anumaan

anumaan, darshan aur tarkashaastr ka paaribhaashik shabd hai. bhaarateeya darshan mein jnyaaanapraapti ke saadhanon ka naam pramaan hain. anumaan bhi ek pramaan hain. chaarvaak darshan ko chhodkar praaya: sabhi darshan anumaan ko jnyaaanapraapti ka ek saadhan maanate hain. anumaan ke dvaara jo gyaan praapt hota hain usaka naam anumiti hain.

pratyaksh (indriya sannikrsh) dvaara jis vastu ke astitv ka gyaan naheen ho raha hain usaka gyaan kisi aisi vastu ke pratyaksh gyaan ke aadhaar par, jo us apratyaksh vastu ke astitv ka sanket is gyaan par pahuainchane ki prakriya ka naam anumaan hai. is prakriya ka saralatam udaaharan is prakaar hai-kisi parvat ke us paar dhuaaain uthata hua dekhkar vahaaain par aag ke astitv ka gyaan anumiti hai aur yeh gyaan jis prakriya se utpann hota hai usaka naam anumaan hai. yahaaain pratyaksh ka vishay naheen hai, keval dhueain ka pratyaksh gyaan hota hai. par poorvakaal mein anek baar kai sthaanon par aag aur dhueain ke saath-saath pratyaksh gyaan hone se man mein yeh dhaarana ban gayi hai ki jahaaain-jahaaain dhuaaain hota hai vaheen-vaheen aag bhi hoti hai. ab jab ham keval dhueain ka pratyaksh anubhav karte hain aur hamako yeh smaran hota hai ki jahaaain-jahaaain dhuaaain hai vahaaain-vahaaain aag hoti hai, to ham sochate hain ki ab hamako jahaaain dhuaaain dikhaai de raha hain vahaaain aag avashya hogi: ataev parvat ke us paar jahaaain hamein is samay dhueain ka pratyaksh gyaan ho raha hai avashya hi aag vartamaan hogi.

is prakaar ki prakriya ke mukhya angon ke paaribhaashik shabd ye hain:

  • jis vastu ka hamako pratyaksh gyaan ho raha hain aur jis gyaan ke aadhaar par hamein apratyaksh vastu ke astitv ka gyaan hota hai use ling kehte hain.
  • jis vastu ke astitv ka gyaan hota hain use saadhya kehte hain.
  • poorv-pratyaksh gyaan ke aadhaar par un donon ke sahaastitv athva saahacharya ke gyaan ko, jo ab smruti ke roop mein hamaare man mein hai, vyaapti kehte hai.
  • jis sthaan ya vishay mein ling ka pratyaksh ho raha ho use paksh kehte hain.
  • aise sthaan ya vishay jinmein ling aur saaghya poorvakaaleen pratyaksh anubhav mein saath saath dekhe gaye hon samaksh udaaharan kahalaate hai. *aise udaaharan jahaaain poorvakaaleen anubhav mein saadhya ke abhaav ke saath ling ka bhi abhaav dekha gaya ho, vipaksh udaahaaran kahalaate hain.
  • paksh mein ling ki upasthiti ka naam hai pakshadharmata aur usaka pratyaksh hona pakshadharmata gyaan kahalaata hai. paksh-dharmata gyaan jab vyaapti ke smaran ke saath hota hai tab us paristhiti ko paraamarsh kehte hain. isi ko lingaparaamarsh bhi kehte hain kyoki pakshadharmata ka arth hai ling ka paksh mein upasthit hona. iske kaaran isi ke aadhaar par paksh mein saadhya ke astitv ka jo gyaan hota hai usi ka naam anumiti hain. saadhya ko lingi bhi kehte hain kyonki usaka astitv ling ke astitv ke aadhaar par anumit kiya jaata hain. ling ko hetu bhi kehte hain kyonki iske kaaran hi hamako lingi (saadhya) ke astitv ka anumaan hota hai. isliye tarkashaastron mein anumaan ki yeh paribhaasha ki gayi hai-lingaparaamarsh ka naam anumaan hai aur vyaapti vishisht pakshadharmata ka gyaan paraamarsh hain.

paashchaatya tarkashaastr mein anumaan (inafarens) ka arth bhaarateeya tarkashaastr mein prayukt arth se kuchh bhinn aur vistrut hain. vahaaain par kisi ek vaakya athva ek se adhik vaakyon ki satyata ko maankar uske aadhaar par kya-kya vaakya satya ho sakte hain, isko nishchit karne ki prakriya ka naam anumaan hai aur vishesh paristhitiyon ke anubhav ke aadhaar par saamaanya vyaaptiyon ka nirmaan bhi anumaan hi hai.

anumaan ke bhed

anumaan do prakaar ka hota hain-- svaarth anumaan aur paraarth anumaan

svaarth anumaan apni vah maanasik prakriya hai jismein baar-baar ke pratyaksh anubhav ke aadhaar par apne man mein vyaapti ka nishchaya ho gaya ho aur fir kabhi pakshadharmata gyaan ke aadhaar par apne man mein saadhya ke astitv ki anumiti ka udaya ho gaya hai jaisa ki oo par parvat par agni ke anumiti gyaan mein dikhlaaya gaya hai. yeh samast prakriya apne ko samajhne ke liye apne hi man ki hai.

kintu jab hamako kisi doosare vyakti ko paksh mein saadhya ke astitv ka ni:shank nishchaya karaana ho to ham apne manogat ko paaainch angon mein, jinko avayav kehte hain, prakat karte hain. ve paaainch avayav ye hain:

pratijnyaa - arthaat jo baat siddh karni ha usaka kathan. udaaharan : parvat ke us paar aag hai.

hetu - kyon aisa anumaan kiya jaata hain, iska kaaran arthaat paksh mein ling ki upasthiti ka gyaan karaana. udaaharan : kayonki vahaaain par dhuaaain hai.

udaaharan - sapaksh aur vipaksh drushtaanton dvaara vyaapti ka kathan karna, udaaharaan : jahaaain-jahaaain dhuaaain hota hain, vahaaain-vahaaain aag hoti hain, jaise choolhe mein aur jaha-jahaaain aag naheen hoti, vahaaain-vahaaain dhuaaain bhi naheen hota, jaise taalaab mein.

upanaya - yeh batalaana ki yahaaain par paksh mein aisa hi ling upasthit hai jo saadhya ke astitv ka sanket karta hai. udaaharan : yahaaain bhi dhuaaain maujood hai.

nigman - yeh siddh hua ki parvat ke us paar aag hai.

Bhaarat mein yeh paraarth anumaan daarshanik aur anya sabhi prakaar ke vaad-vivaadon aur shaastraarthon mein kaam aata hai. yeh yoonaan desh mein bhi prachalit tha aur yooklid ne jyaamiti likhne mein iska bhali bhaaainti prayog kiya tha. arastoo ko bhi iska gyaan tha. Bhaarat ke daarshanikon aur arastoo ne bhi paaainch avayavon ke sthaan par keval teen ko hi aavashyak samjha kyonki pratham (pratijnyaa) aur pancham (nigman) avayav praaya: ek hi hain. upanaya to maanasik kriya hai jo vyaapti aur pakshadharmata ke saath saamane hone par man mein apne aap udaya ho jaati hain. yadi saamanevaala bahut mandabuddhi na ho, balki buddhimaan ho, to keval pratijnyaa aur hetu in do avayavon ke kathan maatr ki aavashyakta hai. isliye vedaant aur navya nyaaya ke granthon mein keval do hi avayavon ka prayog paaya jaata hai.

bhaarateeya anumaan mein aagaman aur nigman dono hi ansh hai. saamaanya vyaapti ke aadhaar par vishesh paristhiti mein saadhya ke astitv ka gyaan nigman hai aur vishesh paristhitiyon ke pratyaksh anubhav aadhaar par vyaapti ki sthaapana aagaman hai. poorv prakriya ko paashchaatya deshon mein didkshan aur uttar prakriya ko indakshan kehte hai. arastoo aadi paashchaatya tarkashaastriyon ne nigman par bahut vichaar kiya aur mil aadi aadhunik tarkashaastriyon ne aagaman ka vishesh manan kiya.

Bhaarat mein vyaapti ki sthaapanaaeain (aagaman) teen ya teenon me se kisi ek prakaar ke pratyaksh gyaan ke aadhaar par hoti theen. ve ye hain :

(1) kevalaanvaya, jab ling aur saadhya ka saahacharya maatr anubhav mein aata hai, jab unka sah-abhaav na dekha ja sakta ho.

(2) keval vyatirek jab saadhya aur ling aur ling ka sah-abhaav hi anubhav mein aata hai, saahacharya naheen.

(3) anvayavyatirek- jab ling aur saadhya ka sahaastitv aur sahaabhaav donon hi anubhav mein aate hon. aaaingl tarkashaastri John stuart mil ne apne granthon mein aagaman ki paaainch prakriyaaon ka vishd varnan kiya hai. aajkal ki vaigyaanik khojon mein un sabka upayog hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein