antararaashtreeya vidhi

[[chit|right|thumb|300px|vestafeliya ki shaanti, antarraashtreeya kaanoon ke udbhav ke sroton mein se ek hai.]] antarraashtreeya vidhi (International law) se aashay un niyamon se hai jo svatantr deshon ke beech paraspar sambandhon (vivaadon) ke niptaare ke liye laagoo hote hain. antarraashtreeya kaanoon kisi desh ke apne kaanoon se is arth mein bhinn hai ki antarraashtreeya kaanoon do deshon ke sambandhon ke liye laagoo hota hai na ki do ya adhik naagrikon ke beech.

anukram

antarraashtreeya kaanoon - niji tatha saarvajanik

niji antarraashtreeya kaanoon (Private international law) se taatparya un niyamon se hai jo kisi raajya dvaara aise vaadon ka nirnaya karne ke liye chune jaate hain jinmein koi videshi tatv hota hai. in niyamon ka prayog is prakaar ke vaad vishyon ke nirnaya mein hota hai jinka prabhaav kisi aise tathya, ghatna athva sanvyavahaar par padta hai jo kisi anya desheeya vidhi pranaali se is prakaar sambaddh hai ki us pranaali ka avalanban aavashyak ho jaata hai.

'niji antarraashtreeya kaanoon' naam se aisa bodh hota hai ki yeh vishay antarraashtreeya kaanoon ki hi shaakha hai. parantu vastut: aisa hai naheen. niji antarraashtreeya kaanoon aur saarvajanik antarraashtreeya kaanoon (Public international law) mein kisi prakaar ki paarasparikta naheen hai.

saarvajanik antararaashtreeya vidhi

paribhaasha

antarraashtreeya kaanoon un vidhi niyamon ka samooh hai jo vibhinn raajyon ke paarasparik sambandhon ke vishay mein prayukt hote hain. yeh ek vidhi pranaali hai jiska sambandh vyaktiyon ke samaaj se na hokar raajyon ke samaaj se hai.

itihaas

antararaashtreeya kaanoon (vidhi) ke udbhav tatha vikaas ka itihaas nishchit kaal seemaaon mein naheen baaainta ja sakta. professor Holland ke mataanusaar puraatan kaal mein bhi svatantr raajyon mein maanyata praapt aise niyam the jo dooton ke visheshaadhikaar, sandhi, yuddh ki ghoshana tatha yuddh sanchaalan se sambandh rakhate the. praacheen Bhaarat mein bhi aise niyamon ka ullekh milta hai (raamaayan tatha mahaabhaarat). yahoodi, yoonaani tatha rom ke logon mein bhi aise niyamon ka hona paaya jaata hai. 14veen, 13veen, sadi E. poo. mein khatti raani ne misri fraaoon ko donon raajyon mein paraspar shaanti aur saujanya banaae rakhane ke liye jo patra likhe the ve antarraashtreeya drushti se itihaas ke pehle aadarsh maane jaate hain. ve patra khatti aur fraaooni donon abhilekhaagaaron mein surakshit rakhe gaye jo aaj tak surakshit hain. madhya yug mein shaayad kisi prakaar ke antarraashtreeya kaanoon ki aavashyakta hi na thi kyonki samudri dasyu samast saagaron par chhaae hue the, vyaapaar praay: lupt ho chuka tha aur yuddh mein kisi prakaar ke niyam ka paalan naheen hota tha. baad mein punarjaagaran evam dharm sudhaar ka yug aaya tab antarraashtreeya kaanoon ke vikaas mein kuchh pragati hui. kaalaantar mein maanav sabhyata ke vikaas ke saath aachaar tatha reeti ki paranparaaeain bani jinke aadhaar par antarraashtreeya kaanoon aage badha aur panapa. 19veen shataabdi mein usaki pragati vishesh roop se vibhinn raashtron ke madhya hone waali sandhiyon tatha abhismayon dvaara hui. san 1899 tatha 1907 E. mein Hague mein hone vaale shaanti sammelanon ne antarraashtreeya kaanoon ke roop ko mukharit kiya aur antarraashtreeya vivaachan nyaayaalaya ki sthaapana hui.

pratham mahaayuddh ke pashchaat raashtrasangh (league ov neshans) ne janm liya. uske mukhya uddeshya the shaanti tatha suraksha banaae rakhana aur antarraashtreeya sahayog mein vruddhi karna. parantu 1937 E. mein Japan tatha Italy ne raashtrasangh ke astitv ko bhaari dhakka pahuainchaaya aur ant mein 19 April san 1946 E. ko sangh ka astitv hi mit gaya.

dviteeya mahaayuddh ke vijeta raashtra great Britain, America tatha soviyt roos ka adhiveshan Moscow nagar mein hua aur ek chhota-sa ghoshanaapatr prakaashit kiya gaya. tadanantar anek sthaanon mein adhiveshan hote rahe aur ek antararaashtreeya sangathan ke vishay mein vichaar-vinimay hota raha. san 1945 E. mein 25 April se 26 June tak, sain Francisco nagar mein ek sammelan hua jismein pachaas raajyon ke pratinidhi sammilit hue. 26 June 1945 E. ko sanyukt raashtrasangh tatha antarraashtreeya nyaayaalaya ka ghoshanaapatr sarvasammati se sveekrut hua jiske dvaara nimnalikhit uddeshyon ki ghoshana ki gai:

  • (1) antararaashtreeya shaanti evam suraksha banaae rakhana;
  • (2) raashtron mein paarasparik maitri badhaana;
  • (3) sabhi prakaar ki aarthik, saamaajik, saanskrutik tatha maanaveeya antararaashtreeya samasyaaon ko hal karne mein antararaashtreeya sahayog praapt karna;
  • (4) saamaanya uddeshyon ki poorti ke liye vibhinn raashtron ke kaaryakalaapon mein saamanjasya sthaapit karna.

is prakaar sanyukt raashtrasangh aur visheshataya antararaashtreeya nyaayaalaya ki sthaapana se antararaashtreeya kaanoon ko yathaarth roop mein vidhi (kaanoon) ka pad praapt hua. sanyukt raashtrasangh ne antararaashtreeya-vidhi-aayog ki sthaapana ki jiska pramukh kaarya antararaashtreeya vidhi ka vikaas karna hai.

antarraashtreeya vidhi ka sanhitaakaran

kaanoon ke sanhitaakaran se taatparya hai samast niyamon ko ekatr karna, unako ek sootr mein kramaanusaar baaaindhana tatha unamein saamanjasya sthaapit karna. 18veen tatha 19veen shataabdi mein is or prayaas kiya gaya. Institute ov intaranaishanal law ne bhi ismein samuchit yog diya. Hague sammelanon ne bhi is kaarya ko apne haath mein liya. san 1920 E. mein raashtrasangh ne iske liye samiti banaai. is prakaar pichhli teen shataabdiyon mein is kathin kaarya ko poora karne ka nirantar prayaas hota raha. ant mein 21 November 1947 E. ko sanyukt raashtrasangh ne is kaarya ke nimitt sanvidhi dvaara antarraashtreeya-vidhi-aayog sthaapit kiya.

antarraashtreeya vidhi ke vishay

antarraashtreeya kaanoon ka vistaar aseem tatha iske vishay nirantar pragatisheel hain. maanav sabhyata tatha vigyaan ke vikaas ke saath iska bhi vikaas uttarottar hua aur hota rahega. iske vistaar ko seemaabaddh naheen kiya ja sakta. antarraashtreeya vidhi ke pramukh vishay is prakaar hain:

  • (1) raajyon ki maanyata, unke mool adhikaar tatha kartavya;
  • (2) raajya tatha shaasan ka uttaraadhikaar;
  • (3) videshi raajyon par kshetraadhikaar tatha raashtreeya seemaaon ke baahar kiye gaye aparaadhon ke sambandh mein kshetraadhikaar;
  • (4) mahaasaagar evam jal praangan ki seemaaeain;
  • (5) raashtreeyata tatha videshiyon ke prati vyavahaar;
  • (6) sharanaagat adhikaar tatha sandhi ke niyam;
  • (7) raajakeeya evam vaanijya dooteeya samaagam tatha unmukti ke niyam;
  • (8) raajyon ke uttaradaayitv sambandhi niyam; tatha
  • (9) vivaachan prakriya ke niyam.

antarraashtreeya vidhi ke aadhaar

antarraashtreeya kaanoon ke niyamon ka sootrapaat vichaarakon ki kalpana tatha raashtron ke vyavahaaron mein hua. vyavahaar ne dheere-dheere pratha ka roop dhaaran kiya aur fir ve prathaaeain paranparaaeain ban gain. at: antarraashtreeya kaanoon ka mukhya aadhaar paranparaaeain hi hain. anya aadhaaron mein pratham sthaan vibhinn raashtron mein hone waali sandhiyon ka hai jo paranparaaon se kisi bhi arth mein kam mahattvapoorn naheen hai. inke atirikt raajyapatr, pradesheeya sansad dvaara sveekrut sanvidhi tatha pradesheeya nyaayaalaya ke nirnaya antarraashtreeya kaanoon ki anya aadhaar shilaaeain hain. baad mein vibhinn abhismayon ne tatha nirvaachan nyaayaalaya, antarraashtreeya puraskaar nyaayaalaya evam antarraashtreeya nyaayaalaya ke nirnayon ne antarraashtreeya kaanoon ko usaka vartamaan roop diya.

antarraashtreeya vidhi ke kaalpanik tatv

antarraashtreeya vidhi katipya kaalpanik tatvon par aadhaarit hai jinmein pramukh ye hain:

  • (k) pratyek raajya ka nishchit raajyakshetr hai aur niji raajyakshetr mein usako niji maamalon mein poorn svatantrata praapt hai.
  • (kh) pratyek raajya ko kaanooni samatulyata praapt hai.
  • (g) antarraashtreeya vidhi ke antargat sabhi raajyon ka samaan drushtikon hai.
  • (gh) antarraashtreeya vidhi ki maanyata raajyon ki sammati par nirbhar hai aur uske samaksh sabhi raajya ek samaan hain.

antarraashtreeya vidhi ka ullanghan

antarraashtreeya vidhi ki maanyata sadaiv raajyon ki svechha par nirbhar rahi hai. koi aisi vyavastha ya shakti naheen thi jo raajyon ko antarraashtreeya niyamon ka paalan karne ke liye baadhya kar sake athva niymabhanjan ke liye dand de sake. raashtrasangh ki asafalata ka pramukh kaaran yahi tha. sansaar ke raajaneetijnya iske prati poornataya sajag the. at: sanyukt raashtra ke ghoshanaapatr mein is prakaar ki vyavastha ki gayi hai ki kaalaantar mein antarraashtreeya kaanoon ko raajyon ki or se theek vaisa hi sammaan praapt ho jaisa kisi desh ki vidhi pranaali ko apne desh mein shaasan varg athva nyaayaalayon se praapt hai. sanyukt raashtrasangh apne samast sahaayak angon ke saath is prakaar ka vaataavaran utpann karne mein prayatnasheel hain. sanyukt raashtrasangh ki suraksha samiti ko kaaryapaalika shakti bhi di gayi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein