antararaashtreeya maanakeekaran sangathan

yeh lekh ya kuchh ansh apni mool bhaasha mein hai, jisse ki in tathyon ki maulikta bani rahe. krupaya ise anuvaad karne ka prayaas na karein, ya pehle samvaad prushth par charcha karke fir sudhaar karein.

chitr:172px-ISO english logo.png
DEPP maanakeekaran sangathan/saamaanyeekaran ka chinh
chitr:172px-ISO French logo.png
DEPP maanakeekaran sangathan/saamaanyeekaran ka French chinh

'antaraashtreeya maanakeekaran sangathan (French mein Organisation internationale de normalisation), jise adhiktar ISO kaha jaata hai, vibhinn raashtron ke maanak sangathanon ke pratinidhiyon se gathit ek antarraashtreeya maanak-vinyaas sanstha hai. iski sthaapana 23 February, 1947 ko hui thi, vishvavyaapi audyogik evam vaanijyik maanakon ko ghoshit karne hetu. iska mukhyaalaya jeneva, Switzerland mein sthit hai.[1]

yadyapi ISO swayam ko ek gair sarkaari sangathan kehta hai, iski maanak sthaapit karne ki kshamata, jo ki praay: vidhi ban jaate hain, ya to samjhauton ke dvaara, ya fir raashtreeya maan; yeh isko gair sarkaari sangathanon se adhik shaktishaali banaata hai. vaise vyavahaar mein yeh ek sankaaya ya alpakaaleen sangathan jaise kaaryarat hai, jiski sarkaaron se majaboot kaङaiyaaain hain..[1]

anukram

naam evam sankshepaakshar

is sangathan ka logo ya chinh do aadhikaarik bhaashaaon mein hai Amreeki aaingreji evam French. ismein ISO akshar bhi sammilit hain, jinse yeh praay: jaana jaata hai, jo ki iski sankshipti hai. balki yeh sankshipti yoonaani/greek shabd ἴaaσaaοaaς (isos) se bana hai, jiska arth hai baraabar. yeh maanate hue ki sangathan ka bhinn bhaashaaon mein bhinn sankshipti banegi, yeh tay kiya ki ek sarvavyaapi sarvamaanya naam ISO hi chalaaya jaae. yeh swayam mein is sangathan ka uddeshya siddh karta hai.[2][3]

antarraashtreeya maanak evam anya prak. shan

ISO ke mukhya utpaad hain antarraashtreeya maanak. ISO dvaara hi prakaashit hain : takaneeki report, takaneeki vishesheekaran (Specifications), saarvajanik upalabdh vishesheekaran, takaneeki shuddhiptr (Corrigenda), evam and pathapradarshak.[4]

antarraashtreeya maanak ka roopaakaar hota hai ISO[/IEC][/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[:yyyy] sheershak, jahaaain nnnnn hai maanak sankhya, yyyy hai prakaashan ka varsh, evam sheershak bataata hai vishay. yadi maanak sanyukt takaneeki samiti JTC1 ke kaarya ka parinaam hai, to IEC bhi sammilit kiya jaata hai. ASTM International ke sahayog se viksit maanakon mein ASTM ko bhi sammilit kiya jaata hai. dinaaaink evam IS ka prayog apoorn ya aprakaashit maanakon ke liye aprayoganeeya hai, evam kuchh paristhitiyon mein prakaashit kaarya ka sheershak bhi chhoङaa ja sakta hai.

takaneeki report jaari hoti hai, jab koi takaneeki samiti ya up-samiti ne saamaanyataya prakaashit antarraashtreeya maanak se bhinn prakaar ka koi aankaङaa sangraheet kiya ho,[4] jaise ki sandarbh ya vyaakhyaaen. inki naamakaran pratha maanakon ki bhaanti hi hai, keval TR lagaaya jaata hai IS ke sthaan par, report ke naam se pehle. udaaharanat:

  • ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management
  • ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation

takaneeki vishesheekaran ko tab rachit kiya ja sakta hai, jabki "sambandhit vishay abhi bhi vikaas ki sthiti mein hi hai, ya kisi anya kaaranavash bhavishya mein (tatkaal naheen) kisi antarraashtreeya maanak ko prakaashit karne ki sahamati ki sambhaavana hoti hai" (the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard). saarvajanik upalabdh vishesheekaran koi "madhyavarti vishesheekaran ho sakte hain, jo ki poorn antarraashtreeya maanak ke vikaas se poorv hi prakaashit hua ho" (an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard), ya, IEC mein 'dvichihn' ('dual logo') prakaashan, jo ki kisi baahari sangathan ke sahayog se prakaashit hua ho "[4] donon ke hi naamakaran takaneeki report ki bhaanti hi kiya jaata hai. udaaharanat:

  • ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules
  • ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers

ISO kabhi kabhi takaneeki/paaribhaashik shuddhiptr (Technical Corrigendum) bhi jaari karta hai. ye vartamaan maanakon ke sanshodhan hote hain, jo ki kshudr takaneeki/paaribhaashik trutiyon, prayoganeeyata sudhaar ya seemit tareeke se prayojyata badhaane hetu kiye jaate hain. praay: inhein is aasha ke saath jaari kiya jaat hai ki prabhaavit maanak yaato uddhrut ya vaapas liya jaaega, apne agale anusoochana panaraavalokan tak.[4]

ISO path-pradarshak ardh-maanak hote hain, antarraashtreeya maanakeekaran se sambandhit vishyon ko liye hue.[4] in ka naamakaran "ISO[/IEC] Guide N:yyyy: sheershak" mein hota hai, udaaharanat:

  • ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary
  • ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification
inhein bhi dekhein: ISO maanakon ki soochi

ISO pralekh prakaashanaadhikaar

ISO pralekh prakaashanaadhikaar surakshit hote hain, evam ISO adhiktar ki pratiyon ka moolya leta hai. vaise adhiktar ke moolya keval ilaiktraunik roopaakaar mein hi liye jaate hain. yadyapi upayogi, parantu in pralekhon ko prayog karte hue yeh dhyaanayogya hai, ki inki prachur maatra mein bhi parivartan ki sambhaavana hai, isse pehle ki yeh maanak hi naaa ban jaae. ISO evam iske aadhikaarik sanyukt raajya pratinidhi evam antarraashtreeya vidyutatakaneeki aayog (International Electrotechnical Commission) dvaara kuchh maanak ni:shulk upalabdh karaae jaate hain.[5][6]

sadasya

maanak sansthaaen, jo ki ISO sadasya hain, unka naksha
Key:
█a█ sadasya █a█ pratinidhi sadasya █a█ anshadaata ya upabhokta sadasya █a█ anya sthaan, jo ki ISO sadasya naheen hain, par ISO 3166-1 code maanya hai

ISO ke 157 raashtreeya sadasya hain,[7] out of the 195 total countries in the world.

ISO ki teen sadasyata shreniyaaain hain:

  • sadasya sansthaaen ve raashtreeya sansthaaen hain, jo ki pratyek desh mein sarvaadhik pratinidhitv maanak sanstha maani jaati hain. keval in sadasyon ko matadaan ka adhikaar hai.
  • pratinidhi sadasya ve raashtra hain, jinka apna koi maanak sangathan naheen hai. in sadasyon ko ISO ki gatividhiyon se suvijnya rakha jaata hai, parantu ye maanak prakhyaapan, ya pravartan mein bhaag naheen lete.
  • anshadaata ya upabhokta sadasya chhoti arthavyavastha vaale ve raashtra hein, jo ghati sadasyata shulk dete hain, parantu maanakon ke vikaas ka anusaran kar sakte hain.

bhaageedaar sadasya "P" ya pi sadasya kahalaate hain, jabki anupaalan karne vaale "O" ya O sadasya kahalaate hain.

ISO ke naam par utpaad

is tathya ne, ki kai ISO-srujit maanak sarvagat, sarvavyaapi hain; kai maukon par, "ISO" ka saamaanya prayog prerit kiya hai, us utpaad ko varnit karne hetu, jo ki maanakon ko maanata hai. iske kai udaaharan hain:

  • si di ki pratiyaaain, file extension "ISO" mein likheen hoti hain, yeh dikhaane hetu ki ve ISO 9660 maanak filesystem sanchika pranaali prayog kar rahe hain, anya ki apeksha, ataev CD images ko praay: "ISOs" kaha jaata hai. jahaaain tak hai, sabhi computer CD-ROM seedi rom ke sang CD ko paङ sakte hain, jo ki yeh maanak prayog karti hain. kuchh DVD-ROMs jo hain, ve ISO 9660 filesystems bhi prayog karti hain.
  • fotograafik film ki praakaashik sanvedanasheelata, usaki film gati ko ankit kiya jaata hai ISO 5800:1987 mein. isliye film gati ko bhi praay: usaka "ISO number."kaha jaata hai.

ISO/IEC sanyukt takaneeki samiti 1

maanakeekaran ke kshetron mein, prachur aachhaadan ke parinaamon se, evam soochana praudyogiki se sambandhit karyon se, nibatne hetu; ISO evam IEC ya antarraashtreeya vidyutatakaneeki aayog se ek sanyukt takaneeki samiti gathit keejise ISO/IEC JTC1 ke nam se jaana jaata hai. yeh AC pratham samiti hai, evam aajatak ek hi hai.

iska aadhikaarik aadesh hai, vishvavyaapi baajaaron mein vyaapaar evam upayokta ki aavashyakataaon hetu, IT maanakon ka vikaas, anurakshan, prachaar karna.

iska mool angrejee paath, varta pॄsh:th par upalabdh hai.
  • soochana-praudyogiki aur upakaranon ki abhiklpana aur vikaas
  • soochana aur praudyogiki utpaadon aur pranaaliyon ka nishpaadan aur gunavatta
  • soochana praudyogiki pranaaliyon aur soochanaaon ki suraksha
  • anuprayog prograamon ki subaahyata
  • soochana aur praudyogiki utpaadon aur pranaaliyon ki antarkaaryotpaadakata
  • ekeekॄt upakaran aur vaataavaran
  • saamanjasyapoorn soochana praudyogiki shabdaavali aur
  • upayokta-sahayogi aur shramadakshataapoorvak abhiklpit upayokta antaraaflak

vartamaan mein 18 up-samitiyaaain hain :-

  • SC 02 - kootikॄt varn samooh
  • SC 06 - pranaaliyon ke beech doorasanchaar aur soochana aadaan pradaan
  • SC 07 - sauftveyar aur pranaali abhiyaaaintriki
  • SC 17 - kaards aur vaiyaktik pehchaan
  • SC 22 - prograaming bhaashaaen, unke vaataavaran aur pranaali sauftveyar antarfalak
  • SC 23 - apaneya digital bhandaaran, maadhyam, jo ki optikl aor/ya chumbakeeya lekhan ka prayog karta hai
  • SC 24 - computer graafiks aur chitr prakraman
  • SC 25 - Interconnection of Information Technology Equipment
  • SC 27 - IT Security Techniques
  • SC 28 - Office Equipment
  • SC 29 - Coding of Audio, Picture, and Multimedia and Hypermedia Information
  • SC 31 - Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques
  • SC 32 - Data Management and Interchange
  • SC 34 - Document Description and Processing Languages
  • SC 35 - User Interfaces
  • SC 36 - Information Technology for Learning, Education, and Training
  • SC 37 - Biometrics

ISO/IEC JTC1 ki sadasyata bilkul va lagbhag apne donon mool sangathanon ki bhaanti hi pratibandhit hai. ek sadasya ya to bhaageedaar (P) ya prekshak (O) ho sakta hai. donon mein keval prastaavit maanakon evam anya utpaadon par matadaan ki kshamata ka hi bhed hai. kisi sadasya sanstha ke liye kisi ya pratyek up-samiti par star/rai banaae rakhane ki, koi aavashyakta naheen hai. yadyapi yada-kada, parantu nai pariasthitiyon (SC 37 jo ki 2002 mein anumodit hui thi) se saamana karne hetu up-samitiyaaain gathit ki ja sakti hain, ya bhang bhi ki ja sakti hain, yadi unka kaarya kshetr ab laagoo naheen hai.

IWA pralekh

ISO/TS jaise, antararaashtreeya kaaryashaala samjhauta International Workshop Agreement (IWA) bhi ISO ka ek aur shastraagaar hai, jo ki un kshetron mein, jahaaain takaneeki sanrachana evam nipunata abhi naheen pahuainchi hai; vahaaain maanakeekaran ki aavashyakataaon par tvarit pratikriya upalabdh karaata hai. yeh upayogita vishvavyaapi takaneeki atyaavashyakata ko bharan karti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kaङaiyaaain