antararaashtreeya vyaapaar machine nigam

International Business Machines
prakaar
  • Public (NYSE: IBM)
  • Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
udmog
  • Computer systems, hardware, and software
  • Consulting and IT services
sthaapana Endicott, New York
June 16, 1911
mukhyaalaya Armonk, New York
kshetr Worldwide
pramukh vyakti
  • Samuel J. Palmisano
    (Chairman, President and CEO)
utpaad See products listing
raajasv Green Arrow Up Darker.svg US$ 99.9 billion (2010)[1]
prachaalan aay Green Arrow Up Darker.svg US$ 17.01 billion (2009)[2]
nivl aay Green Arrow Up Darker.svg US$ 14.8 billion (2010)[1]
kul sampatti Red Arrow Down.svg US$ 109.02 billion (2009)[2]
kul ikviti Green Arrow Up Darker.svg US$ 22.63 billion (2009)[2]
karmachaari 399,409 (2009)[3]
sahaayak kanpaniyaaain
  • ADSTAR, FileNet, ILOG, Informix, Iris Associates, Lotus, Rational, Sequent Computer Systems, Telelogic, Tivoli Software
website ibm.com

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I bi em ke surakshit mukhyaalaya ka pravesh dwaar armonk mein

I bi em jo antararaashtreeya vyaapaar machine nigam, ka sankshipt roop hai aur big blue, , iska upanaam hai, bahuraashtreeya computer praudyogiki hai aur paraamarshi (consulting) nigam (corporation) ka mukhyaalaya armonk, new yaark (Armonk, New York), sayunkt raashtra America mein hai. 19 veen shataabdi ke anvarat itihaas ke saath suchana prodyaugiki companiyon mein se yeh ek hai I bi em computer haardaveyar aur sauftaver banaata aur bechata hai aur meinfram computer (mainframe computer) se naano technology ke kshetr tak aadhaar bhut sevaaen, hosting sevaaen (hosting services) aur paraamarshi sevaaen (consulting services) bhi pradaan karta hai.[4]

I bi em apne haal hi ke itihaas ke kaaran 388,000 karmachaariyon ke saath duniya ki sabse badi computer company ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, I bi em vishv ki sabse badi suchana praudyogiki niyojak hai.hevalet pekaard (Hewlett-Packard) ke girne ke baavajood 2006, tak ke kul aay mein yeh sabse adhik laabhadaayak raha. America par aadhaarit anya prodyaugiki company mein I bi em sabse adhik petant hai.[5]takreeban 170 deshon mein iske injiniyr aur paraamarshi hain aur I bi em anusandhaan (IBM Research) ke liye duniya bhar mein aath prayogashaalaaen hain.[6]I bi em ke karmachaariyon ne teen Nobel puraskaar, chaar tooring purooskaar (Turing Award), paaainch raashtreeya prodyaugiki padak (National Medals of Technology) aur paaainch raashtreeya vijnyaaanan padak (National Medals of Science) arjit ki hai.[7] pichhle varshon mein I bi em chip nirmaata ke roop mein duniya ke sheersh 20 ardhachaalak bikri neta (Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders) mein aata hai aur 2007 mein duniya bhar ke bruhat sauftaver companiyon mein I bi em ka doosra sthaan tha.[8]

anukram

itihaas

vah company jo I bi em bani usaki sthaapana 1896 mein saarani machine company[9] ke roop mein heraman hollerith (Herman Hollerith) ke dvaara broom County, New York (Broome County, New York) endikot, New York (Endicott, New York) mein hua tha, jahaaain abhi bhi bahut simit opresan/parichaalan kiya jaata hai. June 16,1911, ko ise kanpyooting saarani rikaurding nigam/Corporation (seeteeaar) (Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR)) ke roop mein shaamil kiya gaya tha aur 1911 mein New York stock exchange (New York Stock Exchange) mein soocheebaddh kiya gaya tha. jab yeh fortun 500 (Fortune 500) company bana tab isne 1924, mein apna vartamaan naam I bi em ko apnaaya.

1950s, ke dashak mein, I bi em apne mainfram (mainframes) ke I bi em 701 (IBM 701) aur anya model I bi em 700/7000 series (IBM 700/7000 series) ke release hote hi ubharate computer udyog mein pramukh vikreta ban gaya. apne I bi em mainfram ke system (IBM System/360) /360 aur }I bi em system (IBM System/370) /370 ke saath hi company aur bhi majaboot/spasht ho gayi, haalaaainki vipkshiye sanstha sayunkt raashtra nyaaya vibhaag (United States Department of Justice) ke dvaara I bi em ke udyog mein sthaan ko mini computer (minicomputer) ke udaya jaise dijeetal upakaran nigam (Digital Equipment Corporation) aur data general (Data General) aur micro prosesar ke shuruaat aadi ke yog se kamzor karne ki koshish ki gayi, antat: company ko niji computer, sauftaver aur sevaao jaise anek kshetron mein jaana pada.

1981 mein I bi em ne niji/parsanal computer (IBM Personal Computer) ka aarambh kiya jo ki mool sanskaran tatha I bi em haardaveyar (IBM PC compatible) plaatform (platform) ki taraf se sabse pehle shuruaat tha. I bi em ke vanshajon ne aaj micro computer (microcomputer) ko bade paimaane mein baajaar mein laane mein saksham hain.May 1, 2005 mein I bi em ne apne PC bhaag ko chaaineej company lenovo (Lenovo) ko $655 million nagad tatha $600 million lenovo stock ko becha.

January 25, 2007, ko rikoh (Ricoh) ne I bi em mudran system ko $725 million mein khareedne ki ghoshana ki aur teen saal ke sayunkt kaarya ke baad naya sahaayak rikoh info print solusan company (InfoPrint Solutions Company) banaaya aur info print mein rikoh 51% share ka maalik banega aur I bi em 49% share ka maalik banega.

vivaad

lekhak edavin black (Edwin Black) ne kaha ki dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan, I bi em keseeio Thomas J Watson (Thomas J. Watson) teesara dhani (Third Reich) banane ke liye unit record (unit record) data sansaadhanon (data processing) machine ke saath samudra paar ki sahaayata di, company ke laabh ke liye unhonne najis (Nazis) ko Europeeya yahoodiyon ko track karne ke liye kushalata poorvak aapoorti aur sevaao ke dvaara madat ki. I bi em yeh inkaar karta hain ki naajis ke satta lene ke baad sahaayak par unka niyantran tha. aaropon ke aadhaar par I bi em par jo mukdama chalaaya gaya tha use khaarij kar diya gaya. vishv yuddh II, jo 1943 se 1945 tak chala usamein mitr deshon ki sahaayata ke liye I bi em ne takreeban 346,500 M1 kaarbine (Caliber .30 carbine) sayunkt raashtra militri ke liye chhote raayafalon ka utpaadan kiya.[10]

chaaloo/vartamaan pariyojana

grahan

grahan plaatform svatantr hai, jaava (Java) par aadhaarit sauftaver dhaancha (software framework).grahan mool roop se drushya kaal (VisualAge) parivaar ke upakaran ke roop mein I bi em dvaara viksit pramukh svaamitv (proprietary) utpaad hai baad mein grahan, saarvajaanik grahan laaisens (Eclipse Public License) ke tahat mukt (free) / khula srot (open source) sauftaver ke roop mein jaari kiya gaya.

vikaasakakaarya

sauftaver devalapar (software developer) aur I ti professionals ke liye saait par devloper/vikaas kaarya I bi em (IBM) ke dvaara chalta hai. ismein brahtar maatra mein kaise lekh aur tutorials karne ke liye iske saath saath sauftaver daaunalod aur code namoone, charcha fauram, paudakaast, blogs, vikis aur devalapar aur takaneek peshevaron ke liye anya sansaadhan samaavisht hai. udyog staindard teknoloji jaise jaava (Java), linuks, esaoai (SOA) aur web sevaaen (web services), web vikaas (web development), ejeks (Ajax), peeechapi aur eksaemel se I bi em utpaad (web sfer (WebSphere), rashanal/vaajib (Rational), lotus, tivoli (Tivoli) aur deebee2 (DB2) aadi vishay hote hain. 2007 mein devalapar kaarya hall of faam mein sammilit hua tha.[11]

alfa kaarya

alfa kaarya I bi em ka ubharate sauftaver teknoloji ka srot hai. in takaneeko mein shaamil hai;

  • lacheela Internet ka vaastukala moolyaankan report- dijaain, pradarshan aur Internet sarvekshan ki reporting ke liye uchch stareeya vaastukala.
  • I bi em itihaas pravaah drushyaatmak aavedan (IBM History Flow Visualization Application) - gatyaatmak drushya. viksit dastaavejon aur kai sahayogi lekhakon ke paarasparik sampark ke liye ek upakaran.
  • I bi em linuks par anukaari shakti nishpaadan- I bi em ki power prosesar ke liye nishpaadit modalon ke set par linuks ke upayogakartaaon ko power pradaan karne ka ek upakaran.
  • detaabes sanchika puraalekh aur pratyaavartan prabandhan - detaabes mein sangruheet sanchika sandarbh ka upayog puraalekh aur hard disk sanchika mein pratyaavartan karne ke liye aplikesan
  • svaayat kanpyooting ke liye neeti prabandhan - neeti par aadhaarit svaayat prabandhan dhaancha jo I ti ke svachaalan aur vyaavasaayik prakriyaayon ko saral karta hai.
  • fair yu si E - ek spem filtar jo saamagri ko chhaanane ke bajaaye preshak ki pehchaan ko pramaanit karta hai.
  • asanrachit suchana prabandhan vaastushilp (yu I em ai) esadeeke - jaava jo kaaryaanvayan ka samarthan, sanyojan aur asanrachit suchana ke saath kaarya karne waali aplikesan pariniyojan hai.
  • abhigmyata braaujr - is web braaujr ka chakshuheen logon ko sahaayata pradaan karne ke liye vishesh roop se iska dijaain kiya gaya hai, jise saarvajaanik srot sauftaver ke roop mein jaari kiya gaya hai."ai- braaujr", ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, is takaneek ka uddeshya maaus ki aavashyakta ko samaapt karne ke bajaaye, puri tarah se aavaaj par niyantran, batan aur poorv nirdhaarit shaartakat kunji par bharosa karta hai.

ardhachaalak dijaain aur nirmaan

I bi em vi "braudave " si pi yu

lagbhag sabhi I bi em dvaara viksit aadhunik kansol geming system (console gaming systems) micro prosassors (microprocessors developed) ka upayog karte hain. Xbox 360 (Xbox 360) mein senon (Xenon) trikor prosesar sammilit hai jiska dijaain aur utpaadan I bi em ke dvaara 24 maheene se bhi kam mein hua tha.[12]I bi em, toshiba (Toshiba) aur soni ke dvaara sanyukt roop se vishesh gun sel bi i micro prosesar ( Cell BE microprocessor) soni (Sony) play station (PlayStation 3) 3 ka dijaain hua hai.ninteindo (Nintendo) ki saataveen peedhi (seventh-generation) kansol, dablooaaiaai (Wii), ek I bi em chip ka code naam ki suvidha brodave (Broadway) hai. I bi em dvaara dijaain kiya gaya puraana ninteindo game kyoob (Nintendo GameCube) gekko (Gekko) prosesar ka bhi upayog karta hai.

May 2002, mein I bi em aur buttaraflaai.net, ink ne ghoshana ki ki battar fly grid (grid), online vidiyo geming baajaar ke liye ek vaanijyik grid hai.[13] March 2006, I bi em ne hoplon infotainmeint ke saath alag samjhaute ki ghoshana ki, online game sarvises inkorporaated (ojeeesaaai) aur maang saamagri prabandhan aur blade sarvar (blade server) kanpyooting sansaadhanon pradaan karne ke liye reindar rocket ka prayog hoga.[14]

vaikalpik graahak bheint

I bi em ne ghoshana ki ki yeh ek naya sauftaver ka shubhaarambh karegi jiska naam "open client offering" jo Microsoft ke vindoj (Windows), linuks aur eppal (Apple) ke masintosh par chalegi (Macintosh).company ne kaha ki inka naya utpaad kaarobaar mein karmachaariyon ko vindoj aur iske viklpi par yahi sauftaver ka prayog karne ka anumati deta hai. iska arth hai ki "open client offering" chaahe vindoj ke sambandhi linuks ya eppal ho prabandhan mein laagat ki kami hogi.companiyon ke liye yeh jaroori naheen ki ve opareshan laaisens ke liye Microsoft ko bhugataan kare jab tak vindoj par aadhaarit sauftaver par opareshan bahut der tak naheen jaati hai. Microsoft office ka ek vikalp open dochumeint faurmet sauftaver hai jiska vikaas I bi em ke samarthan se hua hai. iska prayog anek kaaryo ke liye hoga jaise; vard processing, prastuteekaran, lotus nots (Lotus Notes) ke sahayog ke saath, tunrat sandesh aur blog upakaran ke saath saath intaranet eksplorar (Internet Explorer) ke pratiyogi faayarafoks web braaujar. I bi em open client ko apne deskataup PC mein 5 pratishat par sthaapit karne ki yojana bana rahi hai.

UC2 ekeekrut sanchaar aur sahayog

UC2(ekeekrut sanchaar aur sahayog) I bi em aur sisko (Cisco) ka sanyukt pariyojana grahan (Eclipse) aur oseejeeaai (OSGi) par aadhaarit hai. yeh kai grahan aplikesan developers aasaan kaarya ka paryaavaran ke liye ek manch pradaan karega.

UC2 par aadhaarit sauftaver bade udyamon ko sanchaar samaadhaan ke saath pradaan karega jaise lotus par aadhaarit sem time (Sametime). bhavishya mein sem time upayogakarta atirikt kaarya se laabh milega jaise klik too call (click-to-call) aur vauis meling (voice mailing).[15]

aatanrik prograams

extreme blue (Extreme Blue) company sabse pehle anubhavi I bi em injeeniyron, pratibhaavaan aur uchch moolya praudyogiki ka vikaas ke liye vyaapaar prabandhakon ka prayog karta hai. is pariyojana ka dijaain ubharate vyaapaar ki jarurat aur takaneek jo usaka samaadhaan kar sakta hai ka vishleshan karta hai. is pariyojana mein adhiktar uchch profaail sauftaver aur haardaveyar pariyojana ka raapid (teji) proto taaiping sammilit hai.

May 2007, mein big green pariyojana (Project Big Green) ka anaavaran kiya-- $1 billion prati varsh apne pure vyaapaar mein oorja dakshata badhaane ka ek pun: disha.

I bi em sauftaver samooh

yeh samooh I bi em ka ek pramukh bhaag hai. anek brand ismein shaamil hain;

  • soochana prabandhan sauftaver (Information Management Software) — data base sarvar aur upakaran, paath vishleshiki, vyavasaaya prakriya prabandhan aur vyaapaar khufiya.
  • lotus sauftaver; groopaveyar, sahayog aur vyaapaar sauftaver 1995 mein arjit kiya gaya
  • tarkasangat sauftaver (Rational Software) — sauftaver vikaas aur anuprayog jeevan chakr prabandhan.2002 mein arjit kiya gaya.
  • tivoli sauftaver (Tivoli Software); system prabandhan.1996 mein arjit kiya gaya.
  • vebachakr (WebSphere) —; ekta aur avasanrachana sauftaver program.

paryaavaran record

aaibeeem ka apne paryaavaran ki samasyaaon se nipatne ka ek lamba itihaas hai. 1971, mein isne vaishvik paryaavaran prabandhan pranaali ke sahayog ke saath paryaavaran sanrakshan par sanstha pranaali ki sthaapana ki. I bi em ke anusaar iska kul khatarnaak kachada pichhle paaainch varshon mein 44 pratishat kam hui hai aur 1987.se 94.6 pratishat kam hui hai. I bi em ka kul kachada ganana nirmaan kaaryon tatha nirmaan operesan donon ko milkar shaamil hai. nirmaan kaarya operesan ka apashisht mein, band paash system mein kachada hota hai jahaaain rasaayan prakriya baraamad hote hain aur pun: prayog kiye jaate hain, bajaaye sirf disposing aur nae rasaayan padaarthon ke prayog shaamil hain in varshon mein I bi em takreeban sabhi sanvrut paash reesaaikling ko samaapt karne ke liye aur ab apni jagah mein aur adhik paryaavaran ke anukool saamagri ka prayog ke liye fir se dijaain kiya hai.[16]

2005.mein ameriki paryaavaran sanrakshan ejensi (ipeeai (EPA)) ke dvaara I bi em ko 20 sarvashreshth kaarya sthaanon mein sarvashreshth kammutar ki maanyata di gayi thi. iska arth hai ki yeh forchyoon 500 companiyon ko pahachaane jo apne karmachaariyon ko utkrusht kamyootar laabh de jo yaataayaat aur vaayu pradushan ko kam karta hai.[17]

haalaaainki, I bi em ka janm sthaan, endikot (Endicott) ko dashakon ke liye I bi em ka pradushan ka saamana karna pada. I bi em apne sarkit board sabha operesan do dashakon se bhi adhik taral safaai agent ka istemaal kiya aur chh: spils aur choona ghatanaaeain bhoomigat teink se 1979 leek ka 4,100 gellan darj kiya gaya. ismein shahar ki mitti aur jaladaayi star mein vaashpasheel kaarbanik yaugikon ko peechhe chhod diya jaata hai. vaashpasheel kaarbanik yaugikon ke tres tatvon ko endikot peene ke paani mein pehchaan kiya gaya hai, lekin usaka star viniyaamak seema ke bheetar hota hai. iske aalaava, 1980, se I bi em trichloro ethaan, faron, benjein aur perchloro ethen hava ke liye aur jiske kaaran graameenon ke beech anek Cancer maamalon bhi hue, ke saath 78,000 rasaayan gellons pamp kiya. paryaavaran sanrakshan vibhaag ke dvaara I bi em endikot ko pradushan ka pramukh srot ke roop mein pahachaana gaya, haalaaainki pradushan kaari tattv sthaaneeya draai kliners aur anya pradooshanon bhi paae gaye. haalaaainki raajya svaasthaya adhikaari naheen pehchaan sakta ki vaayu pradushan ya jal pradushan endikot mein svaasthaya samasya ka kaaran hai gaavan ke adhikaari ne kaha ki pareekshan bataata hai ki paani peene ke liye surakshit hai.[18]

saur urja

tokiyo ohaka kogyo company., limited (teeoke) aur I bi em apne sahayog se nai peedhi ke liye kam laagat waali vidhiyon ke saur urja utpaadon ko baajaar mein la rahe hain, yeh hai, seeaaijeees (CIGS) (koppar-indiym-galliym-selenid) saur sel (solar cell) maudyool. patali jhilli (thin film) takaneek ka prayog, jaise seeaaijeees, ne saur koshikaaon ke poorn laagat aur vyaapak dhaaran ko saksham karne ka mahaan vaada kiya tha.[19][20]

aaibeeem fotovoltik anusandhaan ke chaar mukhya kshetron par khoj kar raha hai: saste aur adhik prabhaavi silikaun saur sel (solar cell) ke vikaas ke liye vartamaan takaneekon ka upayog karna, nai vilyan upachaarit patali film (thin film) waali fotovoltik yuktiyon ka vikaas karna, saandrak fotovoltik (concentrator photovoltaics) aur neno saranchana (nanostructures) jaise ardh chaalak kvaantam dot (semiconductor quantum dot) aur neno taar (nanowire) par aadhaarit bhavishya ki peedhi ke fotovoltik aarkitekchar.[21]

I bi em fotovoltaachs ke Dr suprateek guha agrani vaigyaanik hain.[21]

I bi em ki kaurporet sanskruti.

big blue I bi em ke liye ek upanaam hai; iske praarambh se sambandhit anek sidhaant upalabdh hain. jo log I bi em ke liye par kaam karte hain unka ek sidhaant hai, ki 1960 ke dashak mein I bi em ne is shabd ko gadhaaaai bi em ne 1960 aur 1970 ke dashak ke shuroo mein mainfram ki sthaapana ki. baad mein sabhi blue shabd ka istemaal vafaadaar I bi em graahak aur vyaapaar lekhakon ke liye grahan kiya gaya.[22][23]ek anya sidhaant mein big blue ko company ke logo (logo) ke roop mein sujhaav diya gaya. teesare sidhaant mein yeh sujhaav diya gaya ki big blue poorv company ke dres code ka ullekh karta hai jismein anek I bi em karmachaariyon ko keval safed shart aur bahuton ko neela shoot pahanana aavashyak hai.[24][22]kisi bhi ghatna mein, I bi em kibord, type writer aur kuchh anya upakaranon ka nirmaan mein entaraki aur vaapasi ke liye rang ka istemaal karte hue big blue avadhaarana par avashya hona chaahiye

bikri

I bi em aksar bikri keindrit ya bikri unmukh vyaapaar sanskruti ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai. paramparaagat roop se, I bi em ke kai adhikaareeyon aur prabandhakon ka chunaav bikri bal se hota hai. uddharan ke liye vartamaan CEO sem palmisno (Sam Palmisano) ne ek bikri karta ke roop mein company mein shaamil hue the, asaamaanya roop se bade nigmon ke CEO ke paas emabeeai ya snaatakottar yogyata naheen hai. madhyam aur uchch prabandhan aksar mahatva poorn graahakon ko bikri piching karne ke liye selsamen ki seedhe sahaayata karte hain.

vardi

20 veen shataabdi mein adhikaanshat: gaadha ya gre shoot, safed kameej aur anukool taai[25] I bi em ke karmachaariyon ki saamaanya vardi thi 1990s, mein I bi em prabandhan badlaav ke dauraan lou graasnar (Lou Gerstner) ne sthaapit code mein chhut di, I bi em ke karmachaariyon ke anya bade praudyogiki companiyon ke pratiroop samaan roop ke liye dres aur vyavahaar ko saamaanya banaaya

I bi em company moolya aur "jem"

2003, mein I bi em ne company ke moolyon ko fir se likhne ke liye ek mahattvapoorn pariyojana shuroo ki.company ne jem praudyogiki ka prayog karte hue 50,000 karmachaariyon ke saath lagbhag teen dinon tak pramukh vyaapaar mudde par Internet aadhaarit online charcha ki mejabaani ki.us charcha ka vishleshan vishay ke online tippaniyon ke liye parishkrut paath vishleshan sauftaver (E klaasifiyer) ke dvaara vishleshan kiya gaya. 2003 mein parinaam svaroop company moolya ko teen aadhunik vyaapaar, baajaar sthaan aur karmachaari vichaaron ko pratibinbit karne ke liye adyatan kiya gaya ; "har graahak ki safalta ke liye samarpan", " navapravartan hamaari company aur duniya ke liye maane rakhati hai", "sabhi sambandhon mein vishvaas aur vaiyaktik jimmedaari honi chaahiye".[26]

2004, mein ek aur jem ka aayojan hua jismein 72 ghante ka 52,000 karmachaariyon ne sarvotam badlaav ka abhyaas kiya tha. ve pehle pehchaan ki hui moolyon ke kaaryaanvayan ka samarthan ke liye vyavahaarya vichaaron par keindrit hai. I bi em ko moolyon ke samarthan ke liye pramukh vichaaron ka chayan karne ke liye anumati dene ke liye ek nai post-jem ankan vrutaant ka vikaas hua. nideshak mandal is jem ka aahvaan kar rahe the jab 2005. ke basant mein palmisno ke vetan mein vruddhi ho rahi thi.[27]

July aur sitmbar 2006, mein palmisno ne ek aur jem shuroo kiya jise InnovationJam. kehte hain. nav pravartan aaj tak ka sabse bada online buddhisheelata satr tha jismein 104 deshon se 150,000 se bhi jyaada sahabhaagi the. I bi em karmachaari, I bi em karmachaariyon ke paarivaarik sadasyon, vishvavidyaalaya, saajhedaaron aur graahakon aadi iske is kaaryakram mein bhaag lene vaale the. navapravartan 72 ghante ka do satron mein vibhaajit tha (ek July mein aur ek sitmbar mein) aur 46,000 se bhi jyaada vichaar utpann hua. November 2006, mein navapravartan jem ke sarvashreshth das vichaaron par I bi em ne $US 100 million nivesh karne ki ghoshana ki.[28]

saarvajanik srot

I bi em saarvajaanik srot pahal (Open Source Initiative) ke dvaara prabhaavit hai aur 1998. mein linuks ka samarthan karna shuroo kiya.[29]company ne sevaao aur sauftaver par aadhaarit linuks par I bi em linuks praudyogiki kendra (Linux Technology Center) ke madhyam se arabon dollar poonji laga diya, jismein 300 linuks karnel (Linux kernel) devalapar se bhi jyaada shaamil hai.[30]I bi em ne bhi alag saarvajaanik srot license (open-source license) jaari kiya, jaise svatantr sauftaver grahan (Eclipse) dhaancha manch (daan ke samay lagbhag usaka moolya US$40 million)[31] aur jaava (Java) par aadhaarit sambandh parak prabandhan pranaali (relational database management system) (aaradeebeeemes) apaachya darbi (Apache Derby). I bi em ka saarvajaanik bhaageedaari museebat se mukt naheen hai, halanki (sko banaam I bi em (SCO v. IBM) dekhein)

kaurporet maamalein

vividhta aur kaaryabal mudye

jab company ne aksham diggajon ko kiraaye par liya tab kam se kam pratham vishv yuddh tak I bi em ne kaaryabal vividhta aur samaan avsar ko badhaane ke liye bahut prayaas kiya. I bi em ekamaatr aisa praudyogiki company tha jisne 2004, ke vorking madar patrika mein sheersh 10 mein tha aur 2005 (mein do praudyogiki company mein ek tha (vah doosra company hevalet pekkaard tha).[32][33]

sitmbar 21 (September 21), 1953, mein Thomas J Watson (Thomas J. Watson), jo us samay si E O the, unhonne I bi em ke sabhi karmachaariyon ko vivaadaspad patra bheja ki I bi em sabse achhe logon ko lena chaahati hai chaahe kisi bhi jaati, kisi bhi mool raashtra ya kisi bhi ling ka ho 1984 mein, I bi em yaun vareeyata ko sammilit kiya. unhonne ne kahaaki I bi em ko yeh pratispardhaatmak laabh dega kyonki I bi em pratibhaavaan logon ko lene mein saksham hoga aur iske pratispardhi isse neeche chale jaayeinge.[34]

I bi em ne paramparaagat majadoor union (labor union) sangh ka virodh kiya hai, haalaaainki sayunkt raashtra ke baahar kuchh I bi em shramikon ka pratinidhitv karte hain.

1990s, ke dashak mein rokad shesh yojana roopaantaran ke saath do pramukh peinshan (pension) program mein badlaav aaya, parinaam svaroop ek karmachaari ne aayu bhedabhaav (age discrimination) aur varg kaaravaai (class action) ka mukadama lagaaya.I bi em karmachaariyon ne mukadama jeet liya aur aanshik avasthaapan mein aae, haalaaainki appeal abhi bhi chal rahe hain. 2006mein bhi I bi em ne ek vishesh varg kaaravaai ka mukadama niptaaya.[35]

agar I bi em ke itihaas ko dekha jaae to usane kuchh bade skel vaale logon ko naukri se mukt karne ke saath saath lambe samay tak kaam karne vaale karmachaariyon ke saath achhe sambandh raha hai. haal ke hi varshon mein vahaaain kaaryabal mein vyaapak katauti hui hai kyonki I bi em baajaar ki badalti sthitiyon aur giraavat ka laabh ko dhaaran karne ka prayaas kiya hai. 2005, ki pehli timaahi mein sambhaavit aamdani mein giraavat aane ke baad I bi em ne Europe mein 14,500 padon ko apne kaaryabal nikaal diya. May 2005, mein I bi em aayaralaind ne apne staaf se kaha ki em di (laghu ilektraaniks divijn) suvidha 2005 ke ant tak band ho gayi thi aur staaf se chukauta karne ka prastaav diya.tathaapi, sabhi karmachaariyon ne saath rahane ki kaamna ki aur unhein fir se I bi em aayaralaind mein rojagaar mila.pura utpaadan singaapoor ke ek company jiska naam amkor tha, mein sthaanaantarit ho gayi jisne I bi em ke micro ilektraaniks vyaapaar ko singaapoor mein khareed liya aur suvidhaaon ke khareedne ke baad I bi em ne company ko pura bhar kshamata ka vaada kiya.June 8,2005, mein I bi em Canada limited ne lagbhag 700 padon ko nikaal diya.I bi em ka yeh pariyojana "pun: santulan" ka ek rananeeti tha vyavasaayik kaushal aur vyaapaaron ka portfolio anek karmachaariyon ki bharti aur lagaataar vruddhi kam majadoori ke kaaran hua hai aur is baat ka saakshi I bi em Bhaarat (IBM India) aur China ke I bi em kaaryaalaya, fillipeins aur kosta rika rahe hain.

October 10 (October 10),2005, mein I bi em vishv ke pramukh companiyon mein I bi em pehla company bana jisne yeh pratijnyaa ki ki aupachaarik roop se aanuvanshik jaankaari (genetic information) ka prayog apne rojgaar ke faisale mein nahi karega. yeh kuchh hi maheeno mein I bi em ke raashtreeya bhugaulik society (National Geographic Society) ke jenografik pariyojana (Genographic Project) mein samarthan ki ghoshana ke baad aa gaya.

samalaingik adhikaar

I bi em apne karmachaariyon ko virodhi bhedabhaav khand ke saath ek hi yaun saajhedaaron ka laabh deta hai. maanav adhikaar abhiyaan (Human Rights Campaign) lagaataar I bi em ko 2003 tak samalaingik anukool hone ka apne soochakaank mein 100% deta hai (2002, ke varsh mein pramukh companiyon ka sankalan shuroo hua tha, (I bi em ne 86% score kiya tha).[36]

logos

1970 mein jo logo (Logo) ka dijaain kiya gaya tha photo kopiyer ka takaneeki seema samvedansheel ho jaati thi, jise baad mein vyaapak kaarya mein tainaat kiya gaya. 1970s, mein bruhat thos kshetr ke saath is logo ka kopiyer ke dvaara khraab nakl hui thi, isliye company ne thos bade kshetron se bache hue logo ko pasand kiya. 1972 ka I bi em logo is pravruti ka ek udaaharan hai. 1980 ke dashak ke madhya mein digital kopiyr ke aagaman ke saath yeh takaneeki avarodh bade paimaane par lupt ho gaya; lagbhag isi samay, 13- baar logo ko iske vipreet kaaran ke liye chhod diya gaya us samay ke kam rejolyooshan digital printar (240 dot prati inch) ko theek prakaar se prastut karna mushkil tha.

nideshak mandal

I bi em nideshak mandal (board of directors) ke vartamaan sadasya hain;

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbhon aur panne ke neeche ki teeka.

aage ka adhyayan/ atirikt adhyayan

luis vi.gerstner, junior. (Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.) 2002 kisne kaha ki haathi naach naheen sakta?haarpar kaulins ISBN 0-00-715448-8
Robert slaatar 1999 big blue ki bachat; I bi em ka lou garstnar hai mek gro hil
emarsan dabloo. pugh 1996 I bi em imaarat; ydyog ka aakaar maasachusets prodyaugiki sansathaan
Robert helar 1994 I bi em ka bhaagya thoda bhoora
paal karol 1993 big blus; I bi em ke dvaara naheen banaaya hua kraaun prakaashak
roya ai bauar it al 1992 silver lek pariyojana; I bi em mein parivartan (AS/400) Oxford vishvavidyaalaya press
Thomas J Watson junior. 1990 pita, putr & ko; I bi em mein mera jeevan aur jeevan se aage bantan
Robert sobel (Robert Sobel) 1988 I bi em banaam Japan; bhavishya ke liye sangharsh
David marsar 1987 I bi em; duniya ka sabse safal company prabandhit hai[1] kogan prushth
richrd Thomas delaamartar 1986 big blue; I bi em ke shakti ka upayog aur durupyog maikamiln
book rogars 1986 I bi em dwaar/unnati/disha/path haarpar & ro
Robert sobel (Robert Sobel) 1981 I bi em; bheemaakaar mein sankraman/sankraanti ISBN 0-8129-1000-1
samme chitum (Samme Chittum) 2004 I bi em gaavan mein, padosiyon ke saath sambandhon mein pradushan bhaya new yaark taaims
Robert sobel (Robert Sobel) 1981 Thomas Watson, I bi em ke varishth aur computer kranti (Thomas J Watson ka jeevani (Thomas J. Watson)) ISBN 1-893122-82-4

baahari sambandh/baahari links