antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala

antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala (a॰adha॰ava॰, angreji: International Phonetic Alphabet, intaranaishanal fonaitik ailfaabait) ek aisi lipi hai jismein vishv ki saari bhaashaaon ki dhvaniyaaain likhi ja sakti hain. iske har akshar aur usaki dhvani ka ek-se-ek ka sambandh hota hai. aarambh mein iske adhiktar akshar roman lipi se liye gaye the, lekin jaise-jaise ismein vishv ki bahut si bhaashaaoain ki dhvaniyaaain jodi jaane lagi to bahut se yoonaani lipi se prerit akshar liye gaye aur kai bilkul hi nae aksharon ka ijaad kiya gaya. ismein san 2010 tak 160 se adhik dhvaniyon ke liye chinh darj kiye ja chuke the, lekin kisi bhi ek bhaasha ko darshaane ke liye is varnamaala ka ek bhaag ki hi jrurat hoti hai.

is pranaali ke dhvanyaatmak pratilekhan (traansakripshan) mein sookshm pratilekhan [ ] ke chinhon ke beech mein aur sthool pratilekhan / / ke chinhon ke andar likhe jaate hain. iski niyaamak antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak sangh hai. udaaharan ke liye:

  • angreji: This is a webpage of wikipedia. I am writing it.
  • a॰adha॰ava॰ lipyaantaran: /'δaaɪaas ɪaaz ə 'wɛaabpeidʒ ʌaav wɪaakɪ'piːaadiə . 'ai æaam 'ʁaaaitiŋ ɪaat./
  • hindi uchchaaran: dis ij a vebpej av vikipeediaa. aai aim raaiting it.

anukram

svar

svaron ko kai tarah se vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai :

  1. jihva ki ooainchaai ki drushti se :
    1. vivrut (khula hua, yaani ki jeebh neeche giri hui hai) / Open
    2. ardhavivrut / half-open
    3. beech ka
    4. ardhasanvrut / half-closed
    5. sanvrut (atyant sankeern, yaani ki jeebh muainh ki chhat tak uthi hui hai) / closed
  2. jihva ka kaun hissa utha hua hai :
    1. agrasvar / front vowel
    2. madhyasvar / mid vowel
    3. pashvasvar / back vowel
  3. honthon ki sthiti se :
    1. prasrut (khule honth) / unrounded
    2. vartul (golaakaar honth) / rounded
    3. ardh-vartul / semi-rounded
  4. maatra ki drushti se :
    1. hrasv / short
    2. deergh / long
    3. plut / very long

neeche di gayi taalika mein sabhi bhaashaaon ke svaron ka vaigyaanik vargeekaran aur unke IPA varnaakshar diye gaye hain :

agrasvar lagbhag agrasvar madhyasvar lagbhag pashvasvar pashvasvar
prasrut vartul prasrut vartul prasrut vartul prasrut vartul prasrut vartul
sanvrut i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
lagbhag sanvrut ɪ ʏ ʊ
ardhasanvrut e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
beech ka Schwa: ə
ardhavivrut ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
lagbhag vivrut æ ɐ
vivrut a ɶ ɑ ɒ

jis svar par balaaghaat lagta hai, uske shabdaansh ke pehle ek << ' >> ka nishaan laga diya jaata hai. jis svar mein naasikeekaran hota hai, uske oopar tild << ~ >> ka nishaan laga diya jaata hai. deergh svaron ke baad ː ka nishaan lagaaya jaata hai.

vyanjan

is taalika mein sabhi bhaashaaon ke vyanjan giye gaye hain, unke IPA varnaaksharon ke saath.

oshthya
(Bilabial)
dantyaushthya
(Labio-dental)
dantya
(Dental)
vartsya
(Alveolar)
pashvartsya
(Post-alveolar)
moordhanya
(Retroflex)
taalavya
(Palatal)
kanthya
(Velar)
alijihveeya
(Uvular)
upaalijihveeya
(Pharyngeal)
kanthachhadeeya
(Epiglottal)
kaakaleeya
(Glottal)
sparsh
(Plosive)
p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q G ʡ ʔ
naasikya
(Nasal)
m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
lunthit
(Trill)
B r ʀ
utkshipt
(Tap/Flap)
ɾ ɽ
sangharshi
(Fricative)
ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
paarshvik sangharshi
(Lateral fricative)
ɬ ɮ
antasth
(Approximant)
ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
paarshvik antasth
(Lateral approximant)
l ɭ ʎ ʟ

is pej mein dhvanyaatmak chinh diye gaye hain jo kuchh braausar par shaayad theek se na dikhein. (sahaayata)
jahaaain bhi chinh jodi mein giye gaye hain, vahaaain daahine ka chinh en:voiced consonant / ghosh vyanjan ke liye hai aur baaeain ka aghosh ke liye. sheded kshetr un dhvaniyon ke liye hain jo asambhav maani jaati hain.

dhyaan dein ki mahaapraan dhvaniyon, jaise kh, gh, f, dh, aadi ke liye uske alpapraan chinh ke baad superscript mein h ka nishaan lagaaya jaata hai, jaise :

  • kh / /
  • bh / /

dantya vyanjan vartsya vyanjanon se alag dikhaane ke liye aise likhe ja sakte hain :

  • t / /
  • the / /
IPA vowel chart
Front near-​afront Central near-​aback Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪaäʊaä
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
øaa̞
ə
ɤaa̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

IPA helpIPA keychart chart with audioview
IPA chart pulmonic consonants
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila­abial Labio­adental Den­atal Alve­aolar Post­aalve­aolar Retro­aflex Pal­aa­atal Ve­alar Uvu­alar Pha­aryn­ageal Epi­aglot­atal Glot­atal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Trill ʙ r ɽaa͡aar ʀ яa a*
Flap or tap ⱱaa̟ ɾ ɽ ɢaă ʡaa̯
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭaa˔aå ʎḁa˔ ʟaa̝aå
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ
Lateral flap ɺ ɺaa̢ ʎaa̯
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—aaright represent the voiceless—aavoiced consonants
This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

IPA helpIPA keychart chart with audioview
IPA chart non-pulmonic consonants
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
Implo­asives ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Eject­aives ʈaaʼ
θaaʼ ɬaaʼ χaaʼ
tsʼ tɬaaʼ cʎaa̝aḁaaʼ tʃaaʼ ʈaaʂaaʼ kxʼ kʟaa̝aåaaʼ
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—aaright represent the voiceless—aavoiced consonants
This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

IPA helpIPA keychartview
IPA chart affricate consonants
p̪aaf ts dz ʈaaʂ ɖaaʐ
ɟaaʝ
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—aaright represent the voiceless—aavoiced consonants
This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

IPA helpIPA keychartview
Co-articulated consonants
Frica­atives ɕ ʑ ɧ
Approxi­amants ʍ w ɥ ɫ
Stops k͡aap ɡaa͡aab ŋaa͡aam
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—aaright represent the voiceless—aavoiced consonants
This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

IPA helpIPA keychartview


अंग्रेज़ी में IPA की तालिका

aaipeee ke sangat hindi/oordoo varn

vyanjan
aaipeee hindi urdoo tulya angreji
b b ب abash
bʱ bh بaaھ abhor
[1] the د ado
ʱ[1] dh دaaھ adhere
ɖ[1] d ڈ guard
ɖʱ[1] dh ڈaaھ guardhouse
j ج hedge
ʱ jh جaaھ hedgehog
f f ف food
ɡ g گ agate
ɡʱ gh گaaھ pigheaded
h : ح head
ɦ h ahead
j ya ي yak
k k ک scan
kʰ kh کaaھ can
l l ل leaf
m m م much
n na ن not
ɳ n - burner
ŋ n - bank
p p پ span
pʰ f پaaھ pan
(often pronounced [f] in Hindi)
q k ق a k in the throat
(Urdu; often [k] in Hindi)
r r ر trilled r
ɽ d ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ dh ڑaaھ as [ɽ] plus h
s s س sue
ʂ sh worship
ʃ sh ش shoe
[1] t ت stable
ʰ[1] th تaaھ table
ʈ[1] t ٹ art
ʈʰ[1] th ٹaaھ art-historian
ch چ catch
ʰ chh چaaھ choose
ʋ[2] va و varies between w and v
x kh خ Bach
(Urdu; often [kʰ] in Hindi)
ɣ g غ like a French r
(Urdu; often [ɡ] in Hindi). Close to uvular flap.
z za ز zen
ʒ jh ژ pleasure
svar
IPA hindi urdoo tulya angreji
aa, pa آ, ـaaا bra
A, pe ے between yell and Yale
ɛaaː ai, pai yell
ə a, p ـaaَ nut
[3] E, pi ی feet
ɪ[3] i, pi ـaaِ dill
O, po و old
ɔaaː au, pau law
[3] oo, poo loot
ʊ[3] u, pu ـaaُ look
̃ ain ں nasal vowel
([ãaː], [õaː], etc.)


Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant

sandarbh

  1. a aa i E u oo A ai To an English ear, [t̪ t̪aaʰ ʈ ʈaaʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪aaʱ ɖ ɖaaʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪aaʰ d̪] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈaaʰ ɖ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('vrat', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('pakavaan', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. a aa i E /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain