramukh. tathya use samakaaleen se jodtein hai aur nishkarsh, desh kaal ki seema ko todte hue samaaj ke anubhav vivek mein judte jaate hain. bhaarateeya vaaङamaya ka satya ek or jahaaain vishisht satya ka pratipaadan karta hai vaheen doosari or saamaanya satya ko bhi abhivyakti karta hai. saamaanya satya ka pratipaadan sarvada bhaashya ki apeksha rakhata hai. yahi kaaran hai ki bhaarateeya vaadmaya mein vivechit adhikaansh tathyon ki vastugat satta par sadaiv prashnachinh lagte hain. ve anubhav ki ek thaati hain. tathyon ki vastugat satta se doori use thodi rahasyaatmak banaati hai, bhram ki sambhaavana bani rahati hai. uske nihitaarth tak pahuainchane ki liye prajnyaa ki aavashyakta hai. sampoornata ka bodh karaane waali yeh vyaapak drushti ek prakaar ki vaishvik drushti (Holistic Approach) hai. yeh sukhad hai ki maanaviki evam samaaj vigyaan ke vishyon hi naheen apitu samaaj vigyaan evam praakrutik vijnyaaanon ke antaraavalamban se vartamaan gyaan tantr mein ek prakaar ke vaishvik drushti ka praadurbhaav hone laga hai, jiski samprati aavashyakta prateet hoti rahi hai.

shikshan parinaam

shodh paddhati aur sanjnyaaanaatmak vigyaan, Burapha vishvavidyaalaya, Thailand ke college ke paas taalaab ki tasvir.

anusandhaan ko paribhaashit karne aur anusandhaan ki prakriya aur anusandhaan vidhiyon ka varnan kar sakte hai . isse aarthik aur prabandhan vigyaan ke sankaaya ke bheetar anusandhaan sandarbh ko samajh sakte hai. NWU mein safal anusandhaan aayojit karne ke liye prakriyaaon aur aavashyakataaon ko samajh sakte hai. ek anusandhaan pariyojana ki yojana hai aur nishpaadit karne ke kram mein anusandhaan ki prakriya ke buniyaadi pahaluon ko laagoo karne ke liye pata kar sakte hai. isse prabhaavi dhang se shikshaarthiyon anusandhaan pariyojana se sambandhit jaankaari ekatr karne mein pustakaalaya aur apne sansaadhanon ka upayog kar sakte hai. nishpaadit aur gunaatmak anusandhaan ko maanya kiya gunaatmak anusandhaan aur tareekon ko samajh sakte hai. vihit vishleshan, kai pratigman vishleshan, rasad pratigman vishleshan, khojapoorn kaarak vishleshan, vichran ka ek tarah se vishleshan, aur vichran ke bahubhinnaroopi vishleshan sahit bahubhinnaroopi saankhyikeeya vishleshan, pradarshan karne ke liye SPSS ka upayog karne mein saksham ho sakte hai. ya saadhaaran pratigman aur varnanaatmak deta vishleshan ke liye EViews aur STATA upayog karne mein saksham ho sakte hai. pesh ki sameeksha karne aur vaigyaanik lekh prakaashit karne mein saksham ho sakte hai. ek raashtreeya / antararaashtreeya sammelan mein sammelan kaagaj ya poster prastut karne mein saksham ho sakte hai.

Bhaarat mein shodhakartaaon dvaara samasyaaon ka saamana

anusandhaan ki kaaryapranaali mein ek vaigyaanik prashikshan ki kami ke kaaran ek mahaan baadha hamaare desh ke shodhakartaaon ke liye utapan ho gayi hai. kai shodhakartaaon anusandhaan vidhiyon ko jaanane ke bina andhere mein ek chhalaang lagaane lagte hai.shodh paddhati ka ek vyavasthit adhyayan hai jon ek taatkaalik aavashyakta hai. is aavashyakta ko poora karne ke liye gahan paathyakram prayaason ko kam avadhi me pradaan karne ke liye banaaya jaana chaahiye. shodhakartaaon ke liye aachaar sanhita vahaaain maujood naheen hai. prakaashit aankadon ki samay par upalabdhata ki kathinaai bhi hai. kai baar, avadhaarana ki samasya bhi hoti hai.

esid mera jal nikaasi Rio tinto, Spain mein gambhir paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon ka kaaran banta hai.

samasyaaon ke srot

  1. pathan
  2. shaikshik anubhav
  3. dainik anubhav
  4. kshetr ki sthiti ka adhyayan karke
  5. vichaar-vimarsh
  6. buddhisheelata
  7. anusandhaan
  8. antarjnyaaan

anusandhaan rananeeti

ek shodh rananeeti ka chayan ek anusandhaan design ka mool hai. yeh shaayad anveshak banaane ke liye hai ek sabse mahatvapoorn nirnaya hai. vah yeh hai ki ek varnanaatmak ek vishleshanaatmak ya ek prayogaatmak adhyayan karne ke liye hai ya naheen.

anusandhaan ke mahatva

  • anusandhaan hamaari aarthik pranaali mein lagbhag sabhi sarkaari neetiyon ke liye aadhaar pradaan karta hai.
  • anusandhaan ke maadhyam se ham vaikalpik neetiyon chintan karna aur saath hi saath in vikalpon mein se pratyek ke parinaamon ki jaanch kar sakte hain.
  • research saamaajik rishton ka adhyayan karne mein saamaajik vaigyaaniko ke liye bhi utana hi mahatvapoorn hai.
  • yeh bauddhik santushti pradaan karta hai.
  • anusandhaan gyaan ki khaatir ke liye gyaan ka favvaara hai.
  • yeh ek tarah ka aupachaarik prashikshan hai.
  • yeh ek behtar tareeke se ek ke kshetr mein nae ghatnaakram ko samajhne ke liye saksham banaata hai.
  • anusandhaan nae siddhaant ka saamaanyeekaran matlab ho sakta hai.
  • anusandhaan nai shaili aur rachanaatmak ke vikaas ka matlab ho sakta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain