antarraashtreeya vyaapaar

sampoorn yooreshiya mein praacheen silk road vyaapaar maarg.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar, antarraashtreeya seemaaon ya kshetron ke aar-paar poonji, maal aur sevaaon ka aadaan-pradaan hai.[1]. adhikaansh deshon mein, yeh sakal ghareloo utpaad (GDP) ke mahattvapoorn ansh ka pratinidhitv karta hai. jabki antarraashtreeya vyaapaar, itihaas ke adhikaansh bhaag mein maujood raha hai (dekhein silk road, embar road) iska aarthik, saamaajik aur raajaneetik mahatva haal ki sadiyon mein badhne laga hai.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar vyavastha par audyogeekaran, unnat parivhan, vaishveekaran, bahuraashtreeya nigam aur baahyasrot se kaaryanishpaadan, in sabhi ka vyaapak prabhaav padta hai. vaishveekaran ki nirantarata ke liye antarraashtreeya vyaapaar mein badhotri mahattvapoorn hai. antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ke bina, desh sirf apni khud ki seema ke bheetar utpaadit maal aur sevaaon tak seemit rah jaaenge.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar, siddhaant roop mein ghareloo vyaapaar se bhinn naheen hai kyonki ek vyaapaar mein shaamil pakshon ki abhiprerana aur vyavahaar maulik roop se badalta naheen hai bhale hi vyaapaar seema paar ka ho ya naheen. mukhya antar yeh hai ki antarraashtreeya vyaapaar aam taur par ghareloo vyaapaar se adhik mahanga hai. iska kaaran hai ki ek seema aam taur par atirikt shulk lagaati hai jaise prashulk, seema par vilamb ke kaaran aavadhik laagat aur bhaasha, kaanooni pranaali ya sanskruti jaise desheeya bhinnataaon se judi laagatein.

ghareloo aur antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ke beech ek aur antar yeh hai ki poonji aur shram jaise utpaadan kaarak aam taur par baahar ki tulana mein deshon ke bheetar adhik gatisheel hote hain. is prakaar antarraashtreeya vyaapaar jyaadaatar maal aur sevaaon ke vyaapaar tak seemit hai aur poonji, shram ya utpaadan ke anya kaarakon ke vyaapaar mein keval ek chhote paimaane par. iske alaava maal aur sevaaon ka vyaapaar, utpaadan kaarakon mein vyaapaar ke liye ek vikalp ke roop mein kaarya kar sakta hai. utpaadan ka ek kaarak aayaat karne ke bajaay, ek desh maal aayaat kar sakta hai jo utpaadan ke kaarak ka gahan istemaal kare aur is prakaar sambandhit kaarak ko sammilit kar le. ek udaaharan hai, cheen se sanyukt raajya America dvaara shram-pradhaan vastuon ka aayaat. cheeni shram ka aayaat karne ke bajaay America, cheen se aise maal aayaat kar raha hai jise cheeni shram ke istemaal se utpaadit kiya gaya hai.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar, arthashaastr ki ek shaakha bhi hai, jo antarraashtreeya vitt ke saath milkar antarraashtreeya arthashaastr ki vistrut shaakha ka nirmaan karti hai.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar, mudraaon ki vibhinn kismon ka upayog karta hai, jismein sabse mahattvapoorn ko sarkaaron aur keindreeya bankon dvaara videshi mudra bhandaar ke roop mein sanrakshit rakha jaata hai. yahaan 1995 aur 2005 ke beech pratyek mudra ke liye rakhe vaishvik sanchayi bhandaar ke pratishat ko darshaaya gaya hai: ameriki dollar sabse zyaada vaanchhit mudra hai aur Euro ki bhi kaafi maang hai.

anukram

namoone

vyaapaar ki paddhati ka poorvaanumaan lagaane aur prashulk jaisi vyaapaar neetiyon ke prabhaav ka vishleshan karne ke liye anek alag namoone prastaavit kiye gaye hain.

rikaardiyn model

atalaantik mahaasaagar aur prashaant mahaasaagar ke beech antarraashtreeya samudri vyaapaar ke liye panaama nahar mahattvapoorn hai.

rikaardiyn model tulanaatmak laabh par keindrit hai aur antarraashtreeya vyaapaar siddhaant mein shaayad sabse mahattvapoorn avadhaarana hai. ek rikaardiyn model mein, desh un cheejon ke utpaadan mein visheshajnyaata haasil karte hain jin cheejon ka utpaadan ve achha karte hain. anya modelon ke vipreet, rikaardiyn dhaancha poorvaanumaan lagaata hai ki desh, maal ki ek vistrut shrunkhala ka utpaadan karne ke bajaay visheshagya honge.

iske alaava, rikaardiyn model kaarak nidhi par seedhe vichaar naheen karta, jaise desh ke bheetar shram aur poonji ki saapeksh maatra. rikaardin model ka pramukh laabh yeh hai ki yeh deshon ke beech praudyogiki bhinnataaon ki kalpana karta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] praudyogiki antar, rikaardiyn aur rikaardo-sraafa model mein aasaani se shaamil hota hai (agala upakhand dekhein).

rikaardiyn model nimnalikhit anumaan lagaata hai:

  1. utpaadan ke liye shram hi ekamaatr praathamik input hai (shram ko moolya ka param srot maana jaata hai).
  2. shram ka sthir seemaant utpaad (MPL) (shram utpaadakata sthir hai, paimaane par sthir laabh aur saral takaneek.)
  3. arthavyavastha mein shram ki seemit maatra
  4. kshetron ke beech shram bilkul gatisheel hai lekin antarraashtreeya star par naheen.
  5. sateek pratiyogita (moolya-graheeta).

rikaardiyn model laghu-avadhi mein maapan karta hai, isliye praudyogiki antarraashtreeya star par bhinn hoti hai. yeh is tathya ka samarthan karta hai ki desh apne tulanaatmak laabh ka paalan karte hain aur visheshajnyaata ke liye anumati dete hain.

rikaardiyn model ka aadhunik vikaas

rikaardiyn vyaapaar model ka adhyayan Graham, jons, mekeinji aur anya dvaara kiya gaya. sabhi siddhaanton mein madhyavarti maal, vastuen aur poonjeegat maal jaise vyaapaarit input maal ko baahar rakha gaya. mekeinji (1954), jons (1961) aur saimuelasan (2001) ne jor diya ki vyaapaar se madhyavarti vastuon ko baahar rakhe jaane se kaafi laabh kho jaaega. ek prasiddh tippani mein mekeinji ne (1954, pru.179) kaha ki "ek pal ka vichaar ek vyakti ko samjha dega ki sooti kapde ka utpaadan karne ke liye lankaashaayar asambhaavya hoga, yadi kapaas ko England mein ugaana pade.[2]

haal hi mein, is siddhaant ko vistaarit karte hue ismein vyaapaarik madhyavarti maamale ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya.[3] is prakaar "keval shram" dhaarana (oopar #1) siddhaant se nikaal di gayi. is prakaar naya rikaardiyn siddhaant, jise kabhi-kabhi rikaardo-sraafa model ka naam bhi diya jaata hai, saiddhaantik roop se poonjeegat vastuon ko shaamil karta hai jaise masheenein aur saamagriyaan, jinka deshon ke beech kaarobaar hota hai. vaishvik vyaapaar ke samay mein, yeh dhaarana heksher-olin model ki apeksha adhik yathaarthavaadi hai, jo yeh maanata hai ki poonji, desh ke andar sthir hai aur antarraashtreeya star par gatisheel naheen hai.[4]

heksher-olin model

1900 ke dashak ke aarambh mein, do sveedish arthashaastriyon, eli heksher aur bertil olin ne kaarak anupaat siddhaant naam ke ek antarraashtreeya vyaapaar siddhaant ka srujan kiya. is siddhaant ko heksher-olin siddhaant bhi kaha jaata hai. heksher-olin siddhaant is baat par jor deta hai ki deshon ko aise maal ka utpaadan aur niryaat karna chaahiye jise aise sansaadhanon (kaarakon) ki aavashyakta ho, jo prachur hon aur aise maal ka aayaat karna chaahiye jise alp-aapoorti vaale sansaadhanon ki aavashyakta ho. yeh siddhaant, tulanaatmak laabh aur poorn laabh ke siddhaanton se bhinn hai kyonki ye siddhaant ek vishesh vastu ke liye utpaadan prakriya ki utpaadakata par keindrit hain. iske vipreet, heksher-olin siddhaant kehta hai ki ek desh ko utpaadan aur niryaat mein un kaarakon ka upayog karte hue visheshagya hona chaahiye jo sabse prachur maatra mein hon aur isliye saste hon. un maal ka utpaadan na karein, jaisa ki pehle ke siddhaanton ne kaha, jo ve sabse adhik kushalata se utpaadit karte hain.

heksher-olin model ko buniyaadi tulanaatmak laabh ke rikaardiyn model ke liye ek vikalp ke roop mein nirmit kiya gaya tha. iski adhik jatilta ke baavajood yeh apne poorvaanumaanon mein adhik sateek saabit naheen hua. lekin ek saiddhaantik drushtikon se dekhne par yeh antarraashtreeya vyaapaar siddhaant mein nav-shaastreeya moolya tantr ko shaamil karke ek suruchipoorn samaadhaan pradaan karta hai.

is siddhaant ka tark hai ki antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ka paitarn, kaarak nidhi mein antar se nirdhaarit hota hai. yeh poorvaanumaan lagaata hai ki desh, un maalon ka niryaat kareinge, jo sthaaneeya roop se prachur kaarakon ka upayog karte hain aur un maalon ka aayaat kareinge, jo aise kaarakon ka upayog karte hain jo sthaaneeya roop se atyant alp hain. H-O model ke saath anubhavajanya samasyaaen, jise lionatif virodhaabhaas ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, vesili lionatif dvaara anubhavajanya pareekshanon mein saamane aain jinhonne paaya ki poonji ki bahutaayat hone ke baavajood America shram-pradhaan maalon ko niryaat kar raha tha.

H-O model nimnalikhit mukhya dhaaranaaen banaata hai:

  1. shram aur poonji, kshetron ke beech mukt roop se pravaahit hote hain
  2. joote ka utpaadan shram-pradhaan hai aur computer ka utpaadan poonji-pradhaan hai
  3. do deshon ke beech shram aur poonji ki raashi bhinn hoti hai (nidhi mein antar)
  4. mukt vyaapaar
  5. deshon mein praudyogiki samaan hai (deerghaavadhi)
  6. pasand samaan hai

H-O siddhaant ke saath samasya yeh hai ki yeh poonjeegat vastuon ke vyaapaar ko shaamil naheen karta hai (saamagri aur indhan sahit). H-O siddhaant mein, shram aur poonji, pratyek desh ke liye sthir padaarth hain. ek aadhunik arthavyavastha mein, poonjeegat vastuon ka antarraashtreeya star par kaarobaar kiya jaata hai. madhyavarti vastuon ke vyaapaar se laabh kaafi hota hain, jaisa ki saimuelasan dvaara bal diya gaya tha (2001).

heksher-olin model ki vaastavikta aur prayojyata

kai arthashaastri rikaardo siddhaant ki tulana mein heksher-olin siddhaant ko pasand karte hain, kyonki yeh kam saral dhaaranaaon ko banaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 1953 mein, vesili lionatif ne ek adhyayan prakaashit kiya, jahaan unhonne heksher-olin siddhaant ki vaidhata ka pareekshan kiya[5]. adhyayan se pata chala ki anya deshon ki tulana mein America poonji mein adhik prachur tha, isliye America poonji-pradhaan maal ka niryaat kar raha tha aur shram-pradhaan maal ka aayaat. lionatif ne paaya ki aayaat ki tulana mein America ka niryaat kam poonji-pradhaan tha.

lionatif virodhaabhaas ke ubharane ke baad, kai shodhakartaaon ne heksher-olin siddhaant ko bachaane ki koshish ki, ya to maapan ke nae tareekon dvaara, ya nai vyaakhyaaon ke dvaara. leemar[6] ne bal diya ki lionatif ne H-O siddhaant ki sahi vyaakhya naheen ki aur daava kiya ki ek sahi vyaakhya ke saath virodhaabhaas ghatit naheen hua. brechar aur chaudari[7] ne paaya ki, agar leemar sahi tha, to ameriki majdooron ki prati vyakti khapat, majadooron ke vishv ausat khapat se kam honi chaahiye.

baad mein kai anya pareekshan hue lekin unamein se jyaadaatar asafal rahe.[8][9] kai prasiddh paathyapustak lekhak, jinmein shaamil hain kroogaman aur obstafeld aur boven, holendar aur VN, H-O model ki vaidhata ke baare mein nakaaraatmak hain.[10][11]. anubhavajanya anusandhaan ke lambe itihaas ka pareekshan karne ke baad, boven, holendar aur VN ne nishkarsh diya: "kaarak bahutaayat siddhaant [H-O siddhaant aur usaka bahu-panya aur bahu-kaarak maamale mein viksit roop] ke haal ke pareekshan jo seedhe HOV sameekaranon ki jaanch karte hain, ve siddhaant ki asveekruti ka bhi sanket dete hain".[11] :321

heksher-olin siddhaant ko dakshin-uttar vyaapaar samasyaaon ka vishleshan karne ke liye achhi tarah anukoolit naheen kiya gaya hai. HO ke anumaan, N-N vyaapaar (ya S-S) ki tulana mein N-S ke sambandh mein kam yathaarthavaadi hain. uttar aur dakshin ke beech aay bhinnata hi ek aisi cheej hai jiski teesari duniya ko sabse jyaada paravaah hoti hai. kaarak moolya samakaran [H-O siddhaant ka ek parinaam] ne vasooli ka adhik sanket naheen dikhaaya hai. HO model maanata hai ki deshon ke beech samaan utpaadan kaarya karta hai. yeh behad avaastavik hai. viksit aur vikaasasheel deshon ke beech praudyogiki ki bhinnata, gareeb deshon ke liye chinta ka mukhya vishay hai[12].

vishisht kaarak model

chitr:WTOmap currentmember2008.png
vishv vyaapaar sangathan ke vartamaan sadasya.
vaishvik pratispardha soochakaank (2008-2009): ek antarraashtreeya vyaapaar vaataavaran mein deshon ki bhalaai ke liye pratispardha ek mahattvapoorn nirdhaarak hai.

is model mein, udyogon ke beech shram gatisheelata sambhav hai, jabki alpaavadhi mein udyogon ke beech poonji sthir hai. is prakaar, is model ko heksher-olin model ke ek 'alpakaaleen' sanskaran ke roop mein vyaakhya ki ja sakti hai. vishisht kaarak naam, pradaan kiye jaane vaale ke liye yeh sandarbhit karta hai ki alpaavadhi mein, bhautik poonji jaise utpaadan ke vishisht kaarak udyogon ke beech aasaani se antaraneeya naheen hain. siddhaant yeh sujhaav deta hai ki agar maal ki keemat mein vruddhi hoti hai, to us maal ke vishisht sandarbh mein utpaadan ke kaarak ke maalikon ko vaastavik roop se achha laabh hoga.

iske alaava, virodhi utpaadan ke vishisht kaarakon (yaani shram aur poonji) ke maalikon ke paas virodhi kaaryasoochi hone ki sambhaavana hoti jab ve shram ke aapravaas par niyantran ke liye paksh jutaate hain. iske vipreet, poonji aur shram, donon ke maalikon ko poonji nidhi mein vruddhi se vaastavik roop mein laabh hota hai. yeh model vishesh udyogon ke liye aadarsh hai. yeh model aay vitran ko samajhne ke liye aadarsh hai lekin vyaapaar ki paddhati ki charcha karne ke liye bhadda hai.

naveen vyaapaar siddhaant

naveen vyaapaar siddhaant, vyaapaar ke baare mein kai tathyon ko samajhaane ki koshish karta hai, jo oopar ullikhit do mukhya modelon ke liye mushkil hai. ismein yeh tathya bhi shaamil hai ki jyaadaatar vyaapaar, samaan kaarak bandobasti aur utpaadakata star aur maujood bahuraashtreeya utpaadan (arthaat videshi pratyaksh nivesh) ki badi maatra vaale deshon ke beech hota hai. is dhaanche ke ek udaaharan mein, arthavyavastha, ekaadhikaar pratiyogita aur paimaane par badhte laabh ka pradarshan karti hai. aise teen buniyaadi siddhaant hain jinhein vaishvik baajaariyon ko samajhna chaahiye: 1. tulanaatmak laabh siddhaant 2. vyaapaar ya utpaad vyaapaar chakr siddhaant 3. vyaapaar abhimukheekaran siddhaant

gurutvaakarshan model

vyaapaar ka gurutv model, oopar charchit adhik saiddhaantik modelon ke bajaay vyaapaar paddhati ka ek adhik anubhavajanya vishleshan prastut karta hai. apne mool roop mein gurutvaakarshan model, deshon ke beech ki doori aur deshon ke aarthik aakaar ki paraspar kriya ke aadhaar par vyaapaar ka poorvaanumaan lagaata hai. yeh model, nyootan ke gurutvaakarshan siddhaant ki nakl karta hai jo do vastuon ke beech ki doori aur bhautik aakaar ko bhi maanata hai. yeh model arthamiteeya vishleshan ke maadhyam se bhi anubhavajanya taur par majaboot siddh hua hai. anya kaarak jaise aay ka star, deshon ke beech raajanayik sambandh aur vyaapaar neetiyon ko bhi model ke vistaarit sanskaranon mein shaamil kiya gaya hai.

sheersh vyaapaarik raashtra

darja desh niryaat + aayaat soochana
tithi
- Flag of Europe.svg European Union (atirikt-EU27) $ 3,197,000,000,000$ 2009[13]
1 Flag of the United States.svg United States $ 2,439,700,000,000$ 2009 est.
2 Flag of Germany.svg Germany $ 2,209,000,000,000$ 2009 est.
3 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China $ 2,115,500,000,000$ 2009 est.
4 Flag of Japan.svg Japan $ 1,006,900,000,000$ 2009 est.
5 Flag of France.svg France $ 989,000,000,000$ 2009 est.
6 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom $ 824,900,000,000$ 2009 est.
7 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands $ 756,500,000,000$ 2009 est.
8 Flag of Italy.svg Italy $ 727,700,000,000$ 2009 est.
- saaaincha:desh aaainkade Hong Kong $ 672,600,000,000$ 2009 est.
9 Flag of South Korea (bordered).svg South Korea $ 668,500,000,000$ 2009 est.
10 Flag of Belgium.svg Belgium $ 611,100,000,000$ 2009 est.
11 Flag of Canada.svg Canada $ 603,700,000,000$ 2009 est.
12 Flag of Spain.svg Spain $ 508,900,000,000$ 2009 est.
13 Flag of Russia.svg Russia $ 492,400,000,000$ 2009 est.
14 Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico $ 458,200,000,000$ 2009 est.
15 Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore $ 454,800,000,000$ 2009 est.
16 Flag of India.svg India $ 387,300,000,000$ 2009 est.
17 Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg Taiwan $ 371,400,000,000$ 2009 est.
18 Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland $ 367,300,000,000$ 2009 est.
19 Flag of Australia.svg Australia $ 322,400,000,000$ 2009 est.
20 Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates $ 315,000,000,000$ 2009 est.

Source : Exports. Imports the world faiktabuk

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar viniyman

paramparaagat roop se do deshon ke beech vyaapaar dwipaksheeya sandhiyon ke maadhyam se viniymit kiya jaata tha. kai sadiyon tak vanikvaad mein vishvaas ke tahat adhikaansh deshon mein antarraashtreeya vyaapaar par seema shulk uchch tha aur kai pratibandh the. 19veen sadi mein, vishesh roop se United kingadam mein, mukt vyaapaar mein vishvaas sarvopari ban gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] uske baad se yeh dhaarana pashchimi deshon ke beech prabhaavi soch ban gayi. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad ke varshon mein, vivaadaaspad bahupaksheeya sandhiyon jaise general egreemeint on tairif end trade (GATT) aur vishv vyaapaar sangathan ne vaishvik star par viniymit vyaapaar dhaanche ko nirmit karte hue mukt vyaapaar ko badhaava dene ka prayaas kiya. in vyaapaar samjhauton ne, anuchit vyaapaar ke daavon ke saath jo vikaasasheel deshon ke liye laabhadaayak naheen hain, aksar virodh aur asantosh ko janm diya hai.

mukt vyaapaar ka aam taur par, aarthik roop se sarvaadhik majboot deshon dvaara sabse adhik samarthan kiya jaata hai, haalaanki ve aksar un udyogon ke liye chayanaatmak sanrakshanavaad mein sanlagn hote hain jo rananeetik roop se mahattvapoorn hain, jaise America aur Europe dvaara krushi par lagaaya jaane wala surakshaatmak prashulk.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Netherland aur United kingadam us vakt mukt vyaapaar ke kattar pairokaar the jab ve aarthik roop se prabhaavashaali the, aaj sanyukt raajya America, United kingadam, Australia aur Japan iske sabse bade samarthak hain. haalaanki, kai anya desh (jaise Bhaarat, cheen aur roos) teji se mukt vyaapaar ke himaayati bante ja rahe hain kyonki ve aarthik roop se khud adhik shaktishaali ban rahe hain. jaise-jaise prashulk star mein giraavat aa rahi hai, gair-prashulk upaayon par charcha karne ki ichha bhi badh rahi hai, jismein shaamil hai videshi pratyaksh nivesh, vasooli aur vyaapaar saraleekaran.[krupaya uddharan jodein] vyaapaar saraleekaran mein seema shulk prakriyaaon aur vyaapaar ko poora karne se sambandhit lenaden laagat par dhyaan diya jaata hai.

paramparaagat roop se krushi hit, aam taur par mukt vyaapaar ke paksh mein hain jabki vinirmaan kshetr aksar sanrakshanavaad ka samarthan karte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]haalaanki, haal ke varshon mein ismein kuchh had tak badlaav aaya hai. vaastav mein, krushi se jude gut, vishesh roop se sanyukt raajya America, Europe aur Japan mein, pramukh antarraashtreeya vyaapaar sandhiyon mein khaas niyamon ke liye mukhyat: jimmedaar hain jo adhikaansh anya vastuon aur sevaaon ki apeksha krushi mein adhik sanrakshanavaadi upaayon ki anumati dete hain.

mandi ke dauraan, ghareloo udyogon ki raksha ke liye prashulk badhaane ka aksar atyadhik ghareloo dabaav hota hai. mahaan mandi ke dauraan yeh duniya bhar mein hua. kai arthashaastriyon ne vishv vyaapaar mein patan ke liye prashulk ko androoni kaaran ke roop mein rekhaankit karne ka prayaas kiya hai jiske liye kai logon ka maanana hai ki isne mandi ko adhik vikt kar diya.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ka viniyman, vishv vyaapaar sangathan ke maadhyam se vaishvik star par kiya jaata hai aur kai anya kshetreeya vyavastha ke maadhyam se jaise dakshin America mein MERCOSUR, America, Canada aur maiksiko ke beech North American free trade egreemeint (NAFTA) aur 27 svatantr deshon ke beech Europeeya sangh. free trade area of the America (FTAA) ki yojanaabaddh sthaapana par 2005 byoonas aayars vaarta, mukhya roop se laitin ameriki deshon ki aabaadi ke virodh se vifal ho gayi. aise hi anya samaan samjhaute jaise ki malteeletaral egreemeint on investameint (MAI) bhi haal ke varshon mein vifal ho gaye.

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar mein jokhim

antarraashtreeya seemaaon ke paar vyaapaar kar rahi companiyaan, unheen samaan jokhimon ka saamana karti hain jo saamaanya roop se kattar ghareloo len-den mein pradarshit hota hai. udaaharan ke liye,

  • kreta divaaliyaapan (khareedaar bhugataan naheen kar sakta);
  • asveekruti (sahamat vinirdeshon se bhinn hone par khareedaar maal khaarij kar deta hai);
  • rin jokhim (bhugataan karne se pehle khareedaar ko maal ka kabja lene ki anumati dena);
  • niyaamak jokhim (jaise, niyamon mein parivartan jo len-den ko rokata hai);
  • hastakshep (ek len-den ko poora hone se rokane ke liye sarkaari kaarravaai);
  • raajaneetik jokhim (netrutv mein parivartan jo len-den ya keematon ke saath hastakshep karta hai) aur
  • yuddh aur anya aniyntraneeya ghatnaaen.

iske alaava, antarraashtreeya vyaapaar, pratikool vinimay dar aandolanon ke jokhim ka bhi saamana karta hai (aur anukool aandolanon ka sambhaavit laabh).[14]

gailari

yeh bhi dekhein

  • mukt vyaapaar kshetr
  • vyaapaar ka gurootv model
  • aayaat (antarraashtreeya vyaapaar)
  • antarraashtreeya vyaapaar
  • antarraashtreeya vyaapaar kaanoon
  • antarraashtreeya vyaapaar puraskaar
  • antarraashtreeyakaran
  • chaaloo khaata shesh ke aadhaar par deshon ki soochi
  • aayaat ke aadhaar par deshon ki soochi
  • niryaat ke aadhaar par deshon ki soochi
  • antarraashtreeya vyaapaar vishyon ki soochi
  • arthashaastriyon ki soochi
  • baajaar vibhaajan soochakaank
  • vanikvaad
  • antarraashtreeya vyaapaar mein ekaadhikaar pratispardha
  • sarvaadhik pasandeeda desh khand
  • OPEC
  • raajaneetik jokhim
  • sanrakshanavaad
  • singal vindo system
  • the grand exchange
  • vyaapaar gut
  • vyaapaar suvidha
  • vyaapaar vitt
  • tredaroots
  • UNCTAD
  • Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World
  • vishv vyaapaar sangathan

paad-tippaniyaan

  1. dictionary.reference.com
  2. ikveelibriym, trade, end growth: silekted pepar of leeon dablyoo. maikakeinji, leeon dablyoo. maikakeinji, tapan mitra, kaajuo nishimura dvaara likhit, prushth 232.
  3. shiyojaava, vaai 2007. A new construction of rikaardiyn trade thiari, ivolyushanari end insteetyushanal ikonomiks review, 3 (2) pru. 141-187
  4. Mankiw, G. (April 2007). "Ricardo versus Heckscher-Ohlin". http://gregmankiw.blogpost.com/2007/04/ricardo-vs-heckscher-ohlin.html.
  5. Leontief, W. W. (1953). "Domestic Production and Foreign Trade: The American Capital Position Re-examined". Proceedings American Philosophical Society 97: 332–349.
  6. Leamer, E.E. (1980). "The Leontief Paradox Reconsidered". Journal of Political Economy 88: 495–503.
  7. Brecher; Choudri (1982). "The Leontief Paradox: Continued". Journal of Political Economy 90: 820–823.
  8. Bowen, H.P.; E.E. Leamer and L. Sveiskas (1987). "A Multi-country Multi-Factor Test of the Factor Abundance Theory". American Economic Review 77: 791–809.
  9. Trefler, D. (1995). "The Case of Missing Trade and Other HOV Mysteries". The American Economic Review 85 (5): 1029–1046.
  10. Krugman, P.R.; M. Obstfeld (1988). International Economics: Theory and Policy. Glenview: Scott, Foresman.
  11. a aa Bowen, H.P.; A. Hollander and J-M. Viane (1998). Applied International Trade Analysis. London: Macmillan Press.
  12. Francis steevart, reeseint thiareej of intaranaishanal trade: sam impleekeshans for the south, henarik kiyerajakovaski (san.) 1989 monopolistik kaumpateeshan end intaranaishanal trade, Oxford university press, pru.84-108.
  13. http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres10_e/pr598_e.htm
  14. Aggarwal, Raj; A. Reisman and D. C. Fuh (January 1989). "Seeking Out Profitable Countertrade Opportunities: A Proactive Approach". Industrial Marketing Management 18 (1): 65-71. .
    (yeh lekh dohare vyaarik maal ki maang aur aapoorti ka vishleshan karta hai aur laabhadaayak dohare vyaapaar aur baajaar sahakriya avadhaaranaaon ki sambhaavnaaon ko paribhaashit aur upayog karta hai, tatha vyaapaari ko un udyogon ki taraf nirdeshit karta hai jo sabse bade laabh ki kshamata dikhaate hain).

sandarbh

  • Jones, Ronald W. (1961). "Compartive Advantage and the Theory of Tariffs". The Review of Economic Studies 28 (3): 161–175.
  • McKenzie, Lionel W. (1954). "Specialization and Efficiency in World Production". The Review of Economic Studies 21 (3): 165–180.
  • Samuelson, Paul (2001). "A Ricardo-Sraffa Paradigm Comparing the Gains from Trade in Inputs and Finished Goods". Journal of Economic Literature 39 (4): 1204–1214.

baahari kadiyaaain

aankade

sarkaari aankade

niryaat aur aayaat ki maatra aur unke moolya par aankade aksar utpaadon ki vistrut soochi se khandit hote hain jo antar-sarkaari aur antarraashtreeya sangathanon aur raashtreeya saankhyiki sansthaan ki saankhyikeeya sevaaon dvaara prakaashit saankhyikeeya sangrahon mein upalabdh hain:

antarraashtreeya vyaapaar par vibhinn saankhyikeeya sangrahon ke liye laagoo ki jaane waali paribhaashaaen aur kaaryapranaali avadhaaranaaen aksar sandarbh ke maamale mein bhinn hoti hain (udaaharan, vishesh vyaapaar banaam saamaanya vyaapaar) aur coverage (praarambhik reporting, sevaaon mein vyaapaar ko shaamil karna, taskari ke maal ka anumaan aur seema paar avaidh sevaaon ka praavadhaan). paribhaashaaon aur tareekon par jaankaari pradaan karte metaadeta ko aksar deta ke saath prakaashit kiya jaata hai.

anya deta srot

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