antardahan engine

42-silindar wala JSC Zvezda M503 diesel engine, 2940 kW

antardahan engine (ant: dahan engine ya aantarik dahan engine ya internal combustion engine) aisa engine hai jismein indhan evam aakseekaarak sabhi taraf se band ek belaanaakaar dahan kaksh mein jalate hain. dahan ki is kriya mein praay: hava hi aakseekaarak ka kaam karti hai. jis band kaksh mein dahan hota hai use dahan kaksh (kambashan chaimbar) kehte hain.

dahan ki yeh abhikriya ooshmaakshepi (exothermic reaction) hoti hai jo uchch taap evam daab waali gaisein utpann karti hai. ye gaisein dahan kaksh mein lage hue ek pistan ko dhakelati hue failateen hai. pistan ek kanekting road ke maadhyam se ek kreink shaaft(ghumane waali chhad) se juda hota hai, is prakaar jab pistan neeche ki taraf jaata hai to kanekting road se judi kreink shaaft ghumane lagti hai, is prakaar indhan ki raasaayanik oorja pehle ooshmeeya oorja mein badalti hai aur fir ooshmeeya oorja yaantrik urja mein badal jaati hai.

antardahan engine ke vipreet bahirdahan engine, (jaise, vaashp engine) mein kaarya karne wala taral (jaise vaashp) kisi anya kaksh mein kisi taral ko garam karke praapt kiya jaata hai. praay: pistanayukt pratyaagaami engine, jismein kuchh-kuchh samayaantaraal ke baad dahan hota hai (lagaataar naheen), ko hi antardahan engine kaha jaata hai kintu jet engine, adhikaansh rocket evam anek gas tarbaainein bhi antardahan engine ki shreni mein aati hain jinmein dahan ki kriya anvarat roop se chalti rahati hai.

anukram

itihaas

shuroo-shuroo mein antardahan engine krushi upakaranon ko chalaane ke kaam mein aate the.
  • 17veen shataabdi: angreji aavishkaarak saimuel morlaind (Samuel Morland) ne paani ke pamp chalaane ke liye baarood ka prayog kiya. ise pratham antardahan engine kaha ja sakta hai.
  • 1806 : svitjaralaind ke engineer fraiko aaijak rivaaj (Françaois Isaac de Rivaz) ne haaidrojan evam okseejan ke mishran se chalne wala antardahan engine banaaya.
  • 1823: semual brown ne audyogik roop se laagoo karne ke liye pehla aantarik dahan engine peteint karaaya. yeh ek sanpeedan rahit aur haaradanabarg dvaara paribhaashit chakr "liyonaardo saayakal" par adhaarit engine tha.
  • 1824: fraanseesi bhautikshaastri sedi kaaranaat aadarsh ushmeeya injanon ka ushmaagatik siddhaant pratipaadit kiya.
  • 1826: ek ameriki semual more davaabarahit "gas athva vaashp engine." ke liye petent praapt kiya.
  • 1854: Italy ke naagrik yujeniyo and felis ne landan mein sabse pehla kaaryakaari dakshata ka antardahan engine petent karavaaya.
  • 1892: rudolf diesel ne kaarno ooshma engine prakaar ki motor viksat ki jismein koyala-dhooli ka dahan hota tha.
  • 1893 23 February: roodolf diesel ne diesel engine ka peteint praapt kiya.
  • 1896: kaarl benj ne boxer engine ka aavishkaar kiya ise kshaitijt: virodhit engine bhi kehte hain, ismein sangat pistan sheersh mrut sire kendra par ek hi samay par pahuainchakar ekadoosare ke sanveg ko santulit kar dete hain.
  • 1900: roodolf diesel ne 1900 eksaposishn yooneevarsel mein diesel engine ka pradarshan kiya, jismein mooaingafali ka tel prayukt kiya gaya.
  • 1900: vilhem mebaik ne ek engine abhiklpit kiya jise daimalar motaren geselshaift mein banaaya gaya- ismein emil jelinek ke vishesheekaranon ko prayukt kiya gaya jinhonne iska naam daimlar marseedees rakhana pasand kiya (apni putri ke naam par). 1902 mein us engine vaale vaahanon ka utpaadan deeemaji ne shuroo kiya.
  • 1908: New Zealand ke aavishkaarak arnest gaudavaard ne invarkaargil mein motarasaaikalon ka vyaapaar shuroo kiya aur aayaatit dvichkriyon mein apne khud ke aavishkaar - petrol mitvyayakaarak (ikonaumaaisar) ko lagaana shuroo kiya unka mitvyayakaarak kaaron mein bhi utana hi achha chala jitna motarasaaikalon mein.

upayog

aajkal aatomobaail mein prayukt adhikaansh engine antardahan engine hi hote hain.

antardahan engine ka kaarya siddhaant

chaar-aaghaat antardahan engine - kaarya karte hue
1. gas ka andar chooshan
2. daaban
3. shakti
4. gaison ka utsarjan

antardahan engine ke aavishkaar ka vichaar madhyayug se praarambh hua. 1680 E. mein dach vaigyaanik krishchiyn haaiges ne ek oordhv silindar aur pistan ke engine ka sujhaav rakha tha, jismein baarood ke visfot se pistan oopar chadhe. kintu is tarah ka engine kabhi kaam mein naheen aaya. baad mein dahanasheel gaison tatha khanij tailon ke aavishkaar se unka sujhaav vyaavahaarik ho gaya kyonki baarood ki jagah idhan dene ki samasya sulajh gayi. lekin fir bhi is varg ke injanon ko vyaavahaarik upayogita ke anukool banaane mein anek varsho ke praayegik aur saiddhaantik adhyayan ki aavashyakta hui.

antardahan injanon mein idhan ke roop mein diesel (gaadhe mitti ke tel), petrol, ailkohal athva praakrutik ya krutrim gas ityaadi ka prayog hota hai. lekin saadhaaranat: petrol aur diesel ka hi upayog hota hai.

antardahan engine do siddhaanto par kaarya karte hain - (1) chaturghaat chakr aur (2) dvighaat chakr

chaturghaat chakr engine (four stroke engine)

dvighaat chakr engine ka kaaryakaran

chaturghaat chakr engine evam dvighaat chakr engine mein tulana

chaturghaat chakr engine (Four stroke engine) dvighaat chakr engine (Two stroke engine)
chaturghaat chakr engine mein indhan se yaantrik urja mein parivartan ka chakr kul chaar charanon mein poora hota hai. in charanon ya strokon ko kramash: inatek, sanpeedan (kampreshan), jvalan (combustion), evam utsarjan (exhaust) kehte hain. in chaar charanon (strokon) ko poora karne mein krainkasaashaaft ko do chakkar lagaane padte hain. dvighaat engine (two-stroke engine) krainkashaaft ke ek hi chakkar (arthaat, pistan ke do chakkar) mein hi urja-parivartan ka poora chakr (thermodynamic cycle) poora kar leta hai. jabki chaturghaat engine mein urja-parivartan ka chakr pistan ke chaar chakkaron mein poora hota hai.
chaturghaat chakr engine mein pradhaan dhuri (krainkashaaft) ke do chakkaron mein ek shakti ghaat hota hai. dvighaat chakr engine ke pratyek chakkar mein ek shakti ghaat hota hai. to bhi naap mein apne hi baraabar chaturghaat engine ki apeksha duguni oorja utpann karne ke badle dvighaat-engine keval 70% se 90% tak adhik oorja utpann karta hai.
vartamaan mein gaadiyon mein saamaanyat: for stroke engine ka prayog jyaada hota hai isse pehle gaadiyon mein too stroke engine ka prayog hua karta tha, lekin kam maailej aur jeevan avadhi kam hone ke kaaran iska sthaan for stroke engine ne le liya.
petrol se chalne wala for-stroke injin.
for stroke chakr
1=TDC
2=BDC
A: inatek
bi: sanpeedn
si: shakti
di: utsarjan
dvighaat engine ka chalit (animated) svaroop
petrol se chalne wala for-stroke injin
1=TDC(upari nirjeev kendra)
2=BDC(taleeya nirjeev kendra)
A: inatek
bi: utsarjan
si: sanpeedn
di: shakti

ekadish aur ubhayadish sakriya engine

antardahan injanon mein (aur aage-peechhe chalanevaale pistan yukt anya injanon mein bhi) do jaatiyaaain hoti hain, ekadish sakriya (singal-aikting) engine aur ubhayadish sakriya (double-aikting) engine. ekadish sakriya injanon mein kaaryakaari padaarth (petrol, deejl tel, aadi) pistan ke keval ek or rahata hai; ubhayadish sakriya injanon mein donon or. unamein silindar lamba rahata hai aur pistan ke donon ke bhaagon mein chooshan, sanpeedan ityaadi hota rahata hai. adhikaansh antardah engine ekadish sakriya hote hain. udaaharanat:, motarakaaron mein engine isi prakaar ke hote hain. parantu bahutere bade engine ubhayadish sakriya banaae jaate hain. ekadish sakriya engine ki apeksha ubhayadish sakriya engine mein lagbhag duguni oorja utpann hoti hai aur naap mein naamamaatr hi vruddhi hoti parantu ubhayadish sakriya injanon ke nirmaan mein kai yaantrik kathinaaiyaaain padti hain. isliye keval badi naav ke injanon mein hi ubhayadish sakriya engine laabh daayak hote hain. doosari or, vaashp engine aur vaayu sanpeedak saadhaaranat: ubhayadish sakriya banaae jaate hain, yadyapi yeh anivaarya niyam naheen hai.

oto chakr (Otto Cycle)

aadarsh auto saayakal ka PV aarekh
A: inatek
bi: sanpeedn
si: shakti
di: utsarjan

aaj ke adhikaansh antardahan engine oto chakr (oto cycle) ke siddhaant par bante hain. ganana ki saralata ke liye ham kalpana kar sakte hain ki chakr mein do kriyaaeain samaaintraupik (aaiseintraupaki) aur do sthiraayatanik (kaunstaint vaulyoom) hoti hain.

kalpit chakr ke vishleshan mein sugamata ke liye maan liya jaata hai ki kaaryakaari padaarth keval vaayu hai. yeh bhi maan liya jaata hai ki na to chooshan aaghaat hota hai or na nikaas aaghaat. is vishleshan ko vaayumaatrik vishleshan kehte hain. vaastavik engine mein gaison ka nikaas hota hai. uske badle maana jaata hai ki sthir aayatan par gaisein thandi ho jaati hain. kaarya utana hi hota hai (gharshan ki upeksha karne par), chaahe gaison ka nikaas kiya jaae, chaahe unhein thanda kiya jaae pratyek dasha mein idhan ke jalne se utpann ushma utani hi rahati hai.

shakti aur kaarya ke maatrak

jis dar se oorja kaarya mein roopaantarit hoti hai use shakti kehte hain; yeh samay ke ekak mein kaarya ki maatra hai. vah kaarya jo aage peechhe chalanevaale pistan yukt engine ke pistan par kiya jaata hai, nirdisht karm (indiketed vark) kahalaata hai aur nirdisht kaarya ke anusaar ganana ki hui shakti nirdisht ashvashakti (indiketed haurs power) kahalaati hai. engine ki dhuri tak jitna kaarya pahuainchata hai vah dhuri kaarya (shaift vark) athva break kaarya (break vark) kahalaata hai aur is kaarya ke anusaar utpann shakti ko break ashvashakti (break haurs power) kehte hain.

nirdhaarit shakti

kisi antardahan engine ke kitna shakti praapt ho sakti hai, ise nirdhaarit karne ke liye kai aadhaar liye ja sakte hain. motarakaar engine banaanevaale apne vijnyaaapanon mein apne engine ki mahattam shakti bataate hain, jo tab praapt hota hai jab samast paristhitiyaaain mahattam roop se anukool hoti hain. parantu audyogik engine ka nirmaata apne injanon ki shakti saadhaaranat: lagbhag mahattam ushmeeya dakshata (maximum thermal efficiency) par utpann honevaali shakti ke anusaar nirdhaarit karte hain. audyogik injanon ka saamarthya isi prakaar nirdhaarit karna uttam bhi hai. kaaran yeh hai ki yadi engine nirdhaarit saamarthya par chalaae jaaeainge to indhan ka kharch nyoonatam hoga aur fir aavashyakta hone par kuchh samay tak ve adhik saamarthya par bhi kaam kar sakeinge.

suparachaarjar

AMC V8 engine par laga suparachaarjar

pratyek antardahan engine mein praapt shakti ispar nirbhar rahata hai ki pistan ki ek daud mein jitna idhan-vaayu-mishran silindar mein pravisht hota hai usaka dravyamaan kya hai. isliye jin kaaranon se yeh dravyamaan ghatega unase engine ka saamarthya ghatega. vaastavik engine mein idhan-vaayu-mishran ko ghataane badhaanevaale yantr se, jise prarodh (thratal) kehte hain, tatha antargrahan aur nikaas vaalvon se mishran ki gati mein kuchh baadha padti hai. isliye mishran ko choosate samay silindar mein daab vaayumandaleeya daab se kam hi rah jaati hai. falat: utana mishran naheen ghus paata jitna saiddhaantik ganana mein maana jaata hai. saiddhaantik ganana mein to maan liya jaata hai ki silindar ke bheetar mishran ki daab vaayumandaleeya daab ke baraabar hai. fir, silindar ka bheetari prushth, tatha mishranapoorn apekshaakrut tapt rahate hain. isliye silindar mein pahuainchane par idhan mishran garam ho jaata hai. aayatan taap-daab niyam ke anusaar taap badhne ke kaaran silindar mein mishran ka dravyamaan us dravyamaan ki apeksha kam hota hai jo thande rahane par hota. fir, vaastavik engine mein silindar ke chhoot sthaan (kliyrains space) mein, nikaas ghaat ke poorn ho jaane par bhi, gaisein aadi vaayumandaleeya daab se adhik daab par rah jaati hain aur chooshan ghaat ke aarambh mein ve silindar mein fail jaati hain. inka daab vaayumandaleeya daab ke baraabar ho jaane ke baad hi chooshan ka aarambh hota hai. isse bhi siddhaantat: pariklit maatra se kam hi mishran silindar mein pravesh karta hai. ant mein, engine samudratal se jitni hi adhik ooainchaai par kaam karega vahaaain vaayumandaleeya daab utani hi kam hogi. isliye dravyamaan ke anusaar jitna mishran silindar mein samudratal par pravisht ho sakega usase kam hi mishran ooainche sthalon mein pravisht ho paaega.

antardahan engine ki aayataneeya dakshata keval ooainchaai badhne par hi naheen ghatati, vah engine ki chaal (speed) badhne par bhi ghatati hai. isliye daud pratiyogita mein prayukt injanon aur adhik ooainchaai par kaam karanevaale injanon mein bahudha suparachaarjar laga diya jaata hai. is yantr mein ek chhota sa apakendreeya pankha (bloar) rahata hai jo idhan-vaayu-mishran ko silindar mein vaayumandaleeya daab ke kuchh adhik daab par thooains deta hai. suparachaarjar lagaane se aayataneeya dakshata badh jaati hai, yahaaain tak ki yeh 1 se adhik bhi ho ja sakti hai.

sanpeedan anupaat aur oto injanon mein adhisfotan (detonation)

oto chakr ke vishleshan mein yeh dikhaaya ja chuka hai ki sanpeedan anupaat (compression ratio) badhaane se dakshata badhti hai. vaastavik injanon mein bhi yahi pravrutti dikhaai padti hai. oto chakr ke anusaar kaam karanevaale injanon mein chooshan aaghaat mein vaayu ke saath hi idhan bhi ghusata hai aur isliye sanpeedan aaghaat mein bhi vah vartamaan rahata hai. jab sanpeedan anupaat bahut bada rakha jaata hai to sanpeedan ke ek niyat maatra se adhik hote hi idhan mishran mein adhisfot hota hai, arthaat idhan swayam, bina spaark plag se chingaari aae, jal uthata hai. fir, yadi aisa na bhi hua, to spaark plag ki chingaari se jalana aarambh hone par sanpeedan laharein uthati hain, jo chingaari ke paas jalate hue mishran ke aage aage chalti hain. in sanpeedan laharon ke kaaran chingaari se door ka mishran swayam jal uth sakta hai, jo avaanchhaneeya hai. fir, silindar mein kaheen petrol aadi ke jale avashesh ke dahakate rahane se, athva pistan ke bheetar badhe petrol aadi ke jale avashesh ke dahakate rahane se, athva pistan ke bheetar badhe kisi avayav ki tapt nok se bhi idhan mishran samay ke pehle jal sakta hai.

jab kabhi sanpeedit mishran samay se pehle jal uthata hai to usaka yeh jalana adhisfotak (ditoneting) hota hai. yeh kaan se sunaai padta hai - jaan padta hai ki kisi dhaatu ko hathaude se thonka ja raha hai. sheeghrataapoorvak jalne vaale idhanon mein adhisfot ki aashanka adhik rahati hai. pichhli kuchh dashaabdiyon mein kai naveen khojein hui hain, jinse bina adhisfot hue sanpeedan anupaat adhik bada rakha ja sakta hai. udaaharanat:

  1. aise idhan banaae gaye hain jo adhik dheere dheere jalate hain, jaise beinjol aur petrol ke mishran, pauleemeraaij kiya hua petrol aur aisa petrol jismein thodi maatra mein tetra-ethil-led mila rahata hai;
  2. dahanakaksh ke us bhaag ko, jo pistan ke oopar rahata hai, aisa naveen roop diya gaya hai ki adhisfot kam ho;
  3. dahanakaksh se ushma ke nikalne ka veg badha diya gaya hai. yeh kaam engine ke maathe ko pehle se patala aur adhik drudh dhaatuon ka (jaise ailyuminiym ki mishradhaatu ya kaaainse ka) banaakar kiya gaya hai, jo ushma ke adhik achhe chaalak hain. saath hi pistan bhi aise padaartho ka banta hai jo ushma ke achhe chaalak hote hain. kaaainse ke maathe (Cylinder head) banaane se sanpeedan anupaat ke bahut adhik rahane par bhi engine bina adhisfot ke chalte hai; iska kaaran yeh hai ki kaaainsa ushma ka bahut achha chaalak hai. isliye ushma silindar se sheeghrata se door hoti rahati hai. parantu, bahut sheeghrata se ushma ka door hona bhi avagun hai, kyonki isse adhik sanpeedan ke uddeshya ki poorti naheen ho paati. hamaara uddeshya sada yeh rahata hai ki ushmeeya dakshata badhe. parantu kuchh injanon mein itni ushma idhar udhar chali jaati hai ki ushmeeya dakshata badhne ke badle ghat jaati hai. ailyoominiym ke maathe mein kabhi kabhi yahi dosh dekha jaata hai.
  4. dahanakaksh ke bheetari bhaag ko adhik chikna banaaya jaata hai, jisse koi aise daane naheen rah paate jo tapt hokar laal ho jaayein aur idhan-mishran ka jalana aarambh kar dein; tatha
  5. dahanakaksh ke aaspaas ke bhaagon ko (jaise spaark plag, vaalv mund (Valve Seat) aadi ko) adhik thanda rakhane ka prabandh kiya gaya hai.

san 1920-25 ke lagbhag motarakaar ke injanon mein sanpeedan anupaat lagbhag 4.5 rahata tha; kabhi-kabhi to yeh 3.5 hi rahata tha. vartamaan samay mein yeh anupaat 6.5 ya kuchh adhik rahata hai; kuchh injanon mein to yeh anupaat 10 tak hota hai.

antardahan injanon ki tvara

injanon ki tvara (chaal, speed) saadhaaranat: chakkar prati minute (ch.pr.mi., aar.pi.M., revolyooshans par minute) mein bataai jaati hai parantu yeh nirdhaarit naheen hai ki kitne chakkar prati minute rahane par engine ko inmein se kis vishesh varg mein rakha jaae. iske atirikt teevragati vaashp engine mein jitne chakkar prati minute hote hain, ve atyant mandagati antardahan engine ke chakkar prati minute 4,000 ya kuchh adhik chakkar ka veg rahata hai, parantu daud ki pratiyogita (Motor Racing) ke liye bane injanon mein chakkar prati minute 6,000 ke aaspaas hote hain. ve deejl engine, jinmein chakkar prati minute lagbhag 1,000 hote hain teevragati deejl (High Speed Diesel Engine) kahalaate hain. badi naap ke silindaravaale engine chhote silindaronvaale injanon ki apeksha mand gati se chalte hain, kyonki bade pistan bhaari hote hain aur unke chalan ki disha badalate samay itna jhatka lagta hai ki use sainbhaalana kathin hota hai.

pistan ka veg bhi injanon ki gati ki seema nirdhaarit karta hai, kyonki pistan ka veg bahut badhaane se engine ghiskar sheegra nasht ho jaata hai. motarakaar ke injanon mein pistan-veg ab 2,800 foot prati minute ya isse bhi kuchh adhik rakha jaata hai. deejl injanon mein pistan ka ausat veg 1,000 aur 1,200 foot prati minute ke beech rahata hai.

engine ki naap

injanon ki naap silindar ke vyaas (Bore) aur pistan ki daud(Stroke) se bataai jaati hai. udahaaranat:, 12-18 inch ke engine ka arth yeh hai ki silindar ka vyaas 12 inch hai aur pistan ki daud 18 inch hai.

aadhunik motarakaar injanon mein apne usi naap ke 20-30 varsh pehle ke poorvajon ki apeksha kaheen adhik saamarthya rahata hai. saamarthya nimnalikhit kaaranon se badha hai:

  1. vaalvon ka adhik ooainchaai tak uthana aur antargrahan chhidr ka bada hona, jisse idhan mishran ke aane mein kam dravagharshan utpann hota hai aur isliye silindar mein ghusanevaale mishran ki taul adhik hoti hai;
  2. nikaas vaalv ka kuchh sheegra khul jaana, jisse pistan par ulta daab naheen padta aur rinaatmak kaarya naheen karna padta;
  3. nikaas vaalv ka kuchh der mein band hona, jiske kaaran jali gaison ko baahar nikalne ke liye paryaapt samay mil jaata hai aur ve apne hi jadatv se silindar se lagbhag poornat: nikal jaati hain;
  4. antargrahan vaalv ka kuchh baad mein band hona, jisse sanpeedan aaghaat ke pashchaat pistan ke chal padne par bhi aanevaala indhan-mishran apni jadatv (inarshiya) se aata rahata hai aur is prakaar teevragati injanon mein pehle ki apeksha ab adhik mishran cylinderon mein ghus paata hai;
  5. adhik achhi antargrarahan nalikaaeain, jinse vividh cylinderon mein adhik baraabari se idhan mishran pahuainchata hai;
  6. chal bhaagon ka badhiya aasanjan (fit) aur adhik achhi yaantrik rachana, jisse gharshan aur gharagharaahat donon mein kami hoti hai;
  7. adhik teevragati engine, jiska banana adhik shuddh nirmaan aur chal bhaagon ke adhik uttam santulan se sambhav ho saka hai.

vargeekaran

pratyaagaami engine (reciprocating engine)
    • do stroke engine
    • chaar stroke engine
    • chh: stroke engine
ghoorni engine (rotary engine)
indhan ke anusaar

pratyaagaami engine

jet engine

gas tarabaain

breton chakr (cycle) gas tarabaain ka moolabhoot siddhaant

diesel engine

petrol engine

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • Animated Engines - anek prakaaron ke injanon ki vyaakhya
  • Intro to Car Engines - Cut-away images and a good overview of the internal combustion engine
  • The Fuel and Engine Bible - A good resource for different engine types and fuels
  • youtube - Animation of the components and built-up of a 4-cylinder engine
  • youtube - Animation of the internal moving parts of a 4-cylinder engine